2Process Overview 1There are a number of processing options for Microfibres,depending on the desired end result and material.1Normal.RelaxHeat SetScour/WRDye/PrintWashFinish2TexturedRelaxScourModifyDye/PrintWashFinish3Short ProcessHeat SetScourDye/PrintWashFinish4YarnWindScourDyeWashOil / Finish
3RELAXATION 1 Relaxation is the process of shrinkage development, at low fabric tension.Relaxation = Hot + WetBenefits of RelaxationReduces potential distortion or deformation of the fabric from residual uneven tension.(eg : slits, islands, uneven puckering )Pre-shrinks the goods ready for correct setting.Required for Desizing woven goods before Heat Set.Shrinkage occurs at lower temperatures than standard fibres.
4RELAXATION 2 Relaxation Methods for Microfibres Hot wash or scour. Say ~ 90 0C .This can be coupled with a scouring step.Hot solvent scour (continuous washer).SteamingSteam Table Gives good relaxation.Steam Frame Front of Stenter( Steaming and drying in a stenter should be aseparate step before Heat Setting. )Combined (Single Pass) Steam Relaxing and Heat Set gives a less uniform result compared with two separate steps.
5MACHINES 1 The best wet processing machines for Microfibres are : Low or controlled tension,- short distance to lift roll/winch (a small rise ).- lots of water pumping action to support.Good liquor exchange but low turbulence.Thies Soft-StreamHisaka Cut-FBrazolli OverflowLongclose Ventura RapideADD TANKSOFT - STREAM SVCool to 50° C before drop !
6NEARFIL FAC To eliminate air entrapment. MACHINES 2Low liquor ratio machines will work on viscose blends,or on heavier fabrics : say above 100 gm/m.CarefulThen AirflowThies Airstreamor RotostreamThese machines may not work so well on high twist andhigh density but lightweight fabrics.Problems => Creasing, Shrinkage, Abrasion, Air entrapment.NEARFIL FAC To eliminate air entrapment.
7DEAERATION 1 NEARFIL FAC Developed for Deaerating yarn packages after loading.Excellent wetting efficiency.Rapid bubble breakage.Alkali stable.Suitable for :Yarn preparationBatch dyeing of lightsynthetics.
8MACHINES 3 Continuous Drum Scour machines. Useful machines for microfibre relaxation are :Continuous Drum Scour machines.They give :Good widthwise relaxation.Controlled lengthwise relaxation.Good scouring of fibre.Splitting of conjugates.Some fabrics may be prepared by bad dwell methods, but it is normal to dye polyester microfibre in Jets.x
9MACHINES 4 The best dry processing machines for Microfibres are : Electric heated, to minimise fumes. (Critical for Nylon)Steaming capacity to facilitate relaxation.Overfeed capacity to facilitate optimum body and fullness properties.Steam FramePad Frame
10Process Overview 2 Normal Long Process Relax or Heat Set Scour/WR Dye/PrintWashFinishorSolvent scour orjet scour to relax .Rapid relax withSteam Frame orTable , then Set.Scour after Setting.Weight Reduce forlight silk styles.Dye the fabric injet machine.Wash off well in jet.Pad finish, dry andCure with mild Set.xor
11Process Overview 3.1 Textured 1 Textured fabrics : are produced by blendingfilaments with differentshrinkage. “MICROPILE”“MICROLOOPS”“Micromattique MX”from InvistaYarn => d / 200 f175 filaments @ 0.5 dpf34 filaments @ 2 dpf“Maximum body and softness.”Process Conditions: elimination of the Pre Heat Setting step allows fulldevelopment of the micro loops of filament.
12NEARGAL HP-MF New and high temperature dyeing helps with polyester. Process Overview 3.2Textured 2Micropile effects may also be achieved by varying the structure of the fibre . Differential texturising and control of crystallinity can lead to differential shrinkage properties.Invista’s nylon 6.6 ‘Tactel’ Ispira.Differential shrinkage filament, thatgives texture and shading effects.Caution :Different fibre denier and types create shade variations. This may createdesirable effects, or…..Warp lines from unequally textured polyester filament can show after dyeing, and can be a difficult problem to solve.NEARGAL HP-MF New and high temperature dyeing helps with polyester.
13Process Overview 3.3 Textured 3 Invista ‘Strata’ polyamide. Different fibre denier and types can create various effects.- differential depth of shade.- differential sheen or lustre.- textured effects.Invista ‘Strata’ polyamide.This type of yarn is mixed indenier and shape leading topotential texture and colourationeffects.The yarn can be used in fashion goods to create unusual colouration effects, with reasonable control.
14Process Overview 3.4 Textured 4 Relax or or WR Dye/Print Wash Finish & SetContinuous, Jet orSolvent scour to relax .Weight Reduce forlight silk styles.Dye the fabric injet machine.Wash off well in jet.Pad finish, dry andCure with Full Set.ororx
15Process Overview 3.5 Textured 5 Relax Modify Dye/Print Wash Finish & SetContinuous, Jet orSolvent scour to relax .Pad, dry and emerise to loft the fabric.Dye the fabric injet machine.Wash off well in jet.Pad finish, dry andCure with Full Set.oror
16Process Overview 4 Short Process Heat Set Scour Dye/Print Wash or FinishRapid relax withSteam Frame orTable , then Set.Scour for dyeing;Dye the fabric injet machine.Wash off well in jet.Pad finish, dry andCure with mild Set.xor
17Padding LUBRIFIL LAF can help. Process Overview 4.2Notes on Short ProcessHeat setting before scouring causes scorching, and the setting of oils into the fabric. As microfibres have a high loading of process aids, this can be a real problem.These aids may be difficult to remove Silicone oils, sizes, waxes, and mineral oil from knitters and looms.This problem is worst with :- very fine fibres due to the high oil content.- cotton blends the cotton yellows and absorbs oils from other fibres.Padding LUBRIFIL LAF can help.
18Preparation 1 Objectives of Preparation 1. Remove the high level of processing aids.(Spin finish, size, wax, processing oils etc..)Before or after heat setting !2. Control shrinkage in a gentle manner, as required.(Some fabrics require a relaxed shrinkage to develop full texture and body. ) Relaxation !3. Minimise fabric damage and creasing.(The shrinkage step can be prone to crease generation if not performed in a relaxed state.)
19SCOURING 1NEARPON KRDeveloped for removing Silicone oils from Tactel Microfibre.Biodegradable Solvent Scouring DetergentNon flammable, safe, low odour, high activity.Softens and dissolves waxes, silicone, mineral oils, PVA, acrylic size, paint, etc...Ideal for elastomeric and microfibre Recommended by Invista.Wets rapidly for padding and continuous operations.Low foam profile.Rinses clear for excellent absorbency.
20SCOURING 2 Invista recommendations for Tactel. NEARPON KR g/lNEARCHEL TMC g/lSoda Ash g/l.Heat to C x ’
21Scouring and Dyeing Sequesterant. NEARCHEL TMCScouring and Dyeing Sequesterant.For Scouring.Builds up the effectiveness of the detergent.Strong sequestering power to remove metals.Extraction of magnesium from Elastane.Gives high whiteness on bleaching.Stabilises bleach liquor when padding.For Dyeing.Stable to high temperatures.Minimises dye aggregation for best dispersion.
22HEAT SETTING 1 Objectives of MICRO-FIBRE HEAT SETTING 1. Control shrinkage during wet processing.2. Reduce creasing, abrasion and crows feet marksY Contamination may be burnt into the fabric.The strength of setting may be measured by the Heat Set Efficiency (HSE).HSE = Final Width After Dyeing = FWHeat Set Width HSWMany microfibre fabrics are dyed without pre heat setting, toallow the full development of shrinkage during wet processing.
23HEAT SETTING 2 HEAT SETTING CONDITIONS Silk styles 185 oC x 30” Active sportswear 180 oC x 30”or maybe No pre setting.Textured styles No pre setting. Cationic Dye types 165 oC x 30”Follow your fibre supplier’s recommendation !!Using a Steam Frame or Steam Table before setting,can give some relaxation effect without a wet process.This may be beneficial in shortening the process path.
24HEAT SETTING 3 HEAT SETTING CONDITIONS Use of Auxiliary. The Pad application of Auxiliaries can help reduce scorching and setting of oils during pre-heat setting.The use of a padding application before pre-set also allows some movement and relaxation of the fibres.Maximum Heat Set Efficiency is achieved.
25Ideal for Heat Setting elastane and all types of LUBRIFIL LAF A problem solver.An anionic multipurpose product.DetergentEmulsifies and restrains oil from burning into fabric.Cleans during subsequent wet processing.Disperses particles including dyes, dust and fibres.AnticreaseLubricating effect helps to maximise the HSE. (Less return.)Carries over into the dye bath and continues as an anticrease.Ideal for Heat Setting elastane and all types ofmicro-fibre fabrics.
26Helps reduce scorching of elastane by a protective film. HEAT SETTING 5NAISTAT The POLYESTER friend.A fine dispersion of polymer.(Please refer to Finishing later.)DetergentScavenges and restrains oil from polyester and elastane.Cleans during scouring, after heat set. Anti-redeposition.AnticreaseLubricating effect helps to maximise the HSE. (Less return.)Carries over into the dye bath and continues as an anticrease.Helps reduce scorching of elastane by a protective film.Ideal for Heat Setting polyester elastane and microfibre.
27HEAT SETTING 6 NEARCAND LT 75 The Anti-scorch. A nylon substantive antioxidant.NEARCAND LT 75 adsorbs rapidly onto nylon or amide- likesubstances to form an antioxidant film. This reduces thescorching of nylon and elastane polymers, and limitsyellowing of softeners as high temperatures.Used for Heat Setting, Finishing or Wet Bleaching of nylonand nylon blends.Low dose required : 1 to 3 % owf.Needs to be dispersed or dissolved hot before application.Ideal for Heat Setting elastane and nylon fabric.
28HEAT SETTING 7 Some RECIPES. 65% Pick up. Nylon Polyester TC 25-30 g/lg/lg/lNEARCAND LT 75NAISTAT 1350LUBRIFIL LAFMaximum settling of fibres for optimum Heat Set, scorch protection, easier cleaning and trouble free dyeing.=> Less distortion and better dyeing and finishing.
29BLEACHING NEARPON KR See Scouring 2 Developed for removing Silicone oils, ideal for elastomerics.Recommended by Dupont.Powerful Green Scouring Detergent for all oils.NEARCHEL TMCPowerful High Temperature sequesterant.Bleach Stabiliser, Cotton Protector and Whiteness Booster.Suggested Cotton-Microfibre bleach after Heat Set .@ C x 20’NEARPON KR g/lNEARCHEL TMC 0.5 g/lCaustic Soda 50% 4.0 g/lH. Peroxide 50% g/l
30Weight Reduction 1 Imitation Silk Traditional Imitation Silk Made with ‘fine’ polyester filament that is reduced in size and weight by the process of Weight Reduction, (WR).Typically, filaments of 1.2 to 2.0 dpf are used, with the final fibre size depending on the structure and required features.Imitation silks can now be achieved through use of Microfibre technology, without the need for WR.Weight reduction is still applied to Microfibre fabrics, to achieve additional handle benefits.The finer dpf leads to- more open weave with reduced stiffness and improved drape.- enhancement of differential dpf properties like lofted yarns.- splitting or shocking of “conjugate” fibres to Microfibres.
31Weight Reduction 2 Techniques for WR 1. Pad Roll batching. (Difficult to control)2. WR by Pad Steam IR heat and Steam must be controlled well.x3. WR in Jet machine. (A method used in some places.)Dip batch in (Easy to control.)NaOH x%1 g/l accelerator@ 130 oC x 60’The key to success is consistency. => Complete control.Temperature, Time, Purity, Liquor Ratio,Accelerants, Steam, and Excellent Washing .
32Accelerants must WR in an even or “level” manner. Weight Reduction 3Control for WR% Reduction in Weight can be theoretically calculated.2 equivalents of NaOH break up one ester monomer unit.Molecular weight of 2 x NaOH = 80Molecular weight of ester monomer = 192Machine factors must be used in practice. = ‘f’So, %WR = 192 x %NaOH (owf) x f80For Pad applications, the pick-up must be accounted for.Typical Fabric % WRCrepe Georgette 25-30%Pongee De Chine 15%Textured Wovens 15%Accelerants must WR in an even or “level” manner.
33These residues MUST be removed before dyeing. Weight Reduction 4The WR process creates a rough semi-porous fibre surface, and leaves large amounts of polyester fragments and oligomer on this rough surface.These residues MUST be removed before dyeing.NEARGAL DNHigh performance dispersing agent for Oligomer.Proven performance as a machine cleaner.NEARCLEAR VLPowerful wetter, dispersant, emulsifier and detergent.Proven performance in Reduction Clear.Lifts surface and disperses residues.Wash @ 900C x 20’ NEARGAL DN 0.5 g/lNEARCLEAR VL g/l
34Dyeing 1Key IssuesThe 2 most important factors in dyeing polyester microfibres.Build-up properties.Washfastness.BUILD-UPWASHFASTNESS1 Depth of shade X 1/ fibre dpf.Finer fibres need more dye.2 Dye buildup properties can vary with finer fibres.DYE & AUXILIARYSELECTION1 High dye applications needed.2 Washfastness relates to surface dye. Microfibres have very high surface area.ProblemsCausesRemedies
35Reduction Clear NEARGAL DN @ 920C x 20’ NEARGAL DN 0.5 g/l The WR process creates a rough semi-porous fibre surface, which can trap large amounts of surface dye. The high surface area alone creates wash fastness problems for microfibres.NEARGAL DNHigh performance dispersing agent for Oligomer and Dye.Proven performance as a machine cleaner and dispersant.NEARCLEAR VLPowerful wetter, dispersant, emulsifier and detergent.Proven performance in Reduction ClearLifts surface dye and disperses residues.@ 920C x 20’ NEARGAL DN 0.5 g/lNEARCLEAR VL g/l(& when ready to give up, add ..) NEARPON KR 0.3 g/l
36Texture Modification 1.1 Emerising 1 TEXTURE from SHRINKAGE The differential shrinkage of microfibres provides thepotential for novel texture effects.Additional Loft. “Micromattique XF”Peach Skin effect. Medium shrink.Suede effects. High shrink.Emerising and Brushing of these fabrics.EMERISINGRaising the “microloops” created by differential shrinkage,creates a fullness and warmth in the fabric.Emerising is usually done before dyeing, to reduce shadevariation, but may be carried out after dyeing on light shades.
37Texture Modification 1.2 Emerising 2 Scour & Relax FIRST Pad Lubricant EMERISING PROCESSFactors to consider ….Emery grit gradeRoller speed and direction.Pressure applied.Cloth tension and run speed.Versatile - wide range of effects.Runs best on filaments.Can damage fabric, spun yarns.Runs about 8 m/min.(Spirotto Rimar / Curtain Herbert)Single rollerMulti rollerHigh run rates - tuned to effect.Good for spun yarns.Easy to run continuously.Runs about 15 m/min.(Spirotto Rimar / Sucker Mueller)Scour & Relax FIRSTPad LubricantDryEmerisePost SetWashDyeLubricate with anon permanentsoftener.Dry gentlyto about7% .Moisturewill moderatethe effect.Control ofparametersto desiredeffect.A heat setstep may beincludedfordimensionalstability.Wash/Scourto removelubricant,fluff, and lint.
38Air Permeable Water Proofs Akzo ‘Sympatex’ & ‘Sportex’ Texture Modification 2Air Permeable Water ProofsBREATHABLE SHOWER PROOF FabricsMicrofibres can form high density woven fabrics that :- block wind effectively, but allow vapour to diffuse through.- allow easy barrier coverage. (Polyurethane or Fluorocarbon.)- maintain appealing drape and handle characteristics.Akzo ‘Sympatex’ & ‘Sportex’Hoechst ‘Trevira’BARRIERFluorocarbon Repellant. Applied as a standard finish and cured.and / orPolyurethane solution. The application is made from a volatilesolvent (DMF, MEK) which is boiled offto leave a porous film.(The film is gas permeable but repels water.)
39Microfibre enhancement Imitation EffectsMicrofibre enhancementVISCOSE BLENDS Light with excellent drape.High Twist Polyester and Nylon Microfibres blended with Viscose :- much reduced shrinkage.- anticreasing and dimensional stability properties.- tensile strength and durability.COTTON BLENDS Enhanced TC properties.Polyester Microfibre staple blended with cotton for shirting :- enhanced softness and drape.- enhanced moisture absorbency.- added warmth.WORSTED BLENDS DurabilityMulti false twisting and air texturising on warp/weft blends producesinterlaced (structured) fabrics. These are similar to the felting onworsted and woollen fabrics. Microfibre Suits are available !
40Coolmax Technical Effects 1 Microfibres wick moisture better. This technical effect is due to capillary transport created in the small gaps between many more filaments. This effect, combined with polyester stability and microfibre handle, imparts several unique benefits.1. Comfort in normal apparel like polyester-cotton.Soft & Dry feeling apparel. Not clammy or sticky.2. Specialty Sportswear.Rapid drying, and body cooling effects.3. Towels and Wipes.For cleaning lenses, glasses etc… lint free !4. High oil pickup with polyester.CoolmaxR‘Toraysee’ &Montefibre ‘Zero4’
41Technical Effects 2 Microfibres act as barriers to bacteria. This technical effect is due to the small size of the gaps between many filaments, which acts like a filter. This effect, combined with polyester stability and microfibre handle, imparts several unique benefits.1. Filter Membranes without contamination.2. Hospital specialty medical wear.3. Clean room garments, camera bags, instrument covers..All lint free !
42FINISHING 1 Microfibres naturally have appealing ‘handle’ features. High softness, greater than cotton or conventional polyester.High degree of drape and fluidity, (this varies with structure).High surface smoothness, (mainly unbrushed filament fabric).Moisture transport that aids coolness and comfort.Microfibres should be finished according to the requirements for the outlet.Imitiation Silk.Emerised.Air perm / water proof.Cotton/Viscose blends.Worsted blends.TechnicalSpandex blends.Silky soft with stenter finishSoften to suit and light post brush.Fluorocarbon / Coating and hot callender.Fashion softener and stenter finish.Wool feel soften and shrink press.Hydrophilic / no softener, light stenter finish.Spandex safe finish, to suit the target market.
43FINISHING 2 Process 1. Exhaust Softener Application (Suitable where a stenter does not have a pad mangle.)Cool to 40°C, adjust pH if required.Add softener eg : NEARFINISH MR JET 2%Hold 40°C x 20 min.Drop and hydro-extract.Stenter Finish as below.2. Pad Softener.(A general process.)Set Stenter frame for width control.Pad ~ 60% PU . eg : NEARFINISH M g/l ~ 120oC x 30”Heat Set Finish at correct tension @ oC x 30”
45FINISHING 3 SPANDEX requires special consideration. No standard NONIONIC EMULSIFIERS should be used inthe finish recipe, including softener emulsions.NEARSOPHT BC9 Low yellowing, full body cationic.Good for cotton application.NAISTAT Hydrophylic polyester finish.Antistatic, soil release, durable.(Not for dark shades.)NEARFINISH CF 511 Hydrophylic elastic silicone.Good for synthetics or cotton towel.Use NEARCAND LT 75 on Nylon, @ 2 % owf
46FINISHING 4 Some General Recipes : Pad @ 60% PU Polyester Recipe NAISTAT g/l For full soil release.orNEARFINISH CF g/l Dry hydrophilic softness.for dark shades.Nylon RecipeNEARSOPHT BC g/lNEARCAND LT g/lTC RecipeNEARSOPHT BC g/lNAISTAT g/lorNEARFINISH CF g/lfor dark shades.
48Bodied Finish Softener Example 1Light Weight SilkDesize / Scour& RelaxPre Heat SetWeight ReduceDyeFinish withDry Mild SetSimple ProcessWash offRCPre-steam if possible.Pad NAISTAT @ 2%120oC then Set at 160oC x 30”.Wash and scour withNEARFIL FAC 0.3 g/lNEARPON KR 1 g/lNEARCHEL TMC 0.5 g/lRinse, and refill.Weight Reduce to calculated %WR.Use accelerant. ~ 1 g/l90 C, then 95C withNEARGAL DN 0.5 g/lNEARCLEAR VL 0.5 g/lHot rinse again until neutral.Dye with NEARGAL DN 1 g/lNEARCHEL TMC g/lNEARGAL SD-PE levelling problems.RC as for WR Washing.Finish by 60% PUNEARFINISH M g/l120oC then Set at 160oC x 40”.Heat Set improverOil Scorch ProtectorSilicone & Set oilScour systemDispersing andWashing system.Dispersing, Levellingand Sequestering.Bodied Finish Softener
49Soft hydrophilic, soil release Example 2Sports Wear - SpandexNormal ProcessWash, scour and relax withNEARFIL FAC 0.2 g/lNEARPON KR 1 g/lNEARCHEL TMC 0.5 g/lLUBRIFIL LAF 1.5 g/lRinse, and refill.Pad NAISTAT @ 2%120oC then Set at 195oC x 1’.Dye with NEARGAL DN 1 g/lNEARGAL SD-PE levelling problems.90 C, then 90 C withNEARCLEAR VL 0.5 g/lHot rinse againFinish by 80oCNAISTAT % owf120oC then Set at 160oC x 40’.Desize / Scour& RelaxHeat Set improverOil Scorch ProtectorSilicone & Set oilScour systemPre Heat SetDispersing andWashing system.DyeRCDispersing, Levellingand Sequestering.Finish withDry Mild SetSoft hydrophilic, soil releaseantistatic finish.
50The Tool Kit The Products The Process The Advantage NEARFIL FAC Dearation No foam wetting.LUBRIFIL LAF Heat Setting Efficient & AntiscorchScour & Dye Scour-Dye & AnticreaseNEARPON KR Scour Efficient CleaningNEARCHEL TMC Scour Removal of soapsDyeing DisaggregatorNEARCAND LT 75 Setting & Finish Reduce scorchingBleach White nylonNEARGAL DN Dyeing Dispersant and cleaner.NEARGAL SD-PE Dyeing Dispersant & LevelerNAISTAT Heat Setting Efficient & AntiscorchFinishing Hydrophilic, soil releaseNEARFINISH CF 511 Finishing Hydrophilic, elasticNEARSOPHT BC9 Finishing Full body cationic.NEARFINISH MR JET Finishing Bodied effect.