2 THREADS Factors Affecting Characteristic Of Thread FIBRE CONTENT STRUCTURETWISTPLYCOLORFINISHESSTRENGTHSIZE
3 Fiber Content Characteristics of cotton thread: Soft Strong and durableEasily adjusts to changes in the fabric (such as shrinkage) since it is a natural fiberAvailable in various thread weightsEasy care
4 Advantage of Cotton Thread: It gives uniformity in stitch & seam appearanceDying is easy and easily gets the color of the fabric.Resistance to the heatResistance to the tanglingDisadvantage:Poor elasticityPoor abrasion resistanceMore expensiveWeaker (time consuming due to thread breakage)Weakens easily by chemicals used in fabric &garment finishingBut for contrasting stitch polyester is good.
5 Soft, and works well in detail Relatively heat resistant Not colorfast RayonCharacteristics Of RayonHigh sheenSoft, and works well in detailRelatively heat resistantNot colorfastNot as strong as polyesterLess durable than polyesterNylonCharacteristics Of NylonStrongLow melting temperature. Not heat resistant.Not colorfast. Will yellow over time.Becomes brittle through laundering
6 Durable. Designed for heavy duty use PolyesterCharacteristics Of PolyesterDurable. Designed for heavy duty useStronger, more tensile strength than rayonColorfastRetains shapeRecovers stretchSpun poly is strong, with a matte appearance
7 Quality metallic thread has the following components: METALLICSQuality metallic thread has the following components:Nylon core..Rice paper construction.Outer coating.Lower end metallic threads have no outer coating.A good metallic has an outer coating which reduces friction and acts as a protective layer.
8 Thread Structure Spun yarns twisted together:- Single yarns are twisted together to form multiplyNumber of ply may be 2 to 6Abrasion resistance varies on type of fibersSpun polyester is one of the most popular among the least expensive threadsLarge diameter cotton replaced by small diameter polyester reduces puckering
9 Filament threads:- a) smooth filament b) textured filament thread c) monofilament threadNeutral color & translucent(matches with the fabric easily)Strong and minimumBreakage and inexpensiveThe flexibility of the thread is less therefore Causes wear & tear on machineSmoother thread are being tried to produceNylon, polyesterHigh tensityUsed for shoes, leather garment, industrial products-tents,box cover etcUsually polyesterUsed for looper as cover stitchesBulk of thread may increase friction
10 Multiply construction CORESPUN THREAD:-Multiply constructionPolyester filament core wrapped with cotton fiberGains strength of polyester and sewability of cottonPolyester is not wrapped as it is suspectable to the heatCostlier due to more dye baths to give uniform color to the threadAIR TANGLED THREAD: -Is made from continuous filaments of polyester that are entangled as they pass through a high pressure air jet. twisted, dyed, and wound on cones with lubricant.used in everything from seaming flags to heavy denim jeans.
11 TWIST:"S" direction or right twist for single strand yarn (such as spun)"Z" direction or left twist for ply yarn (such as core and twisted multifilament)SNLS (Single Needle Lock Stitch) machine is designed for the Z twist.DNLS (Double Needle Lock Stitch) machine uses both S & Z twist for the balance.S twist is better for flat stitch or cover stitch.Correct twist balance essential for preventing kinking & snarling effect.
12 PLIED THREADS:- Carded thread:- Made by plying the yarns together Plying increases the durability & performance of the thread.Carded thread:-When two or more plied thread are plied together & multiple plies twisted together.
13 COLOR:Color fastnessColor matchingInstruments used for the color matching:-SpectrometerComputer shade recipesResistance of the thread to various fading forces e.G. Sunlight, washing etc.Tests are developed by AATCC.Polyester sewing threads dyed with disperse dyes shows best color fastness.
15 Advantages Of Finishing:- FINISHES:-GassedGlazedMercerizedBondedSoftAdvantages Of Finishing:-Threads are bonded to increase ply security & smoothness.Prevents splitting & fraying which causes breakage.
16 Relationship Between Thread Construction, Fiber Type, and Thread Finish CoreCotton wrapped polyesterSoftPolyester wrapped polyesterSpunCottonSoft, Mercerized, or GlacedPolyesterAir EntangledTexturedTwisted MultifilamentNylonSoft or BondedMonocordBondedMonofilament
17 THREAD LUBRICATION:To reduce amount of frictionTo provide protection from the needle heatLubricant should be non-sticky, non-staining, non-soilingand shouldn’t effect the thread color.
18 Thread size measurement WeightNatural fibre such as cotton and silkLength measurementDenier.Synthetic fibresTex.Conversion40 weight = 225 denier = tex 25
22 Shankupper part of the needlemay be cylindrical or have a flat side.supportlarger in diameter than the rest of the needle for reason of strengthShoulderintermediate between shank and the bladeIt is also called shaft
23 Bladebelow the shoulder of the blade to the eye of the needlelongest part of the needle.greatest amount of the friction .
24 Long Groveprovides a protective channel in which the thread is drawn through.A Correctly shaped long groove of a depth matched to the thread diameter, offers considerable protection to the thread.Short GrooveIt extends a little above and below the eyeIts function is to assist in the formation of the loop in the needle thread.
25 EyeIt is the hole extending through the blade from the long groove on one side to the short groove on the otherThe shape of the inside of the eye at the top is critical.
26 Scarf or Clearance cut Point Tip It is the recess across the whole face of the needle just above the eye.PointBest penetrationTipIt is extreme end of the point which combines with the point in defining the penetration performance.
27 IF THE NEEDLE IS TOO SMALL FOR THE THREAD not pass freely through the eyenot fit properly into the long groove.Thread will suffer from excessive abrasion.Can lead to costly thread breakages in production.IF THE NEEDLE IS TOO LARGE FOR THE THREADThere will be poor control of the loop formation which may cause slip stitches.It will create holes in the fabric which are too big for the stitches and give an unattractive seam appearance.Tends to give rise to damaged fabric along the stitch line, and in closely woven fabrics, pucker along the seam line due to fabric distortion.
28 Thread sizes in synthetic Needle & Thread SizesThread sizes in syntheticTicket numberNeedle sizes inMetric systemSinger system8180241614022301201950110187590148012701032060
29 Needle points Cut point Sharp tips Used for sewing leather and plasticsModifies set of stitching and appearance of seamCreates decorative effectsNarrow wedge pointCuts at right angle to seam directionHigh stitched density is achievedMost frequently used
30 B) Narrow reverse twist point Produces incisions at 45 degrees to seam direction`seam slithly turned left on the surface of the materialNext frequently usedC) Cross PointIncisions along line of seamRequires large stitch lengthIncisions spaced far apartHeavy decorative seamsStitches- straight appearance
31 Cloth point needle Types of cloth point needle Used for sewing textile materialsTypes of cloth point needleSet point needleBall point needle
32 Set point needleSlim set pointSet pointHeavy set point
33 Ball pointLight ball pointMedium ball pointHeavy ball point
34 Denimhas a very sharp, acute point with a slender eye and a strong shaft.penetrate heavy fabrics like denim and canvas.The slender eye holds the thread in place for proper loop formation.prevents deflection of the needleinsures accurate needle placement for stitch formation
35 Embroidery Has a light point Large eye Special scarf to protect threads
36 Leatherhas a wedge shaped pointgood piercing strength
37 Curve needlesUsed for blind stitchesOperate at high speedsCostly
38 Metallic Have a large, elongated eye Larger scarf larger groove to protect fragile metallic threads during stitch formation.
39 QuiltingHas a tapered point for stitching through multiple layers and across seams.The shape of the point minimizes damage to the quilting fabric.
40 Microtex Sharper than the universal point with a more slender shaft. Used primarily on fine woven, heirloom sewing on very fine fabrics, synthetic suede, tightly woven fabrics.
41 Topstitch Used for embroidery and quilting. has an extra large rectangular-shaped eye which allows for smoother movement of thread.has a much deeper groove which works wonders with heavier threads.The deeper groove allows a heavier thread to lie in it, thereby reducing friction on the thread as it moves.most popular sizes are 90/14 or 100/16.
42 Hem stitch Wing Needles Uses: Hemstitching or heirloom embroidery on linen and batiste. Configuration: Has fins on sides of shank to create holes as you sew. Troubleshooting: Stitch is more effective when needle returns to same needle hole more than once. If needle pushes fabric into needle hole, put stabilizer under fabric.
43 Twin (double) NeedleUses: Topstitching, pin tucking, and decorative stitching. Configuration: Two needles on single shaft produce two rows of stitches. Measurement between needles ranges from 1.6mm to 6mm, and needles come with universal, stretch, embroidery, denim, and Metallica points. Troubleshooting: Be sure throat plate allows for distance between needles.
44 Triple NeedleUses: Same uses as for double needle. Configuration: Cross bar on single shaft connects three needles to sew three stitching rows. Comes with universal point in 2.5mm and 3mm widths. Troubleshooting: Same as for double needle.
45 Spring NeedleUses: Free-motion stitching with dropped feed dogs. Configuration: Has wire spring above point to prevent fabrics from riding up onto needle, eliminating need for presser foot. Troubleshooting: Before using, practice free-motion stitching with heavy regular needle, paper, and dropped feed dogs. Don't pull paper/fabric; instead gently guide it through stitching. Wear safety glasses for free-motion work, since needles often break.