2Chatmandu’s Common Sense Plant Care Cures Have a Weight-Loss PlanAvoid OverseasoningWear Loose ClothingDrink Plenty of LiquidsDon’t Drink Too MuchProvide a Good HomePrevention is Better Than CureRemember Your RootsProvide Room to GrowNature and Nurture
3Dr. Treevorkian’s Rules for Squirt Gun Botany: If a little is good, then more is better.Spray for pay.One size fits all.Seen one label, seen ‘em all.There is something for everything.
4Assisted Herb-icideAre you guilty of the seven deadly sins of iatrogenicide?Poor Plant SelectionPlanting Too DeepOvermulchingOverwateringOverfertilizingOvermowingSecond Degree Girdling
5Nothing Controls Everything Which one of these insecticides effectively controls all of the bugs commonly found in Ohio home landscapes:A. Carbaryl (e.g. Sevin)B. MalathionC. Chlorpyrifos (e.g. Dursban)D. None of the above.
6Nothing Controls Everything “A picture of a dead bug on thelabel does not mean that theproduct killed it.”
7Some Problems Have No Controls. “What do you sell your customers to control root rot of trees?”
8Some Problems Have No Controls. “What pesticides do you sell for viral diseases?”
9Some Problems Have No Controls. “What insecticides do you sell for shothole beetles on pine trees?”
10Some Problems Have Iffy Controls. “What sure-fire products do you sell for repelling rabbits and other rodents?”
11The Label is History“Do not apply to American Elm, Flowering Crabapple, Sugar Maple, Red Maple, Cottonwood, Redbud and Weigela as foliage injury may occur.”- Ortho’s Orthene Systemic Insect Control
12Do Not Apply Products in a Vacuum. “Do not seed or sod for four months following application. The crabgrass barrier prevents grass seed from sprouting.- Scott’s Crabgrass Preventer Plus Lawn Fertilizer
13Timing is Everything.When do fungal infections occur with these diseases?A. Black spot of roses.B. Cedar quince rust on hawthorn.C. Apple scab on crabapple.D. Diplodia (Sphaeropsis) tip blight of pine.
14The Label is Only the Beginning. Make sure diagnosis was correct.Share knowledge with peers in company training.Consult books and bulletins for their recommendations.Subscribe to the BuckeyeYard & Garden Line.
15Look for Results Not Just Products “Our greatest chance for long-term success is for pesticide users to be successful gardeners.”- Lisa GrafGraf Growers Inc.
16Look for Results Not Just Products Which is best?Fungicides to control apple scab on crabapple.Scab resistant crabapples.
17T or F Fatty acid soaps are recommended to control certain insects. Truth or Fiction:T or FFatty acid soaps are recommended to control certain insects.
18Insecticidal Soap Perspectives: 1. Fatty acid soaps can effectively suffocateinsects.2. Safer soaps and Ivory soap are fatty acidsoaps.3. One of the fatty acid soap isomers marketed bySafer is insecticidal, and labeled as such.4. One of the fatty acid soap isomers marketed bySafer is herbicidal, and labeled as such.5. Ivory soap is not labeled for use on plants.
19Labeled insecticidal soaps are recommended to control certain insects. Truth or Fiction:T or FLabeled insecticidal soaps are recommended to control certain insects.
20T or F Sevin is a good miticide. Truth or Fiction:T or FSevin is a good miticide.
21Truth or Fiction Facts: A. There are many different typesof mites.B. Sevin is ineffective incontrolling spider mites.C. Sevin is effective in controllingcertain eriophyid mites.
22Sevin is a good miticide for eriophyid mites, but not spider mites. Truth or Fiction:T or FSevin is a good miticide for eriophyid mites, but not spider mites.
23T or F Malathion is labeled as a miticide. Truth or Fiction:T or FMalathion is labeled as a miticide.
24T or F Malathion is an effective miticide. Truth or Fiction:T or FMalathion is an effective miticide.
25T or F Pruning paints should be applied after pruning cuts. Truth or Fiction:T or FPruning paints should be applied after pruning cuts.
26Truth or Fiction Facts: A. OSU Extension once recommendedpaints to prevent insect invasion anddecay.B. Current research: compartmentalizationoccurs best if oxygen is not excluded.C. OSU Extension currently does notrecommend pruning paints.
27Pruning paints will never again be recommended by OSU Extension. Truth or FictionT or FPruning paints will never again be recommended by OSU Extension.
28Truth or FictionT or FOrtho Rose Pride Orthonex Insect and Disease Control “gives systemic protection for up to two weeks.” - Product label.
29Truth or Fiction Facts: A. The acephate (orthene) insecticide inOrthonex has such system action.B. The fungicide (Triforine), though mildlysystemic, does not.C. The label in fact says: “Controls insectpests and prevents insect reinfestationfor up to two weeks. Also controls roseblack spot, rust and powdery mildew.”(7-10 day intervals, used as protective)
30T or F You should always read the entire label of a pesticide. Truth or FictionT or FYou should always read the entire label of a pesticide.
31T or F All ideas are equal. Truth or FictionT or FAll ideas are equal.
32Some quotes from USA Today, August 23, 1999 The Article: “Experts Muddy ‘Master Gardener,’ ” about ‘America’s Master Gardener, Jerry Baker.
33“Most of the criticism has come from people with vested interests, who are the traditional experts.” - Alan Foster, VP for fundraising, PBS.
34“The redwood trees grew just fine before we had garden centers and people with academic certificates. I can’t worry about the competition They do their thing and I do mine. I do it sincerely and I get hugs and kisses from people when I’m done.” - Jerry Baker
35“Baker is a successful fundraiser and his appearances illustrate the network’s diversity.” - Alan Foster
36“To kill suckers growing on trees, Baker recommends using ‘any good weed killer’ with dish soap, vinegar and gin. Although the last three ingredients are irrevelant, many herbicides, including the popular Roundup, could harm or even kill a tree, experts say.” - Dennis Couchon, USA Today
37-Dennis Couchon, USA Today “After pruning flowering trees, Baker recommends sealing the wounds with latex pain, antiseptic mouthwash and an insecticide such as Sevin or Dursban. Jim Chatfield, a landscape specialist with Ohio State says the use of such insecticides without regard to the type of tree or insect is irresponsible.”-Dennis Couchon, USA Today(Both of the last two examples came from a Jerry Baker gardening calendar and was cited in the original ‘Buckeye’ article in 1966.)
38“The California Environmental Protection Agency wrote KVIE-TV, the PBS affiliate in Sacremento, a two-page letter in 1996 criticizing Baker’s advice to mix them (home-brewed pesticides) in bottles and cans usually used for food. ‘It is not only illegal under state and federal law to do this, it is also highly dangerous.’” - Dennis Couchon, USA Today
39"A station affiliated with Ohio State should be using and airing good horticultural information, not the misinformation that Baker pours out," says Jane Martin, an extension agent in Franklin County, home of Ohio State. "Every time he's on, we get flooded with calls asking for Jerry Baker recipes, and we have to say, 'Well, that's not such a good idea.' " - USA Today
40(Regarding Jerry Baker’s product line): “…rather than the mix of beer, ammonia, baby shampoo or molasses recommended on TV as an ‘all-season green up tonic,’ his fertilizers contain the typical blends of nitrogen, phosphates and potash found at every garden center. . . The company’s top-selling item is Jerry Baker’s dog and cat repellent: ‘my unique formula’ as his catalogue describes it. Actually it’s methyl nonylketone, the same ingredient found in other dog repellents …the only difference is price.”- Dennis Couchon, USA Today
41“There is no other door to knowledge than the door Nature opens; and there is no truth except the truths we discover in Nature.” - Luther Burbank
42Ten-Step Program for Healthy Plants Provide a good homePreventive medicineRemember your rootsProvide room to growNature and nurtureAvoid overseasoningHave a weight-loss planWear loose clothingDon’t drink too muchDrink plentyof fluids
43Provide a good home (Select the right plant for the site.)
44Preventive medicine (Select trees with good genetic pest and disease resistance.)
45Remember your roots (Do not raise or lower soil levels around trees when planting or doing construction around trees.)
46Provide room to grow (Provide adequate room for future root development when planting.)
47Nature and nurture (Plant in sites with proper soil pH and other soil characteristics for the species.)
48Avoid overseasoning (Do not overfertilize; protect sensitive species from road salts.)
49Have a weight-loss plan (Always prune with a purpose in mind.)
50Wear loose clothing (Remove girdling wires, twines and rubber hoses.)
51Don’t drink too much (Plant in well-drained soils; avoid overwatering
70PESTICIDE FORMULATIONS Pesticides are usually formulated prior to useConsist of:Active ingredientInert ingredientMake it safer, more effective, easier to measure, mix, apply, convenient to handle
71PESTICIDE FORMULATIONS Manufactured as technical grade then formulatedFormulation is the form sold for useSold as a brand name
72LIQUID FORMULATIONS Consists of: EMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATES (EC or E) Active ingredient (AI) insoluble in waterSolventPolar - usually poor (acetone & alcohols)Nonpolar - usually good (xylene & kerosene)
73EMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATES (Con't) EmulsifiersAllow the formulation to be mixed with water to form an emulsion (oil in water)Each gallon of EC may contain 25 to 75% AI (2 to 8 lbs)Used under a wide range of conditions
74EMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATES (Con't) AdvantagesEasy to handle, transport & storeLittle agitation requiredNot abrasiveWill not plug screens or nozzlesLittle visible residue on treated surfaces
75EMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATES (Con't) DisadvantagesEasy to over or under doseMay cause unwanted harm to plantsEasily absorbed through skinCause rubber & plastic to deteriorateHarm painted surfacesFlammableCorrosive
76LIQUID FORMULATIONS SOLUTIONS Dissolve readily in a liquid solvent such as water or petroleum-based solventWill not settle out or separateContain AI, solvent and one or more other ingredientsUsed in most sprayers, indoors or outdoors
77SOLUTIONS (Con't) READY-TO-USE (RTU) Contain correct amount of solventNo further dilution requiredUsually contain small amounts of AI (1% or less)
78SOLUTIONS (Con't) CONCENTRATE SOLUTIONS (C or LC) Concentrates that require dilution with solventSolvent is occasionally water, more often it is petroleum-basedSome uses of solutionsStructural & institutional pest controlHousehold pestsLivestock & poultry pestsSpace sprays in barns and warehousesTree pestsMosquito control
79SOLUTIONS (Con't) CONCENTRATE SOLUTIONS (C or LC) AdvantagesNo agitation requiredDisadvantagesLimited number of formulations available
80LIQUID FORMULATIONS ULTRA-LOW-VOLUME (ULV) Approach 100% AIUse as is or with small amounts of water (1/2 gal or less)Used mostly in outdoor applicationsAgriculturalForestryOrnamentalMosquito
81ULTRA-LOW-VOLUME (ULV) (Con't) AdvantagesEasy to handle, transport & storeLittle agitation requiredNot abrasiveWill not clog screens or nozzlesLittle visible residue on treated surfacesDisadvantagesHigh drift hazardNeed special application equipmentSolvents can deteriorate rubber and plastic
82LIQUID FORMULATIONS FLOWABLES (F or L) Are insoluble solidsFinely ground AI mixed with a liquid plus inert ingredient to form a suspensionMixed with water for application
83FLOWABLES (F or L) (Con't) AdvantagesSeldom clog nozzlesEasy to handle and applyDisadvantagesRequire moderate agitationMay leave a visible residueMay separateMay cake in container or sprayer
84LIQUID FORMULATIONS AEROSOLS (A) Contain one or more AI and a solventUsually contain a low percentage of AITwo typesReady-to-useSmoke or fog generators
85AEROSOLS (A) (Con't) READY-TO-USE AEROSOLS Small, self-contained unitsRelease pesticide when nozzle valve is triggeredCommercial models hold 5 to 10 lbs and are refillable
86AEROSOLS (A) (Con't) READY-TO-USE AEROSOLS (Con't) AdvantagesReady to useEasily storedConvenientLong shelf lifeDisadvantagesLimited usesInhalation riskContainer is under pressureDrift
87AEROSOLS (A) (Con't) SMOKE OR FOG GENERATORS Machines break the liquid into a fine mist or fogUse a rapidly whirling disk or heated surfaceUsed mainly for insect control in:GreenhousesWarehousesOutdoor control of mosquitoes and biting flies
88AEROSOLS (A) (Con't) SMOKE OR FOG GENERATORS AdvantagesEasy to fill large, enclosed spaces with pesticidePesticide is not under pressureDisadvantagesRequires specialized equipmentDriftMay require respiratory protection when applying
89LIQUID FORMULATIONS INVERT EMULSIONS Water soluble pesticide dispersed in an oil carrierForm large droplets which reduce driftUsed in vegetation control along rights-of-waysRequire special equipment, expensive, reduced coverage
90DRY FORMULATIONS DUSTS (D) Most are ready-to-useMost contain low amounts of AI (0.5 to 10%)Also contain a very fine dry inert carrier (talc, chalk, clay etc.)Used to control pests:In ag applicationsOn livestock and petsSeed treatmentFlowers & vegetable gardens
91DRY FORMULATIONS DUSTS (D) (con’t) AdvantagesNo mixingCan use where a spray may cause damageUse simple equipmentEffective in hard-to-reach indoor areasDisadvantagesDriftMay irritate skin, eyes, nose, throatPoor adhesion to surfacesPoor distribution of particles on surfaces
92DRY FORMULATIONS BAITS (B) AI mixed with food or other pest attractantPests killed by eating pesticide contaminated baitAI is usually low (<5%)Used inside to control:ants, roaches, flies, other insects, rodentsUsed outside to control:snails, slugs, insects, vertebrate pests
93DRY FORMULATIONS BAITS (B) (con’t) AdvantagesReady to useOnly need to treat small areaControls pests that move in and out of an area
94DRY FORMULATIONS BAITS (B) (con’t) DisadvantagesMay be attractive to pets and childrenMay kill non-target animalsPest may not eat baitDead pest may cause odor problemsSecondary poisoning of non-target animalsCan serve as pest food supply if AI becomes ineffective
95DRY FORMULATIONS GRANULES (G) Similar to dust formulations, larger & heavierMade from adsorptive materialsClay, corn cobs, walnut shellsAI coats outside of granule or is absorbedAI is usually low (1 to 20%)Usually applied to soil to control weeds, nematodes, & insects
96DRY FORMULATIONS GRANULES (G) (con’t) AdvantagesReady to useLow drift hazardPenetrate dense foliageUsually requires simple application equipment*Usually the safest formulation to handle
97DRY FORMULATIONS GRANULES (G) (con’t) DisadvantagesWill not stick to target (may move with rain)May need to incorporate into soilMay need moisture to activateMay be hazardous to birds
98DRY FORMULATIONS PELLETS (P or PS) Similar to granular formulationsAll are same size and weightSome fumigants are pelletsAluminum phosphide
99DRY FORMULATIONS WETTABLE POWDERS (WP or W) Dry, finely ground look like dustsUsually mixed with waterApplied as a spray5 to 95% AIDo not dissolve in waterWill settle out unless constant agitation is used
100DRY FORMULATIONS WETTABLE POWDERS (con’t) AdvantagesEasy to store, transport & handleLess phytotoxic than ECLess skin & eye absorptionLess odorMethod of applying insoluble pesticides as a spray
101DRY FORMULATIONS WETTABLE POWDERS (con’t) DisadvantagesInhalation hazard while mixingRequires constant agitationOften clog nozzles and screensAbrasiveMay be difficult to mix and measureMay leave white deposit on surfaces
102DRY FORMULATIONS SOLUBLE POWDERS (SP or WSP) Look like WPRequire initial agitationDissolve easilyForm a true solution in waterAI ranges from 15 to 95%Have all advantages of WPInhalation hazard while mixing
103DRY FORMULATIONS WATER-DISPERSIBLE GRANULES (WDG) or DRY FLOWABLES (DF) Are like WPAI is prepared as granule-sized particleMust be mixed with waterRequire constant agitationSame advantages & disadvantages as WPMore easily measured & mixed than WPCause less inhalation hazard than WP
104OTHER FORMULATIONS MICROENCAPSULATED PESTICIDES (M) May be liquid or dry surrounded by plastic coatingMixed with water & applied as a sprayCapsule slowly releases pesticideProvides a timed release of pesticide
105OTHER FORMULATIONS MICROENCAPSULATED PESTICIDES (M) (con’t) AdvantagesIncreased applicator safetyEasy to mix, handle & applyTimed releaseDisadvantagesRequire constant agitationBees take capsules back to hive
106OTHER FORMULATIONS FUMIGANTS Form poisonous gas when appliedSome are liquid under pressure, change to gas when releasedSome are liquid & change to gas when exposed to airSome are solid & change to gas when exposed to water or high humidity
107OTHER FORMULATIONS FUMIGANTS (con’t) AdvantagesToxic to wide range of pestsPenetrate cracks, wood, soil, grainSingle treatment kills most pestsDisadvantagesSite must be enclosed or coveredHighly toxicRequire special safety & application equipment
108ADJUVANTS Added to formulations to increase effectiveness Include: surfactants, wetting agents, emulsifiers, spreaders, stickers, penetrants, safeners, etc.
149Why Minimize Drift? To Avoid: Spotty pest control Wasted chemicals Off-target damageEnvironmental impactPublic concernsProblems in populated areas
150Factors that Affect Droplet Size Spray pressureSpray angleNozzle typeOrifice size
151To enlarge droplet size: Operate at lower end of recommended pressure rangeUse nozzles with larger orificeUse special nozzles to reduce the portion of small droplets
152Environmental Conditions Best conditions occur early or late in day:wind more likely in 3-to-10 mph rangetemperature is lowerrelative humidity is higherWARNING: watch for inversions
153Maintenance Cleaning: hoses, nozzles, pumps, tanks, and hoppers Clean with water and/or detergentUse soft brush on nozzles
154Cleaning agentsInsecticides/fungicides - powder detergent - agitate, flush and rinseHormone herbicides (salt or amine) - ammonia or washing soda- agitate, flush, let stand overnight, flush and rinseOther herbicides - powder detergent - agitate, flush and rinse
155Suggested Calibration Tools Measuring tape(s) ft tape and yardstickA watch capable of measuring seconds - stopwatch works bestMeasuring container marked in ounces - one quart works for most applications
156Ground Speed Linear relationship Doubling speed cuts rate in half Cutting speed in half doubles rate
159Spray Application Techniques Select correct equipmentAdjust nozzles, pressure, etc.Apply to where pests are locatedObtain thorough coverage
160Spray Application Tips Do NOT spray into or with the windUse larger droplets in windy conditionsThoroughly coat treatment areaFor tall trees:Use thin stream at top, changing to fan at bottom, apply from inside out, top to bottomProtect people, pets, wildlife, homes, etc.
161Pesticide Record Keeping Name of applicatorAddress of applicationName and concentration of pesticideAmount of pesticideTarget pestMethod and rate of applicationRecords
162Pesticide Record Keeping Keep records for at least one year on general use pesticide applications. Keep RUP records for three years. Check with MDA for current regulations.
164The Pesticide Label What You Need To Ask! The right chemical for the job?Correct conditions for safe application?Will it control the target pest?Most all of the questions applicators need to have answered before they purchase a pesticide can be found on the product label. It is important before purchasing a product that it will control the pest problem that exists, can it be used with the application equipment the applicator has……
165The Pesticide Label What You Need To Ask! Do I have the proper protective equipment (PPE)?How much should I use?Is the proper protective equipment available to avoid unnecessary exposure.How much and how often can the pesticide be used?
166Questions the label doesn’t answer directly... What does all of this information really mean?Why should I really care?It’s a legal documentMisuse could cause various problemsThere is a great deal of information on the pesticide label. To make sure that the right product is used and it is used safely, applicators should read and understand the pesticide label before they purchase the product and before it is applied.There are many reasons why applicators should pay attention to the information on the label.Labels are legal documents providing directions on how to mix, apply, store, and dispose of a pesticide product.The pesticide application is more likely to be successful in controlling the pests if the directions for use on the label are read and followed. When label instructions are followed, you are virtually assured that the possibilities of an accident are eliminated.The label is the main means available to the manufacturer to communicate information about the product to the user.In addition, misuse of pesticides can not only cause possible human health and environmental problems, but can also mean fines and worst case jail time….
167Why should I really care? The label is a legal documentApplying a pesticide in a manner inconsistent with the label is illegal“I didn’t know it said that”not a good defense if you misuse a pesticideThe label is a legal document and any use that goes against the label language is technically a federal offense. Not having a clear understanding of the information on the label is not a good excuse or a good defense if a violation occurs.And even if you don’t get caught, it is STILL illegal.
168It is a violation of Federal law to use this pesticide in a manner inconsistent with its labeling. The information in the box comes straight off a pesticide label. Pesticide labels are governed by the Environmental Protection Agency, which is why it is a federal offense if you use a pesticide in a manner inconsistent with the label. Although pesticide enforcement is the responsibility of the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture Inspectors, the ultimate enforcement is directed by a federal agency, the EPA.There is no such thing as a “typical” fine, it depends upon how severe the offense is, and can range from a very small fine to millions of dollars.
169I’ve used this product for years… Common excuses for not reading the labelI’m anexperiencedapplicator…I’m too busy…Common excuses for not reading the label. We all have them, and the PDA inspectors have probably heard them all…It is somewhat understandable that an applicator who has been using the same chemical for years thinks that they understand the label. However,I’ve used this product for years…
170I’ve used this product for years… Labels Change!I’ve used this product for years…Re-registration of products under the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)Because of the many changes that have been made under the EPA regulations, even the labels of products that have been on the market are changing in many ways.First it was the Worker Protection Standard in The most significant changes that this regulation brought to the label were the Restricted Entry Intervals (REI’s) that dictate when workers can go back into treated areas. To this day those REI’s are still changing on product labels. This legislation also dramatically changed, and improved., the information regarding Personal Protective Equipment that appears on labels.The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) continues to change the legal uses of many common pesticides that have been on the market for years. Lorsban/Dursban and Diazinon are two of the most significant. Although these products have been around for years, many crops and uses have been dropped from the label and in other cases it has become a restricted use product.
171Problems caused by not reading and following the label Crop lossFish killsNear fatal exposuresFatal exposuresFire and explosionsAlthough it may seem far fetched, everyone of these problems has happened in Pennsylvania as a result of someone not reading and following the label. Fortunately, the fatal exposure was not a human case, but rather a significant loss of cows. Not so fortunate, if you were one of those animals, or their owner.
172Use Classification Statement Two types of classificationRestricted UseGeneral UseCurrently, pesticides are grouped into two classesRestricted use and General UseThere have been, and are ongoing , serious discussion to further divide these classifications, especially in the area of general use and home owner products.
173Use Classification Statement Restricted Use:For sale to, and for use only by, certified applicators or applicators under the direct supervision of a certified applicatorFor sale to, and for use only by, certified applicators or applicators under the direct supervision of a certified applicator. This means that farm owner who is certified can purchase the pesticide and someone who is working for that owner, can do the application, even if they are not certified.It is still very important that the applicator be well trained. Pesticides are classified as restricted use because they have the potential to be a higher risk to either humans, wildlife, or the environment.If a pesticide is classified as restricted use this classification must be clearly stated on the front of the label.Pesticides, for example Atrazine and Lorsban, that have classified as general use for years, can be reclassified as restricted use if there is evidence of increased risk.
174Front panel of labels shows how much product is in container Net ContentsFront panel of labels shows how much product is in containerLiquid formulations may list the pounds of active ingredient per gallon of productLocated on the front panel of the product, the Net Contents tells how much total product is in the container. This is listed as pounds or ounces for dry formulations, or gallons, quarts or pints for liquids. Liquid formulations may also list the pounds of active ingredient per gallon of the product.
175Ingredient Statement Active Ingredients: Inert Ingredients: The ingredient statement tells specifically what makes up the product. The ingredient statement is broken into two parts:The Active ingredient andThe Inert ingredients
176Ingredient StatementThe ingredient statement often is located near the product name on the from of the label. The ingredient statement must account for 100% of the product contents.
177Ingredient Statement Inert Ingredients Listed as total percentage in the productInert ingredients are those that are not actively controlling the pest. These ingredients my make the product easier to mix or apply, or they may make the product more effective, but alone they do not control the pest.Inert ingredients don’t need to be listed individually, but must be listed as their entire percentage of the product.
178Ingredient Statement Active Ingredients The part of the product that actually controls the pest(s)The Active ingredient is the part of the product that is actually killing or in some way controlling the pest.
179Ingredient Statement Active Ingredient: Each active ingredient must be listed by individualpercentageActive Ingredient—The chemical(s) responsible for controlling the pest. Individually listed on the label by its common name and/or the chemical name and its percentage in the product.
180Many active ingredients are given a common name Only common names accepted by the EPA may be used on the labelMany active ingredients are given a common nameThe industry, or applicators may commonly call a product by a certain name, but only common names accepted by the EPA may be used on the label
181Active IngredientsOfficial common name is usually followed by the chemical name in the list of active ingredientsOfficial common name is usually followed by the chemical name in the list of active ingredients .Common Name—A simpler name given by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to a chemical name for easier recognition.Chemical Name—The complex name identifying the chemical components and structure of a chemical.
182Trade, Brand, or Product Names Companies register trade names as a trademarkThe same active ingredient may be sold under different trade namesBrand Name (Also known as trade or product name.)Different names are used by different manufacturers even though their products contain the same active ingredients. The brand name is an unique name used to advertise the product.Don’t confuse products by brand name alone. Many companies use the same basic name – sometimes with only minor variations – for entirely different products.
183Be careful, some products with: Trade or Brand NamesBe careful, some products with:Different brand names may have the same active ingredients Example: Metsulfuron methyl is the active ingredient in:On the other hand, the same active ingredient is often sold under different trade or brand names, even by the same manufacturer.For example: The active ingredient Azoxystrobin is sold by same manufacturer under the brand names:Heritage, Abound and QuadrisCimarronAllyEscort
184Does this mean that I can substitute these products for each other ? Only if the label allows!
185Does this mean that I can substitute these products for each other ? Only if the label allows: Poison Hemlock in non-crop areas?Only Escort
186Can I substitute these products for each other to control aquatic weeds ? Same active ingredient: Glyphosate
188Same active ingredient Glyphosate Environmental Hazards:Do not apply directly to water, or areas where surface water is present, or intertidal areas below the mean high water mark. Do not contaminate water when cleaning equipment or disposing of equipment wash water.Do not apply directly to water,
189Trade, Brand, or Product Names Brand Name can often include:The percent of active ingredient incorporated into the product nameType of pesticideThe Brand name of the product may also include the percent of active ingredient as shown in this example. This product is 41% Glyphosate. The product formulation may also be included in the product name, for example Atrazine 4L indicates that there is 4 pounds of active ingredient in a gallon of LIQUID, whereas Atrazine 90DF indicates that it is a dry flowable formulation with 90% active ingredient.Product Type—Listed under the brand name, this indicates in general terms what the product will control Here are two examples:herbicide for the control of woody brush and weeds, oran insecticide for control of certain insects on fruits, nuts, and ornamentals.
190The following pesticide applications are considered off label and therefore are illegal: Applying above the highest dose rateApplying more frequently than the label allowsApplying without using PPEApplying to a site that is not on the labelThe following pesticide applications are considered off label and therefore are illegal:Applying above the highest dose rateYou can apply lessApplying more frequently than the label allowsYou can apply less frequentlyApplying without using PPEApplying to a site that is not on the labelEven if you know it will control the pest, if the crop or site is not listed on the label it is illegal to use the product.
191The word on the label that tells the potential hazards of the product Signal WordsThe word on the label that tells the potential hazards of the productDanger Poisonw/ skull & CrossbonesDangerWarningCautionThe word on the label that tells the potential hazards of the product
192Signal Words DANGER-POISON with a skull and crossbones symbol Peligro (Spanish for “danger” must also appear on the label)Indicates the product is highly toxic by any route of entryHighly Toxic by any route of entry into the body. Peligro, the Spanish word for danger, must also appear on the label.
193Signal WordsDANGERIndicates that the product has a high potential to irritate skin and eyesThe presence of Danger as a signal word doesn’t tell the applicator anything about the toxicity of the pesticide, this signal word says that the product can cause severe eye damage or skin irritation.
194Signal Words WARNING Product is moderately toxic Can also cause slight eye or skin irritationWarning as a signal word means that the product is Moderately Toxic either orally, dermally, or through inhalation; and may causes moderate eye or skin irritation.Aviso, the Spanish word for warning, must also appear on the label.
195Signal Words CAUTION Harmful if swallowed or inhaled May irritate eyes, nose, throat, and skinA caution signal word tells the applicator that the product is Slightly Toxic either orally, dermally, or through inhalation; or may causes slight eye or skin irritation.
197EPA Registration Number If a product contains an active ingredient on EPA’s 25B list, no EPA registration number is required25B list contains 31 active ingredients that are “non-toxic”i.e., Mint oil, dried blood, citronellaIf a product contains an active ingredient on EPA’s 25B list, no EPA registration number is required25B list contains 31 active ingredients that are “non-toxic”i.e., Mint oil, dried blood, citronella
198EPA Establishment Number Tells where that product was madeImportant if it is ever necessary to recall the productIncludes abbreviation of state of originEPA Establishment Number—Identifies the facility that produced the product.Important if it is ever necessary to recall the productIncludes abbreviation of state of origin
199Emergency NumberContact number in the event of human exposure, spill, accident, or environmental exposureCompanies all provide their own contact number in case of an emergency dealing with their product. This almost always includes access to a physician that has been trained to help treat potential exposures to the product.
200Emergency Number New national poison center number In addition, there is now a new NATIONAL poison center number. Although the existing numbers for Pennsylvania Poison Centers are still working numbers, calling this national number will also automatically route your call to Poison Center closest to where you are calling from.
201Personal Protective Equipment Tells applicators what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be worn to minimize exposureOften different for different tasks
202Precautionary Statements Other precautions that should be followed when handling the productCommon sense practices to minimize exposure to applicators, the environment and others who may come in contact with the treated areaOther precautions that should be followed when handling the productCommon sense practices to minimize exposure to applicators, the environment and others who may come in contact with the treated area
203User Safety Recommendations: Users should wash hands before eating, drinking, chewing gum, using tobacco or using the toiletUsers should remove clothing immediately if pesticide gets inside.Then wash thoroughly and put on clean clothing.Users should remove PPE immediately after handling this product. Wash the outside of gloves before removing. As soon as possible, wash thoroughly and change into clean clothing.This is an example of precautionary from a label. Precautionary statements may also include cautions such as “Not for use or storage in and around the house, Do not allow children or domestic animals into the treated areas.
204Chemical Hazards Combustible Highly corrosive Oxidizer Do not store near heat or open flame.Highly corrosiveOxidizerThis part of the label tells of any special fire, explosive or other hazards associated with the product. It may also include cautions regarding incompatibility of the product that may be a safety concern. For example, (next slide)
205Chemical Hazards Incompatibilities Do not mix, store, or apply this product or spray solutions of this product in galvanized steel or unlined steel (except stainless steel)Can anyone tell me what product may have this chemical hazard statement, it is one I am sure all of you have used at one time or another….Answer: Any product the has Glyphosate as an active ingredientTouchdown ProRoundup ProRodeoGlyphoMate 41Accord
206Storage and DisposalStorage: Store above 10OF (12oC) to keep product from crystallizing. Crystals will settle to the bottom. If allowed to crystallize, place in a warm room (68oF or 20oC) for several days to allow crystals to redissolve, then shake before using.Storage and disposal information is important to guarantee the continued effectiveness of the product.Many labels, like this one have specific instruction regarding temperature, and what to do if the product has been stored incorrectly.
207Guidelines for use of the product What pests it will control Directions for UseGuidelines for use of the productWhat pests it will controlWhat crops it can be used onThis section tells you what the pesticide product controls, where, how, and when to use the product. Make sure the product is labeled for use against the pest(s) that you are trying to control. Use only the amounts recommended and follow the directions exactly.How to properly use a product within its legal requirements to get the best results. The directions tell you:What pests the product is registered to controlWhere the product can be used (plants, animals, locations)How to apply the productHow much product to useWhen the product should be appliedHow often to apply the productHow soon the crop can be used or eaten after an applicationWhen people and animals can re-enter a treated area after application
208Precautions and restrictions Mixing instructions Calibration Directions for UseAnnual Maximum RatePrecautions and restrictionsMixing instructionsCalibrationHow to properly use a product within its legal requirements to get the best results. The directions tell you:What pests the product is registered to controlWhere the product can be used (plants, animals, locations)How to apply the productHow much product to useWhen the product should be appliedHow often to apply the productHow soon the crop can be used or eaten after an applicationWhen people and animals can re-enter a treated area after application can be found in the section marked Agricultural Use Requirements
209Worker Protection Standards (WPS) Within the Agricultural Use Requirements box you will findRestricted entry interval (REI)Early entry PPE requirementsWorker notificationThe Agricultural Use Requirement section was added to the label under the Worker Protection Standard (WPS)Within the Agricultural Use Requirements box you will findRestricted entry interval (REI)Early entry PPE requirementsWorker notification
210Agricultural Use Requirements Use this product in accordance with its labeling and with the Worker Protection Standard, 40 CFR part This standard contains requirements for the protection of agricultural workers on farms, forests, nurseries, and greenhouses, and handlers of agricultural pesticides. It contains requirements for training, decontamination, notification and emergency assistance. It also contains specific instructions and exceptions pertaining to the statements of this label about personal protective equipment and restricted entry interval. The requirements in this box only apply to uses of this product that are covered by the Worker Protection Standard.This first part of the Agricultural Use Section is the legal and governmentese that simply stated says that WPS requires that workers around treated areas and handlers of pesticides must be protected from potential exposure. They must be trained, there must be appropriate decontamination facilities, and emergency assistance must be provided if there is an exposure.
211Agricultural Use Requirements Do not enter or allow worker entry into treated areas during the restricted-entry interval (REI) of 4 hours. PPE required for early entry to treated areas that is permitted under the Worker Protection Standard and that involves contact with anything that has been treated, such as plants, soil, or water, is: coveralls, chemical resistant gloves Category A, shoes plus socks. Notify workers of the application by warning them orally and by posting warning signs at entrances to treated areas.The second section of the Agricultural Use Statement tells how long that workers must stay out of treated areas, this is referred to as the Restricted Entry Interval (REI)This section also list the specific Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) that must be worn if a worker must return to the treated entry before the REI has expired. The PPE requirements listed in this section may be different than the PPE requirements listed for normal applications.This section will also tell the applicator what kind of notification is necessary (oral, written or both) to alert workers about the treated area.
212ReviewTrade NameSometimes the amount of information on the label can be over whelming,Let’s do a quick reviewThe trade name is an unique name used to advertise the product. (Also known as brand or product name.)
213Review Ingredient Statement Tells what is in the product and list each active ingredient individually and the percentage of the product that it makes up.
214ReviewWPSWorker Protection Standard information is listed for workers and handlers. Most importantly this area tells the amount of time that must pass between the application and when workers can go back into the treated area. In addition it lists what Personal Protective Equipment must be worn if early entry is necessary.
215Review EPA Reg. and Est. No. The EPA registration number indicates that EPA has the product has met all of EPA’s testing requirements and it has been approved for saleThe EPA Establishment number tells where the product was packaged
216ReviewNet contents tells how much is in the containerNetContents
217ReviewSignal WordThe word on the label that tells the potential hazards of the product
218ReviewEmergencyInfo.Lists first aid procedures and emergency contact numbers for the product manufacturer
219Review Storage and Disposal Storage and Disposal—This section tells you how to best store the product and what to do with the unused portion of the product and the empty container. Always keep products in original containers and out of the reach of children, in a locked cabinet or locked garden shed. Do not contaminate food or food stuffs. To dispose of container, triple rinse containers, puncture, and dispose according to your local solid waste authority.
220Pesticide Applications PROTECTING YOU AND THE ENVIRONMENT Introdution slide, title slide.
221I. Pesticide Mixing and Loading Sites II. PPE - Personal Protective EquipmentIII. Pesticide Container DisposalSlide Show outline.
222I. MIXING AND LOADING SITES HAZARDS TO CONSIDERWater ContaminationDrainsBackflow ProtectionMix on siteThese are the hazards that should be considered when selecting mixing and loading sites.
223DO NOT Mix or Load Next To or Above: WellsCreeksPondsWater Sources(self explained)
224Do not mix or load near creek, notice bridge in background.
225Do not mix or load near drain that empties into water source.
226KNOW WHERE THE DRAIN EMPTIES! When Mixing, Loading, or Cleaning Pesticide Equipment Over or Near Drains:KNOW WHERE THE DRAIN EMPTIES!(self explained)
228Drain empties into a small stream. Improper location.
229Proper Mixing and Loading Area Mixing and loading area that drains.... (go to next slide)
230... into a proper location. This site is a target site away from water hazards
231Use Backflow Protection Air GapBackflow PreventerIt is important to use backflow protection to help protect the water source. Two types, airgap and backflow preventer.
232II. PPE - Personal Protective Equipment Need for PPEKnowing How to Use PPEIntroduction slide to PPE.
233PPE Protects You From Exposure When Working With Pesticides TYPES OF EXPOSUREInhalationOralDermalOcularPPE protects you from exposure, they are inhalation, oral, dermal, ocular (eyes).
234Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Label specificMay include:glovesboots or shoe coverscoverallshood or wide-brimmed hatapronprotective eyewearrespiratorPPE consists of equipment used to protect the hands, body, respiratory system, feet, head and eyes.These come in the form of gloves, boots, coveralls, hats, aprons, protective eyewear and respirators.
236Review The Label For PPE Information If Label Does Not Refer To PPE Use a Minimum of Protection Such As:Long Sleeve ShirtLong PantsShoes and SocksChemical Resistant GlovesMinimum PPE needed for pesticide application.
237PPE on label. Always found under precautionary statement.
238Label information on PPE for mixing and loading pesticides.
245PROPER STORAGE AND MAINTENANCE OF PPE SHOULD INCLUDE NEVER Store With PesticidesRespirator and Respirator Cartridges should be Stored SeparatelyClean Respirator after Each UseClothes Used While Applying Pesticides Should be Washed Separately From Other Laundry(self explained)
246Imprper storage of PPE. PPE should never be stored with pesticides.
247Respirator body and cartridges should be stored separately.
250III. Proper Pesticide Container Disposal Dispose of Pesticide Containers In a Manner Which Will Not Contaminate Any Aspect of the EnvironmentPesticide Labels Have Specific Instructions on Proper Disposal ProceduresIntro. slide, (self explain)
254It is unlawful to burn pesticide containers in NC.
255Pesticide label information on storage and disposal.
256Proper Disposal of Pesticide Containers Includes: Triple Rinsing or Pressure RinsingOffer for Recycling Where AvailableIf Not…. Puncture and Place In LandfillProper Disposal of Pesticide Containers Includes:Triple Rinsing or Pressure RinsingOffer for Recycling Where AvailableIf Not…. Puncture and Place In Landfill
257Steps for Proper Triple Rinsing Let Container Drain or Drip Into Spray Tank For At Least 30 SecondsFill Container 1/3 Full of WaterReplace Cap On Container and Rotate or Shake to Rinse ALL SidesDrain Rinse Mixture From Container Into Spray TankRepeat Steps 2-4 Twice More Before Disposal of Pesticide Container(self explained)
260Steps for Correct Pressure Rinsing Let Container Drain or Drip Into Spray Tank For At Least 30 SecondsInsert Tip of P/N Through Side of Pesticide Container Near BaseSpray Inside Container for 30 Seconds While Holding Over TankDrain all Rinse Water from Container into Spray Tank(self explained)