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Squirt Gun Botany Pesticides & Gardening Master Gardener Seminar Douglass E. Stevenson, Ph.D. Extension Associate Texas Cooperative Extension.

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Presentation on theme: "Squirt Gun Botany Pesticides & Gardening Master Gardener Seminar Douglass E. Stevenson, Ph.D. Extension Associate Texas Cooperative Extension."— Presentation transcript:

1 Squirt Gun Botany Pesticides & Gardening Master Gardener Seminar Douglass E. Stevenson, Ph.D. Extension Associate Texas Cooperative Extension

2 Chatmandus Common Sense Plant Care Cures n Provide a Good Home n Prevention is Better Than Cure n Remember Your Roots n Provide Room to Grow n Nature and Nurture n Have a Weight-Loss Plan n Avoid Overseasoning n Wear Loose Clothing n Drink Plenty of Liquids n Dont Drink Too Much

3 Dr. Treevorkians Rules for Squirt Gun Botany: n If a little is good, then more is better. n Spray for pay. n One size fits all. n Seen one label, seen em all. n There is something for everything.

4 Assisted Herb-icide Poor Plant Selection Poor Plant Selection Planting Too Deep Planting Too Deep Overmulching Overmulching Overwatering Overwatering Overfertilizing Overfertilizing Overmowing Overmowing Second Degree Girdling Second Degree Girdling Are you guilty of the seven deadly sins of iatrogenicide?

5 Nothing Controls Everything Which one of these insecticides effectively controls all of the bugs commonly found in Ohio home landscapes: A.Carbaryl (e.g. Sevin) B.Malathion C.Chlorpyrifos (e.g. Dursban) D.None of the above.

6 Nothing Controls Everything A picture of a dead bug on the label does not mean that the product killed it.

7 Some Problems Have No Controls. What do you sell your customers to control root rot of trees?

8 Some Problems Have No Controls. What pesticides do you sell for viral diseases?

9 Some Problems Have No Controls. What insecticides do you sell for shothole beetles on pine trees?

10 Some Problems Have Iffy Controls. What sure-fire products do you sell for repelling rabbits and other rodents?

11 The Label is History Do not apply to American Elm, Flowering Crabapple, Sugar Maple, Red Maple, Cottonwood, Redbud and Weigela as foliage injury may occur. - Orthos Orthene Systemic Insect Control

12 Do Not Apply Products in a Vacuum. Do not seed or sod for four months following application. The crabgrass barrier prevents grass seed from sprouting. - Scotts Crabgrass Preventer Plus Lawn Fertilizer

13 Timing is Everything. When do fungal infections occur with these diseases? A. Black spot of roses. B. Cedar quince rust on hawthorn. C. Apple scab on crabapple. D. Diplodia (Sphaeropsis) tip blight of pine.

14 The Label is Only the Beginning. n Make sure diagnosis was correct. n Share knowledge with peers in company training. n Consult books and bulletins for their recommendations. n Subscribe to the Buckeye Yard & Garden Line.

15 Look for Results Not Just Products Our greatest chance for long-term success is for pesticide users to be successful gardeners. - Lisa Graf Graf Growers Inc. Graf Growers Inc.

16 Look for Results Not Just Products Which is best? n Fungicides to control apple scab on crabapple. n Scab resistant crabapples.

17 Truth or Fiction: T or F Fatty acid soaps are recommended to control certain insects.

18 Insecticidal Soap Perspectives: 1. Fatty acid soaps can effectively suffocate insects. insects. 2. Safer soaps and Ivory soap are fatty acid soaps. soaps. 3. One of the fatty acid soap isomers marketed by Safer is insecticidal, and labeled as such. Safer is insecticidal, and labeled as such. 4. One of the fatty acid soap isomers marketed by Safer is herbicidal, and labeled as such. Safer is herbicidal, and labeled as such. 5. Ivory soap is not labeled for use on plants.

19 Truth or Fiction: T or F Labeled insecticidal soaps are recommended to control certain insects.

20 Truth or Fiction: T or F Sevin is a good miticide.

21 Truth or Fiction Facts: A. There are many different types of mites. of mites. B. Sevin is ineffective in controlling spider mites. controlling spider mites. C. Sevin is effective in controlling certain eriophyid mites. certain eriophyid mites.

22 Truth or Fiction: T or F Sevin is a good miticide for eriophyid mites, but not spider mites.

23 Truth or Fiction: T or F Malathion is labeled as a miticide.

24 Truth or Fiction: T or F Malathion is an effective miticide.

25 Truth or Fiction: T or F Pruning paints should be applied after pruning cuts.

26 Truth or Fiction Facts: A. OSU Extension once recommended paints to prevent insect invasion and paints to prevent insect invasion and decay. decay. B. Current research: compartmentalization occurs best if oxygen is not excluded. occurs best if oxygen is not excluded. C. OSU Extension currently does not recommend pruning paints. recommend pruning paints.

27 Truth or Fiction T or F Pruning paints will never again be recommended by OSU Extension.

28 Truth or Fiction T or F Ortho Rose Pride Orthonex Insect and Disease Control gives systemic protection for up to two weeks. - Product label.

29 Truth or Fiction Facts: A. The acephate (orthene) insecticide in Orthonex has such system action. Orthonex has such system action. B. The fungicide (Triforine), though mildly systemic, does not. systemic, does not. C. The label in fact says: Controls insect pests and prevents insect reinfestation pests and prevents insect reinfestation for up to two weeks. Also controls rose for up to two weeks. Also controls rose black spot, rust and powdery mildew. black spot, rust and powdery mildew. (7-10 day intervals, used as protective) (7-10 day intervals, used as protective)

30 Truth or Fiction T or F You should always read the entire label of a pesticide.

31 Truth or Fiction T or F All ideas are equal.

32 Some quotes from USA Today, August 23, 1999 The Article: Experts Muddy Master Gardener, about Americas Master Gardener, Jerry Baker.

33 Most of the criticism has come from people with vested interests, who are the traditional experts. - Alan Foster, VP for fundraising, PBS.

34 The redwood trees grew just fine before we had garden centers and people with academic certificates. I cant worry about the competition... They do their thing and I do mine. I do it sincerely and I get hugs and kisses from people when Im done. - Jerry Baker

35 Baker is a successful fundraiser and his appearances illustrate the networks diversity. - Alan Foster

36 To kill suckers growing on trees, Baker recommends using any good weed killer with dish soap, vinegar and gin. Although the last three ingredients are irrevelant, many herbicides, including the popular Roundup, could harm or even kill a tree, experts say. - Dennis Couchon, USA Today

37 After pruning flowering trees, Baker recommends sealing the wounds with latex pain, antiseptic mouthwash and an insecticide such as Sevin or Dursban. Jim Chatfield, a landscape specialist with Ohio State says the use of such insecticides without regard to the type of tree or insect is irresponsible. -Dennis Couchon, USA Today (Both of the last two examples came from a Jerry Baker gardening calendar and was cited in the original Buckeye article in 1966.)

38 The California Environmental Protection Agency wrote KVIE-TV, the PBS affiliate in Sacremento, a two-page letter in 1996 criticizing Bakers advice to mix them (home-brewed pesticides) in bottles and cans usually used for food. It is not only illegal under state and federal law to do this, it is also highly dangerous. - Dennis Couchon, USA Today

39 "A station affiliated with Ohio State should be using and airing good horticultural information, not the misinformation that Baker pours out," says Jane Martin, an extension agent in Franklin County, home of Ohio State. "Every time he's on, we get flooded with calls asking for Jerry Baker recipes, and we have to say, 'Well, that's not such a good idea.' " - USA Today

40 (Regarding Jerry Bakers product line): …rather than the mix of beer, ammonia, baby shampoo or molasses recommended on TV as an all-season green up tonic, his fertilizers contain the typical blends of nitrogen, phosphates and potash found at every garden center... The companys top-selling item is Jerry Bakers dog and cat repellent: my unique formula as his catalogue describes it. Actually its methyl nonylketone, the same ingredient found in other dog repellents …the only difference is price.- Dennis Couchon, USA Today

41 There is no other door to knowledge than the door Nature opens; and there is no truth except the truths we discover in Nature. - Luther Burbank

42 Ten-Step Program for Healthy Plants n Provide a good home n Preventive medicine n Remember your roots n Provide room to grow n Nature and nurture n Avoid overseasoning n Have a weight-loss plan n Wear loose clothing n Dont drink too much n Drink plenty of fluids of fluids

43 Provide a good home (Select the right plant for the site.)

44 Preventive medicine (Select trees with good genetic pest and disease resistance.)

45 Remember your roots (Do not raise or lower soil levels around trees when planting or doing construction around trees.)

46 Provide room to grow (Provide adequate room for future root development when planting.)

47 Nature and nurture (Plant in sites with proper soil pH and other soil characteristics for the species.)

48 Avoid overseasoning (Do not overfertilize; protect sensitive species from road salts.)

49 Have a weight-loss plan (Always prune with a purpose in mind.)

50 Wear loose clothing (Remove girdling wires, twines and rubber hoses.)

51 Dont drink too much (Plant in well-drained soils; avoid overwatering.)

52 Drink plenty of fluids (Avoid underwatering.)

53 Which of the following are acid-loving plants? A. River birch B. Pin oak C. Red maple D. Pachysandra E. Rhododendron and other ericaceous plants ericaceous plants F. All of the above

54 The true voyage of discovery lies not in finding new landscapes, but in having new eyes. - Marcel Proust

55 Choose the best pesticide.

56 Selecting a Pesticide n Labeled for the pest n Produces desired level of control n Minimal disruption to the environment

57 Phytotoxicity

58 Selecting a Pesticide n Not phytotoxic n Compatible with plant management strategies u Friendly to beneficials n Acceptable to the public, customers u Complex issue

59 Many pesticide choices.

60 Classifications of Pesticides ClassificationTargeted Pest InsecticideInsects InsecticideInsects AcaricideMites, ticks AcaricideMites, ticks MiticideMites MiticideMites FungicideFungi FungicideFungi BactericideBacteria BactericideBacteria

61 Classifications of Pesticides ClassificationTargeted Pest HerbicideWeeds HerbicideWeeds AquacideAquatic weeds AquacideAquatic weeds MolluscicideSnails and slugs MolluscicideSnails and slugs RodenticideMice, rats, rodents RodenticideMice, rats, rodents

62 Signal Word n Toxicity Categories u Danger (I) u Warning (II) u Caution (III) u Caution (IV) Danger = most toxic

63 Select caution pesticides when possible and avoid RUPs!

64 Pesticide Mode of Action n Broad spectrum n Residual pesticide n Protectant n Systemic n Contact

65 n Pesticides are manufacture d in many formulations.

66 PESTICIDE FORMULATIONS Applying Pesticides Correctly-EPA Core Manual-Unit 3 (formulations)

67 Pesticide Formulations n Formulation u Application method u Risk when handling u Risk of moving off target u Advantages u Disadvantages

68 Application equipment should reflect the target plant, pest, and pesticide formulation.

69 Some pesticides are formulate d as injections.

70 PESTICIDE FORMULATIONS n Pesticides are usually formulated prior to use u Consist of: F Active ingredient F Inert ingredient u Make it safer, more effective, easier to measure, mix, apply, convenient to handle

71 PESTICIDE FORMULATIONS n Manufactured as technical grade then formulated n Formulation is the form sold for use n Sold as a brand name

72 LIQUID FORMULATIONS n Consists of: u Active ingredient (AI) insoluble in water u Solvent F Polar - usually poor (acetone & alcohols) F Nonpolar - usually good (xylene & kerosene) EMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATES (EC or E)

73 EMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATES (Con't) n Emulsifiers u Allow the formulation to be mixed with water to form an emulsion (oil in water) n Each gallon of EC may contain 25 to 75% AI (2 to 8 lbs) n Used under a wide range of conditions

74 EMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATES (Con't) n Advantages u Easy to handle, transport & store u Little agitation required u Not abrasive u Will not plug screens or nozzles u Little visible residue on treated surfaces

75 EMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATES (Con't) n Disadvantages u Easy to over or under dose u May cause unwanted harm to plants u Easily absorbed through skin u Cause rubber & plastic to deteriorate u Harm painted surfaces u Flammable u Corrosive

76 LIQUID FORMULATIONS SOLUTIONS n Dissolve readily in a liquid solvent such as water or petroleum-based solvent n Will not settle out or separate n Contain AI, solvent and one or more other ingredients n Used in most sprayers, indoors or outdoors

77 SOLUTIONS (Con't) READY-TO-USE (RTU) n Contain correct amount of solvent n No further dilution required n Usually contain small amounts of AI (1% or less)

78 SOLUTIONS (Con't) CONCENTRATE SOLUTIONS (C or LC) n Concentrates that require dilution with solvent n Solvent is occasionally water, more often it is petroleum-based n Some uses of solutions u Structural & institutional pest control u Household pests u Livestock & poultry pests u Space sprays in barns and warehouses u Tree pests u Mosquito control

79 SOLUTIONS (Con't) CONCENTRATE SOLUTIONS (C or LC) n Advantages u No agitation required n Disadvantages u Limited number of formulations available

80 LIQUID FORMULATIONS ULTRA-LOW-VOLUME (ULV) n Approach 100% AI n Use as is or with small amounts of water (1/2 gal or less) n Used mostly in outdoor applications u Agricultural u Forestry u Ornamental u Mosquito

81 ULTRA-LOW-VOLUME (ULV) (Con't) n Advantages u Easy to handle, transport & store u Little agitation required u Not abrasive u Will not clog screens or nozzles u Little visible residue on treated surfaces n Disadvantages u High drift hazard u Need special application equipment u Solvents can deteriorate rubber and plastic

82 LIQUID FORMULATIONS FLOWABLES (F or L) n Are insoluble solids n Finely ground AI mixed with a liquid plus inert ingredient to form a suspension n Mixed with water for application

83 FLOWABLES (F or L) (Con't) n Advantages u Seldom clog nozzles u Easy to handle and apply n Disadvantages u Require moderate agitation u May leave a visible residue u May separate u May cake in container or sprayer

84 LIQUID FORMULATIONS AEROSOLS (A) n Contain one or more AI and a solvent n Usually contain a low percentage of AI n Two types u Ready-to-use u Smoke or fog generators

85 AEROSOLS (A) (Con't) READY-TO-USE AEROSOLS n Small, self-contained units n Release pesticide when nozzle valve is triggered n Commercial models hold 5 to 10 lbs and are refillable

86 AEROSOLS (A) (Con't) READY-TO-USE AEROSOLS (Con't) n Advantages u Ready to use u Easily stored u Convenient u Long shelf life n Disadvantages u Limited uses u Inhalation risk u Container is under pressure u Drift

87 AEROSOLS (A) (Con't) SMOKE OR FOG GENERATORS n Machines break the liquid into a fine mist or fog n Use a rapidly whirling disk or heated surface n Used mainly for insect control in: u Greenhouses u Warehouses u Outdoor control of mosquitoes and biting flies

88 AEROSOLS (A) (Con't) SMOKE OR FOG GENERATORS n Advantages u Easy to fill large, enclosed spaces with pesticide u Pesticide is not under pressure n Disadvantages u Requires specialized equipment u Drift u May require respiratory protection when applying

89 LIQUID FORMULATIONS INVERT EMULSIONS n Water soluble pesticide dispersed in an oil carrier n Form large droplets which reduce drift n Used in vegetation control along rights-of-ways n Require special equipment, expensive, reduced coverage

90 DRY FORMULATIONS DUSTS (D) n Most are ready-to-use n Most contain low amounts of AI (0.5 to 10%) n Also contain a very fine dry inert carrier (talc, chalk, clay etc.) n Used to control pests: u In ag applications u On livestock and pets u Seed treatment u Flowers & vegetable gardens

91 DRY FORMULATIONS DUSTS (D) (cont) n Advantages u No mixing u Can use where a spray may cause damage u Use simple equipment u Effective in hard-to-reach indoor areas n Disadvantages u Drift u May irritate skin, eyes, nose, throat u Poor adhesion to surfaces u Poor distribution of particles on surfaces

92 DRY FORMULATIONS BAITS (B) n AI mixed with food or other pest attractant n Pests killed by eating pesticide contaminated bait n AI is usually low (<5%) n Used inside to control: u ants, roaches, flies, other insects, rodents n Used outside to control: u snails, slugs, insects, vertebrate pests

93 DRY FORMULATIONS BAITS (B) (cont) n Advantages u Ready to use u Only need to treat small area u Controls pests that move in and out of an area

94 DRY FORMULATIONS BAITS (B) (cont) n Disadvantages u May be attractive to pets and children u May kill non-target animals u Pest may not eat bait u Dead pest may cause odor problems u Secondary poisoning of non-target animals u Can serve as pest food supply if AI becomes ineffective

95 DRY FORMULATIONS GRANULES (G) n Similar to dust formulations, larger & heavier n Made from adsorptive materials u Clay, corn cobs, walnut shells n AI coats outside of granule or is absorbed n AI is usually low (1 to 20%) n Usually applied to soil to control weeds, nematodes, & insects

96 DRY FORMULATIONS GRANULES (G) (cont) n Advantages u Ready to use u Low drift hazard u Penetrate dense foliage u Usually requires simple application equipment u *Usually the safest formulation to handle

97 DRY FORMULATIONS GRANULES (G) (cont) n Disadvantages u Will not stick to target (may move with rain) u May need to incorporate into soil u May need moisture to activate n May be hazardous to birds

98 DRY FORMULATIONS PELLETS (P or PS) n Similar to granular formulations n All are same size and weight n Some fumigants are pellets u Aluminum phosphide

99 DRY FORMULATIONS WETTABLE POWDERS n (WP or W) Dry, finely ground look like dusts n Usually mixed with water n Applied as a spray n 5 to 95% AI n Do not dissolve in water n Will settle out unless constant agitation is used

100 DRY FORMULATIONS WETTABLE POWDERS (cont) n Advantages u Easy to store, transport & handle u Less phytotoxic than EC u Less skin & eye absorption u Less odor u Method of applying insoluble pesticides as a spray

101 DRY FORMULATIONS WETTABLE POWDERS (cont) n Disadvantages u Inhalation hazard while mixing u Requires constant agitation u Often clog nozzles and screens u Abrasive u May be difficult to mix and measure u May leave white deposit on surfaces

102 DRY FORMULATIONS SOLUBLE POWDERS (SP or WSP) n Look like WP n Require initial agitation n Dissolve easily n Form a true solution in water n AI ranges from 15 to 95% n Have all advantages of WP n Inhalation hazard while mixing

103 DRY FORMULATIONS WATER-DISPERSIBLE GRANULES (WDG) or DRY FLOWABLES (DF) n Are like WP n AI is prepared as granule-sized particle n Must be mixed with water n Require constant agitation n Same advantages & disadvantages as WP n More easily measured & mixed than WP n Cause less inhalation hazard than WP

104 OTHER FORMULATIONS MICROENCAPSULATED PESTICIDES (M) n May be liquid or dry surrounded by plastic coating n Mixed with water & applied as a spray n Capsule slowly releases pesticide n Provides a timed release of pesticide

105 OTHER FORMULATIONS MICROENCAPSULATED PESTICIDES (M) (cont) n Advantages u Increased applicator safety u Easy to mix, handle & apply u Timed release n Disadvantages u Require constant agitation u Bees take capsules back to hive

106 OTHER FORMULATIONS FUMIGANTS n Form poisonous gas when applied n Some are liquid under pressure, change to gas when released n Some are liquid & change to gas when exposed to air n Some are solid & change to gas when exposed to water or high humidity

107 OTHER FORMULATIONS FUMIGANTS (cont) n Advantages u Toxic to wide range of pests u Penetrate cracks, wood, soil, grain u Single treatment kills most pests n Disadvantages u Site must be enclosed or covered u Highly toxic u Require special safety & application equipment

108 ADJUVANTSADJUVANTS n Added to formulations to increase effectiveness n Include: surfactants, wetting agents, emulsifiers, spreaders, stickers, penetrants, safeners, etc.

109 Application Equipment

110 Types of Spray Equipment Hand sprayer Knapsack (LOK) Battery powered

111 Pesticide Application Equipment n Manual sprayers u Compressed air sprayers F Pressure drop off, settling, limited pressure & volume u Backpack sprayers u Wick applicators F Targeted application


113 Pesticide Application Equipment n Power Sprayers u Rotary (disk) nozzle sprayers u Mist blowers F Light weight, less water, drift?

114 Power Sprayers


116 Pesticide Application Equipment n Power Sprayers u Small power sprayers u Hydraulic sprayers F Widely used for ornamentals, variable pressure, volume, drift?

117 Low pressure hydraulic High pressure ULV Chemigation or injection

118 All Sprayers Should Be: n Durable n Convenient to fill n Convenient to operate n Easy to clean

119 Pesticide Application Tree Injection Equipment n Injection and implantation u Possible tree injury u Cost u Limited materials u No drift u Reduced injury to non-target organisms

120 To Enhance Safety and Benefits and to Get the Most From Any Sprayer: n Select the right equipment. n Set it up correctly. n Use proper operation procedures. n Perform proper maintenance.

121 Reference Materials n The pesticide label n Spray equipment n Extension guidelines

122 Three Basic Functions of a Sprayer: n Distribution n Metering n Storage and transport

123 Three Functions of a Nozzle n Metering n Atomization n Pattern dispersal

124 Flow Rate is Dependent On: n Nozzle size n Pressure n Fluid Characteristics

125 ComponentsComponents n Tank - mostly plastic, size varies n Pump - various n Filter - 50 or 100 mesh n Nozzles - flat fan, cone, flood n Regulator - regulate pressure

126 TanksTanks n Fiberglass n Stainless steel n Galvanized steel n Aluminum n Polyethylene

127 Pumps Must Provide n Gallons per minute (GPM) required by all nozzles n Tank agitation (6% of tank volume) n Twenty percent (20%) reserve for wear

128 Backpack or Hand n Pumping action from moving a flexible diaphragm n Fairly resistant, moderately priced

129 Roller Pump n Widely used n Cheap, effective, and flexible n Rolling action of rollers force liquid through outlet

130 Gear Pump n Used on early sprayers n Wear easily n Cannot be repaired

131 Centrifugal Pump n Good for abrasive materials n Not self-priming n High capacity

132 Piston Pump n Positive displacement n Low output n Expensive n Good for WP

133 NozzlesNozzles n Flat fan - herbicides n Cone - insecticide, fungicide n Floods - herbicide, fertilizer n Sizes - 01, 02, 03 or 3, 5, 10 n Angles (fan) - 80, 110

134 Nozzle Materials n Ceramic n Hardened stainless steel n Stainless steel n Nylon n Brass


136 Nozzles: Wear vs Cost

137 Flat fan n Broadcast n Tapered edges n Must overlap

138 Even flat fan n Rectangular pattern n Banding n Ex: 8002E

139 More Flat Fans Flat fan - extended range Twin flat fan - good for dense foliage Flooding flat fan

140 ConesCones n Circular pattern n Smaller particles n Good foliage penetration

141 Flood nozzles n Fertilizer and herbicide n Large droplet

142 Multi-patternMulti-pattern n Hand-held n Select pattern by turning nozzle body

143 StrainersStrainers n Tank opening (16-20 mesh) n In-line (20-50 mesh) n Nozzle screen (none mesh)

144 HosesHoses n Correct size n Flexible (non-collapsible if suction hose) n Durable n Resistant (sunlight, oil, chemicals, abrasion, twisting) n Sufficient Pressure Rating

145 ULV or Mist Blowers n Use a fan or whirling disc n Low volume n Save time and labor n Calibration critical n Concentrated pesticide

146 SpreadersSpreaders n Drop spreader n Uniform pattern n Low drift

147 SpreadersSpreaders n Centrifugal or rotary spreader n Wider swath n Non-uniform pattern

148 DriftDrift

149 Why Minimize Drift? To Avoid: n Spotty pest control n Wasted chemicals n Off-target damage n Environmental impact n Public concerns n Problems in populated areas To Avoid: n Spotty pest control n Wasted chemicals n Off-target damage n Environmental impact n Public concerns n Problems in populated areas

150 Factors that Affect Droplet Size n Spray pressure n Spray angle n Nozzle type n Orifice size

151 To enlarge droplet size: n Operate at lower end of recommended pressure range n Use nozzles with larger orifice n Use special nozzles to reduce the portion of small droplets

152 Environmental Conditions Best conditions occur early or late in day: n wind more likely in 3-to-10 mph range n temperature is lower n relative humidity is higher n WARNING: watch for inversions

153 MaintenanceMaintenance n Cleaning: hoses, nozzles, pumps, tanks, and hoppers n Clean with water and/or detergent n Use soft brush on nozzles

154 Cleaning agents n Insecticides/fungicides - powder detergent - agitate, flush and rinse n Hormone herbicides (salt or amine) - ammonia or washing soda- agitate, flush, let stand overnight, flush and rinse n Other herbicides - powder detergent - agitate, flush and rinse

155 Suggested Calibration Tools n Measuring tape(s) ft tape and yardstick n A watch capable of measuring seconds - stopwatch works best n Measuring container marked in ounces - one quart works for most applications

156 Ground Speed n Linear relationship n Doubling speed cuts rate in half n Cutting speed in half doubles rate

157 To Increase Rate: n Slow down n Use larger nozzle n Increase pressure n Decrease nozzle spacing

158 To Decrease Rate: n Speed up n Use smaller nozzle n Decrease pressure n Increase nozzle spacing

159 Spray Application Techniques n Select correct equipment n Adjust nozzles, pressure, etc. n Apply to where pests are located n Obtain thorough coverage

160 Spray Application Tips n Do NOT spray into or with the wind n Use larger droplets in windy conditions n Thoroughly coat treatment area n For tall trees: u Use thin stream at top, changing to fan at bottom, apply from inside out, top to bottom n Protect people, pets, wildlife, homes, etc.

161 Pesticide Record Keeping n Name of applicator n Address of application n Name and concentration of pesticide n Amount of pesticide n Target pest n Method and rate of application Records

162 Pesticide Record Keeping Keep records for at least one year on general use pesticide applications. Keep RUP records for three years. Check with MDA for current regulations.

163 The Pesticide Label

164 The Pesticide Label What You Need To Ask! n The right chemical for the job? n Correct conditions for safe application? n Will it control the target pest?

165 The Pesticide Label What You Need To Ask! n Do I have the proper protective equipment (PPE)? n How much should I use?

166 Questions the label doesnt answer directly... n What does all of this information really mean? n Why should I really care? u Its a legal document u Misuse could cause various problems

167 Why should I really care? n The label is a legal document n Applying a pesticide in a manner inconsistent with the label is illegal n I didnt know it said that u not a good defense if you misuse a pesticide

168 It is a violation of Federal law to use this pesticide in a manner inconsistent with its labeling.

169 Im an experienced applicator… Im too busy… Ive used this product for years… Common excuses for not reading the label

170 Ive used this product for years… Labels Change! Re-registration of products under the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)

171 Problems caused by not reading and following the label n Crop loss n Fish kills n Near fatal exposures n Fatal exposures n Fire and explosions

172 Use Classification Statement n Two types of classification Restricted Use Restricted Use General Use General Use

173 Use Classification Statement n Restricted Use: u For sale to, and for use only by, certified applicators or applicators under the direct supervision of a certified applicator

174 Net Contents n Front panel of labels shows how much product is in container n Liquid formulations may list the pounds of active ingredient per gallon of product

175 Ingredient Statement n Active Ingredients: n Inert Ingredients:

176 Ingredient Statement

177 Inert Ingredients Listed as total percentage in the product

178 Ingredient Statement Active Ingredients The part of the product that actually controls the pest(s)

179 Ingredient Statement n Active Ingredient: u Each active ingredient must be listed by individual be listed by individual percentage percentage

180 Active Ingredients n Many active ingredients are given a common name n Only common names accepted by the EPA may be used on the label

181 Active Ingredients n Official common name is usually followed by the chemical name in the list of active ingredients

182 Trade, Brand, or Product Names n Companies register trade names as a trademark n The same active ingredient may be sold under different trade names

183 Trade or Brand Names Be careful, some products with: Different brand names may have the same active ingredients Example: Metsulfuron methyl is the active ingredient in: AllyEscort Cimarron

184 Does this mean that I can substitute these products for each other ? Only if the label allows!

185 Does this mean that I can substitute these products for each other ? Only if the label allows: Poison Hemlock in non- crop areas? Only Escort

186 Can I substitute these products for each other to control aquatic weeds ? Same active ingredient: Glyphosate

187 Same active ingredient: ?? Glyphosate

188 Environmental Hazards: Do not apply directly to water, or areas where surface water is present, or intertidal areas below the mean high water mark. Do not contaminate water when cleaning equipment or disposing of equipment wash water. Same active ingredient Glyphosate Do not apply directly to water,

189 n Brand Name can often include: u The percent of active ingredient incorporated into the product name u Type of pesticide Trade, Brand, or Product Names

190 The following pesticide applications are considered off label and therefore are illegal: Applying above the highest dose rate Applying more frequently than the label allows Applying without using PPE Applying to a site that is not on the label

191 Signal Words n The word on the label that tells the potential hazards of the product u Danger Poison w/ skull & Crossbones u Danger u Warning u Caution

192 Signal Words n DANGER-POISON with a skull and crossbones symbol with a skull and crossbones symbol u Peligro (Spanish for danger must also appear on the label) n Indicates the product is highly toxic by any route of entry

193 Signal Words n DANGER u Indicates that the product has a high potential to irritate skin and eyes

194 Signal Words n WARNING u Product is moderately toxic u Can also cause slight eye or skin irritation

195 Signal Words n CAUTION u Harmful if swallowed or inhaled u May irritate eyes, nose, throat, and skin


197 EPA Registration Number n If a product contains an active ingredient on EPAs 25B list, no EPA registration number is required n 25B list contains 31 active ingredients that are non-toxic u i.e., Mint oil, dried blood, citronella

198 EPA Establishment Number n Tells where that product was made u Important if it is ever necessary to recall the product n Includes abbreviation of state of origin

199 Emergency Number Contact number in the event of human exposure, spill, accident, or environmental exposure

200 Emergency Number New national poison center number

201 Personal Protective Equipment n Tells applicators what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be worn to minimize exposure n Often different for different tasks

202 Precautionary Statements n Other precautions that should be followed when handling the product n Common sense practices to minimize exposure to applicators, the environment and others who may come in contact with the treated area

203 User Safety Recommendations: Users should wash hands before eating, drinking, chewing gum, using tobacco or using the toilet Users should remove clothing immediately if pesticide gets inside. Then wash thoroughly and put on clean clothing. Users should remove PPE immediately after handling this product. Wash the outside of gloves before removing. As soon as possible, wash thoroughly and change into clean clothing.

204 Chemical Hazards n Combustible u Do not store near heat or open flame. n Highly corrosive n Oxidizer

205 Chemical Hazards n Incompatibilities u Do not mix, store, or apply this product or spray solutions of this product in galvanized steel or unlined steel (except stainless steel)

206 Storage and Disposal Storage: Store above 10 O F (12 o C) to keep product from crystallizing. Crystals will settle to the bottom. If allowed to crystallize, place in a warm room (68 o F or 20 o C) for several days to allow crystals to redissolve, then shake before using.

207 Directions for Use n Guidelines for use of the product n What pests it will control n What crops it can be used on

208 Directions for Use n Annual Maximum Rate n Precautions and restrictions n Mixing instructions n Calibration

209 Worker Protection Standards (WPS) Within the Agricultural Use Requirements box you will find Restricted entry interval (REI) Early entry PPE requirements Worker notification

210 Use this product in accordance with its labeling and with the Worker Protection Standard, 40 CFR part 170. This standard contains requirements for the protection of agricultural workers on farms, forests, nurseries, and greenhouses, and handlers of agricultural pesticides. It contains requirements for training, decontamination, notification and emergency assistance. It also contains specific instructions and exceptions pertaining to the statements of this label about personal protective equipment and restricted entry interval. The requirements in this box only apply to uses of this product that are covered by the Worker Protection Standard. Agricultural Use Requirements

211 Do not enter or allow worker entry into treated areas during the restricted-entry interval (REI) of 4 hours. PPE required for early entry to treated areas that is permitted under the Worker Protection Standard and that involves contact with anything that has been treated, such as plants, soil, or water, is: coveralls, chemical resistant gloves Category A, shoes plus socks. Notify workers of the application by warning them orally and by posting warning signs at entrances to treated areas. Agricultural Use Requirements

212 Review Trade Name

213 Review Ingredient Statement

214 Review WPS

215 Review EPA Reg. and Est. No.

216 Review Net Contents

217 Review Signal Word

218 Review Emergency Info.

219 Review Storage and Disposal


221 I. I. Pesticide Mixing and Loading Sites II. II. PPE - Personal Protective Equipment III. III. Pesticide Container Disposal

222 HAZARDS TO CONSIDER Water Contamination Drains Backflow Protection Mix on site I. MIXING AND LOADING SITES

223 Wells Creeks Ponds Water Sources DO NOT Mix or Load Next To or Above:



226 KNOW WHERE THE DRAIN EMPTIES! When Mixing, Loading, or Cleaning Pesticide Equipment Over or Near Drains:



229 Proper Mixing and Loading Area


231 Air Gap Backflow Preventer Use Backflow Protection

232 Need for PPE Knowing How to Use PPE II. PPE - Personal Protective Equipment II. PPE - Personal Protective Equipment

233 TYPES OF EXPOSURE Inhalation Oral Dermal Ocular PPE Protects You From Exposure When Working With Pesticides

234 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) n Label specific n May include: gloves gloves boots or shoe covers boots or shoe covers coveralls coveralls hood or wide-brimmed hat hood or wide-brimmed hat apron apron protective eyewear protective eyewear respirator respirator


236 Long Sleeve Shirt Long Pants Shoes and Socks Chemical Resistant Gloves Review The Label For PPE Information If Label Does Not Refer To PPE Use a Minimum of Protection Such As:









245 NEVER Store With Pesticides Respirator and Respirator Cartridges should be Stored Separately Clean Respirator after Each Use Clothes Used While Applying Pesticides Should be Washed Separately From Other Laundry PROPER STORAGE AND MAINTENANCE OF PPE SHOULD INCLUDE





250 Dispose of Pesticide Containers In a Manner Which Will Not Contaminate Any Aspect of the Environment Pesticide Labels Have Specific Instructions on Proper Disposal Procedures III. Proper Pesticide Container Disposal






256 Triple Rinsing or Pressure Rinsing Offer for Recycling Where Available If Not…. Puncture and Place In Landfill Proper Disposal of Pesticide Containers Includes:

257 Let Container Drain or Drip Into Spray Tank For At Least 30 Seconds Fill Container 1/3 Full of Water Replace Cap On Container and Rotate or Shake to Rinse ALL Sides Drain Rinse Mixture From Container Into Spray Tank Repeat Steps 2-4 Twice More Before Disposal of Pesticide Container Steps for Proper Triple Rinsing



260 Let Container Drain or Drip Into Spray Tank For At Least 30 Seconds Insert Tip of P/N Through Side of Pesticide Container Near Base Spray Inside Container for 30 Seconds While Holding Over Tank Drain all Rinse Water from Container into Spray Tank Steps for Correct Pressure Rinsing




264 Offer For Recycling Offer For Recycling



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