Presentation on theme: "Micro Fibres Processing. Process Overview 1 1 Normal. Relax Heat Set Scour/WR Dye/Print Wash Finish 2 Textured Relax Scour Modify Dye/Print Wash Finish."— Presentation transcript:
Micro Fibres Processing
Process Overview 1 1 Normal. Relax Heat Set Scour/WR Dye/Print Wash Finish 2 Textured Relax Scour Modify Dye/Print Wash Finish 3 Short Process Heat Set Scour Dye/Print Wash Finish There are a number of processing options for Microfibres, depending on the desired end result and material. 4 Yarn Wind Scour Dye Wash Oil / Finish
Relaxation is the process of shrinkage development, at low fabric tension. Relaxation = Hot + Wet Benefits of Relaxation Reduces potential distortion or deformation of the fabric from residual uneven tension. (eg : slits, islands, uneven puckering ) Pre-shrinks the goods ready for correct setting. Required for Desizing woven goods before Heat Set. RELAXATION 1 Shrinkage occurs at lower temperatures than standard fibres.
Relaxation Methods for Microfibres Hot wash or scour. Say ~ 90 0 C. This can be coupled with a scouring step. Hot solvent scour (continuous washer). Steaming Steam TableGives good relaxation. Steam Frame Front of Stenter ( Steaming and drying in a stenter should be a separate step before Heat Setting. ) Combined (Single Pass) Steam Relaxing and Heat Set gives a less uniform result compared with two separate steps. RELAXATION 2
The best wet processing machines for Microfibres are : Low or controlled tension, - short distance to lift roll/winch (a small rise ). - lots of water pumping action to support. Good liquor exchange but low turbulence. ADD TANK SOFT - STREAM SV Cool to 50° C before drop ! Thies Soft-Stream Hisaka Cut-F Brazolli Overflow Longclose Ventura Rapide MACHINES 1
MACHINES 2 Low liquor ratio machines will work on viscose blends, or on heavier fabrics : say above 100 gm/m. Then Airflow Thies Airstream or Rotostream These machines may not work so well on high twist and high density but lightweight fabrics. Problems => Creasing, Shrinkage, Abrasion, Air entrapment. NEARFIL FAC To eliminate air entrapment.
NEARFIL FAC Developed for Deaerating yarn packages after loading. Excellent wetting efficiency. Rapid bubble breakage. Alkali stable. Suitable for : Yarn preparation Batch dyeing of light synthetics. DEAERATION 1
Some fabrics may be prepared by bad dwell methods, but it is normal to dye polyester microfibre in Jets. MACHINES 3 x Useful machines for microfibre relaxation are : Continuous Drum Scour machines. They give : Good widthwise relaxation. Controlled lengthwise relaxation. Good scouring of fibre. Splitting of conjugates.
The best dry processing machines for Microfibres are : Electric heated, to minimise fumes. (Critical for Nylon) Steaming capacity to facilitate relaxation. Overfeed capacity to facilitate optimum body and fullness properties. Steam Frame Pad Frame MACHINES 4
Process Overview 2 Normal Long Process Relax Heat Set Scour/WR Dye/Print Wash Finish or Solvent scour or jet scour to relax. Rapid relax with Steam Frame or Table, then Set. Scour after Setting. Weight Reduce for light silk styles. Dye the fabric in jet machine. Wash off well in jet. Pad finish, dry and Cure with mild Set. x
Process Overview 3.1 Textured 1 Textured fabrics : are produced by blending filaments with different shrinkage. MICROPILE MICROLOOPS Process Conditions : elimination of the Pre Heat Setting step allows full development of the micro loops of filament. Micromattique MX from Invista Yarn => 135 d / 200 f dpf 34 2 dpf Maximum body and softness.
Process Overview 3.2 Textured 2 Micropile effects may also be achieved by varying the structure of the fibre. Differential texturising and control of crystallinity can lead to differential shrinkage properties. Caution : Different fibre denier and types create shade variations. This may create desirable effects, or….. NEARGAL HP-MF New and high temperature dyeing helps with polyester. Invistas nylon 6.6 Tactel Ispira. Differential shrinkage filament, that gives texture and shading effects. Warp lines from unequally textured polyester filament can show after dyeing, and can be a difficult problem to solve.
Process Overview 3.3 Textured 3 Different fibre denier and types can create various effects. - differential depth of shade. - differential sheen or lustre. - textured effects. The yarn can be used in fashion goods to create unusual colouration effects, with reasonable control. Invista Strata polyamide. This type of yarn is mixed in denier and shape leading to potential texture and colouration effects.
Process Overview 3.4 Relax WR Dye/Print Wash Finish & Set Textured 4 Continuous, Jet or Solvent scour to relax. Weight Reduce for light silk styles. Dye the fabric in jet machine. Wash off well in jet. Pad finish, dry and Cure with Full Set. or x x
Process Overview 3.5 Relax Modify Dye/Print Wash Finish & Set Textured 5 Continuous, Jet or Solvent scour to relax. Pad, dry and emerise to loft the fabric. Dye the fabric in jet machine. Wash off well in jet. Pad finish, dry and Cure with Full Set. or x
Process Overview 4 Heat Set Scour Dye/Print Wash Finish Short Process Rapid relax with Steam Frame or Table, then Set. Scour for dyeing; Dye the fabric in jet machine. Wash off well in jet. Pad finish, dry and Cure with mild Set. or x
Notes on Short Process Heat setting before scouring causes scorching, and the setting of oils into the fabric. As microfibres have a high loading of process aids, this can be a real problem. These aids may be difficult to remove Silicone oils, sizes, waxes, and mineral oil from knitters and looms. Process Overview 4.2 This problem is worst with : - very fine fibres due to the high oil content. - cotton blendsthe cotton yellows and absorbs oils from other fibres. Padding LUBRIFIL LAF can help.
Preparation 1 Objectives of Preparation 1.Remove the high level of processing aids. (Spin finish, size, wax, processing oils etc..) Before or after heat setting ! 2.Control shrinkage in a gentle manner, as required. (Some fabrics require a relaxed shrinkage to develop full texture and body. ) Relaxation ! 3.Minimise fabric damage and creasing. (The shrinkage step can be prone to crease generation if not performed in a relaxed state.)
NEARPON KR Developed for removing Silicone oils from Tactel Microfibre. Biodegradable Solvent Scouring Detergent Non flammable, safe, low odour, high activity. Softens and dissolves waxes, silicone, mineral oils, PVA, acrylic size, paint, etc... Ideal for elastomeric and microfibre. Recommended by Invista. Wets rapidly for padding and continuous operations. Low foam profile. Rinses clear for excellent absorbency. SCOURING 1
SCOURING 2 Invista recommendations for Tactel. NEARPON KR g/l NEARCHEL TMC g/l Soda Ash g/l. Heat to C x
NEARCHEL TMC Scouring and Dyeing Sequesterant. For Scouring. Builds up the effectiveness of the detergent. Strong sequestering power to remove metals. Extraction of magnesium from Elastane. Gives high whiteness on bleaching. Stabilises bleach liquor when padding. For Dyeing. Stable to high temperatures. Minimises dye aggregation for best dispersion. SCOURING 3
Objectives of MICRO-FIBRE HEAT SETTING 1.Control shrinkage during wet processing. 2.Reduce creasing, abrasion and crows feet marks Contamination may be burnt into the fabric. The strength of setting may be measured by the Heat Set Efficiency (HSE). HEAT SETTING 1 HSE = Final Width After Dyeing=FW Heat Set WidthHSW Many microfibre fabrics are dyed without pre heat setting, to allow the full development of shrinkage during wet processing.
HEAT SETTING CONDITIONS Silk styles185 o C x 30 Active sportswear180 o C x 30 or maybeNo pre setting. Textured stylesNo pre setting. Cationic Dye types165 o C x 30 HEAT SETTING 2 Follow your fibre suppliers recommendation !! Using a Steam Frame or Steam Table before setting, can give some relaxation effect without a wet process. This may be beneficial in shortening the process path.
HEAT SETTING CONDITIONS Use of Auxiliary. HEAT SETTING 3 The Pad application of Auxiliaries can help reduce scorching and setting of oils during pre-heat setting. The use of a padding application before pre-set also allows some movement and relaxation of the fibres. Maximum Heat Set Efficiency is achieved.
LUBRIFIL LAF A problem solver. An anionic multipurpose product. HEAT SETTING 4 Detergent Emulsifies and restrains oil from burning into fabric. Cleans during subsequent wet processing. Disperses particles including dyes, dust and fibres. Anticrease Lubricating effect helps to maximise the HSE. ( Less return.) Carries over into the dye bath and continues as an anticrease. Ideal for Heat Setting elastane and all types of micro-fibre fabrics.
NAISTAT 1350 The POLYESTER friend. A fine dispersion of polymer. (Please refer to Finishing later.) HEAT SETTING 5 Detergent Scavenges and restrains oil from polyester and elastane. Cleans during scouring, after heat set. Anti-redeposition. Anticrease Lubricating effect helps to maximise the HSE. ( Less return.) Carries over into the dye bath and continues as an anticrease. Ideal for Heat Setting polyester elastane and microfibre. Helps reduce scorching of elastane by a protective film.
NEARCAND LT 75 The Anti-scorch. A nylon substantive antioxidant. HEAT SETTING 6 NEARCAND LT 75 adsorbs rapidly onto nylon or amide- like substances to form an antioxidant film. This reduces the scorching of nylon and elastane polymers, and limits yellowing of softeners as high temperatures. Used for Heat Setting, Finishing or Wet Bleaching of nylon and nylon blends. Ideal for Heat Setting elastane and nylon fabric. Low dose required :1 to 3 % owf. Needs to be dispersed or dissolved hot before application.
Some RECIPES.65% Pick up. HEAT SETTING 7 Nylon Polyester TC g/l g/l g/l NEARCAND LT 75 NAISTAT 1350 LUBRIFIL LAF Maximum settling of fibres for optimum Heat Set, scorch protection, easier cleaning and trouble free dyeing. => Less distortion and better dyeing and finishing.
NEARPON KR See Scouring 2 Developed for removing Silicone oils, ideal for elastomerics. Recommended by Dupont. Powerful Green Scouring Detergent for all oils. NEARCHEL TMC Powerful High Temperature sequesterant. Bleach Stabiliser, Cotton Protector and Whiteness Booster. BLEACHING Suggested Cotton-Microfibre bleach after Heat C x 20 NEARPON KR0.3 g/l NEARCHEL TMC0.5 g/l Caustic Soda 50%4.0 g/l H. Peroxide 50%5-10 g/l
Weight Reduction 1 Traditional Imitation Silk Made with fine polyester filament that is reduced in size and weight by the process of Weight Reduction, (WR). Typically, filaments of 1.2 to 2.0 dpf are used, with the final fibre size depending on the structure and required features. Imitation Silk Imitation silks can now be achieved through use of Microfibre technology, without the need for WR. Weight reduction is still applied to Microfibre fabrics, to achieve additional handle benefits. The finer dpf leads to - more open weave with reduced stiffness and improved drape. - enhancement of differential dpf properties like lofted yarns. - splitting or shocking of conjugate fibres to Microfibres.
Weight Reduction 2 Techniques for WR 3. WR in Jet machine.( A method used in some places.) Dip batch in( Easy to control.) NaOH x% 1 g/l 130 o C x Pad Roll batching. ( Difficult to control ) 2. WR by Pad Steam IR heat and Steam must be controlled well. The key to success is consistency. => Complete control. Temperature,Time, Purity, Liquor Ratio, Accelerants, Steam, and Excellent Washing. x
Weight Reduction 3 Control for WR % Reduction in Weight can be theoretically calculated. 2 equivalents of NaOH break up one ester monomer unit. Molecular weight of 2 x NaOH = 80 Molecular weight of ester monomer = 192 Machine factors must be used in practice.= f So,%WR = 192 x %NaOH (owf) x f 80 For Pad applications, the pick-up must be accounted for. Typical Fabric % WR Crepe Georgette25-30% Pongee De Chine15% Textured Wovens15% Accelerants must WR in an even or level manner.
NEARGAL DN High performance dispersing agent for Oligomer. Proven performance as a machine cleaner. NEARCLEAR VL Powerful wetter, dispersant, emulsifier and detergent. Proven performance in Reduction Clear. Lifts surface and disperses residues. Weight Reduction C x 20 NEARGAL DN0.5 g/l NEARCLEAR VL 0.5 g/l The WR process creates a rough semi-porous fibre surface, and leaves large amounts of polyester fragments and oligomer on this rough surface. These residues MUST be removed before dyeing.
Dyeing 1 Key Issues The 2 most important factors in dyeing polyester microfibres. Build-up properties. Washfastness. BUILD-UP WASH FASTNESS 1Depth of shade X 1/ fibre dpf. Finer fibres need more dye. 2Dye buildup properties can vary with finer fibres. DYE & AUXILIARY SELECTION 1High dye applications needed. 2Washfastness relates to surface dye. Microfibres have very high surface area. DYE & AUXILIARY SELECTION Problems CausesRemedies
NEARGAL DN High performance dispersing agent for Oligomer and Dye. Proven performance as a machine cleaner and dispersant. NEARCLEAR VL Powerful wetter, dispersant, emulsifier and detergent. Proven performance in Reduction Clear Lifts surface dye and disperses residues. Reduction 92 0 C x 20NEARGAL DN0.5 g/l NEARCLEAR VL 0.5 g/l (& when ready to give up, add..) NEARPON KR0.3 g/l The WR process creates a rough semi-porous fibre surface, which can trap large amounts of surface dye. The high surface area alone creates wash fastness problems for microfibres.
TEXTURE from SHRINKAGE The differential shrinkage of microfibres provides the potential for novel texture effects. Additional Loft.Micromattique XF Peach Skin effect.Medium shrink. Suede effects.High shrink. Emerising and Brushing of these fabrics. Texture Modification 1.1 Emerising 1 EMERISING Raising the microloops created by differential shrinkage, creates a fullness and warmth in the fabric. Emerising is usually done before dyeing, to reduce shade variation, but may be carried out after dyeing on light shades.
Texture Modification 1.2 Emerising 2 EMERISING PROCESS Factors to consider …. Emery grit grade Roller speed and direction. Pressure applied. Cloth tension and run speed. Pad LubricantDryEmerisePost SetWashDye Lubricate with a non permanent softener. Scour & Relax FIRST Dry gently to about 7%. Moisture will moderate the effect. Control of parameters to desired effect. A heat set step may be included for dimensional stability. Wash/Scour to remove lubricant, fluff, and lint. Versatile - wide range of effects. Runs best on filaments. Can damage fabric, spun yarns. Runs about 8 m/min. (Spirotto Rimar / Curtain Herbert) High run rates - tuned to effect. Good for spun yarns. Easy to run continuously. Runs about 15 m/min. (Spirotto Rimar / Sucker Mueller) Single roller Multi roller
BREATHABLE SHOWER PROOF Fabrics Microfibres can form high density woven fabrics that : -block wind effectively, but allow vapour to diffuse through. -allow easy barrier coverage. (Polyurethane or Fluorocarbon.) -maintain appealing drape and handle characteristics. Texture Modification 2 Air Permeable Water Proofs BARRIER Fluorocarbon Repellant. Applied as a standard finish and cured. and / or Polyurethane solution. The application is made from a volatile solvent (DMF, MEK) which is boiled off to leave a porous film. (The film is gas permeable but repels water.) Hoechst Trevira Akzo Sympatex & Sportex
VISCOSE BLENDSLight with excellent drape. High Twist Polyester and Nylon Microfibres blended with Viscose : -much reduced shrinkage. -anticreasing and dimensional stability properties. -tensile strength and durability. Imitation Effects Microfibre enhancement COTTON BLENDSEnhanced TC properties. Polyester Microfibre staple blended with cotton for shirting : -enhanced softness and drape. -enhanced moisture absorbency. -added warmth. WORSTED BLENDSDurability Multi false twisting and air texturising on warp/weft blends produces interlaced (structured) fabrics. These are similar to the felting on worsted and woollen fabrics. Microfibre Suits are available !
Technical Effects 1 Microfibres wick moisture better. This technical effect is due to capillary transport created in the small gaps between many more filaments. This effect, combined with polyester stability and microfibre handle, imparts several unique benefits. 1.Comfort in normal apparel like polyester-cotton. Soft & Dry feeling apparel. Not clammy or sticky. 2.Specialty Sportswear. Rapid drying, and body cooling effects. 3.Towels and Wipes. For cleaning lenses, glasses etc… lint free ! 4.High oil pickup with polyester. R Toraysee & Montefibre Zero4
Technical Effects 2 Microfibres act as barriers to bacteria. This technical effect is due to the small size of the gaps between many filaments, which acts like a filter. This effect, combined with polyester stability and microfibre handle, imparts several unique benefits. 1.Filter Membranes without contamination. 2.Hospital specialty medical wear. 3.Clean room garments, camera bags, instrument covers.. All lint free !
FINISHING 1 Imitiation Silk. Emerised. Air perm / water proof. Cotton/Viscose blends. Worsted blends. Technical Spandex blends. Microfibres naturally have appealing handle features. High softness, greater than cotton or conventional polyester. High degree of drape and fluidity, (this varies with structure). High surface smoothness, (mainly unbrushed filament fabric). Moisture transport that aids coolness and comfort. Microfibres should be finished according to the requirements for the outlet. Silky soft with stenter finish Soften to suit and light post brush. Fluorocarbon / Coating and hot callender. Fashion softener and stenter finish. Wool feel soften and shrink press. Hydrophilic / no softener, light stenter finish. Spandex safe finish, to suit the target market.
1.Exhaust Softener Application (Suitable where a stenter does not have a pad mangle.) Cool to 40 ° C, adjust pH if required. Add softenereg : NEARFINISH MR JET 2% Hold 40°C x 20 min. Drop and hydro-extract. Stenter Finish as below. 2. Pad Softener. (A general process.) Set Stenter frame for width control. Pad ~ 60% PU.eg : NEARFINISH M88 30 g/l ~ 120 o C x 30 Heat Set Finish at correct o C x 30 Process FINISHING 2
SPANDEX requires special consideration. No standard NONIONIC EMULSIFIERS should be used in the finish recipe, including softener emulsions. FINISHING 3 NEARSOPHT BC9Low yellowing, full body cationic. Good for cotton application. NAISTAT 1350Hydrophylic polyester finish. Antistatic, soil release, durable. (Not for dark shades.) NEARFINISH CF 511Hydrophylic elastic silicone. Good for synthetics or cotton towel. Use NEARCAND LT 75 on 2 % owf
FINISHING 4 Nylon Recipe NEARSOPHT BC9 30 g/l NEARCAND LT g/l Polyester Recipe NAISTAT g/lFor full soil release. or NEARFINISH CF g/lDry hydrophilic softness. for dark shades. TC Recipe NEARSOPHT BC9 15 g/l NAISTAT g/l or NEARFINISH CF g/l for dark shades. Some General Recipes : 60% PU
Process Options 1 Light Weight Silk and Rayon Wovens. Desize / Scour & Relax Pre Heat Set Weight Reduce Dye Finish with Dry Mild Set Normal Process Desize / Scour & Relax Pre Heat Set Weight Reduce Dye Finish with Dry Mild Set Simple Process Desize / Scour & Relax Weight Reduce Dye Finish with Full Heat Set Very Simple Process
Example 1 Light Weight Silk Pre-steam if possible. Pad NAISTAT 2% 120 o C then Set at 160 o C x 30. Wash and scour with NEARFIL FAC0.3 g/l NEARPON KR1 g/l NEARCHEL TMC0.5 g/l Rinse, and refill. Weight Reduce to calculated %WR. Use accelerant.~ 1 g/l 90 C, then 95C with NEARGAL DN0.5 g/l NEARCLEAR VL0.5 g/l Hot rinse again until neutral. Dye withNEARGAL DN 1 g/l NEARCHEL TMC 0.5 g/l NEARGAL SD-PElevelling problems. RC as for WR Washing. Finish by 60% PU NEARFINISH M88 20 g/l 120 o C then Set at 160 o C x 40. Heat Set improver Oil Scorch Protector Silicone & Set oil Scour system Dispersing and Washing system. Dispersing, Levelling and Sequestering. Bodied Finish Softener Desize / Scour & Relax Pre Heat Set Weight Reduce Dye Finish with Dry Mild Set Simple Process Wash off RC
Example 2 Sports Wear - Spandex Wash, scour and relax with NEARFIL FAC0.2 g/l NEARPON KR 1 g/l NEARCHEL TMC0.5 g/l LUBRIFIL LAF1.5 g/l Rinse, and refill. Pad NAISTAT 2% 120 o C then Set at 195 o C x 1. Dye withNEARGAL DN 1 g/l NEARCHEL TMC0.5 g/l NEARGAL SD-PElevelling problems. 90 C, then 90 C with NEARCLEAR VL0.5 g/l Hot rinse again Finish by 80 o C NAISTAT 13504% owf 120 o C then Set at 160 o C x 40. Heat Set improver Oil Scorch Protector Silicone & Set oil Scour system Dispersing and Washing system. Dispersing, Levelling and Sequestering. Soft hydrophilic, soil release antistatic finish. Desize / Scour & Relax Pre Heat Set Dye Finish with Dry Mild Set Normal Process RC
The Products The Process The Advantage NEARFIL FACDearationNo foam wetting. LUBRIFIL LAF Heat Setting Efficient & Antiscorch Scour & Dye Scour-Dye & Anticrease NEARPON KR Scour Efficient Cleaning NEARCHEL TMCScourRemoval of soaps DyeingDisaggregator NEARCAND LT 75Setting & FinishReduce scorching BleachWhite nylon NEARGAL DN DyeingDispersant and cleaner. NEARGAL SD-PEDyeingDispersant & Leveler NAISTAT 1350 Heat SettingEfficient & Antiscorch FinishingHydrophilic, soil release NEARFINISH CF 511 FinishingHydrophilic, elastic NEARSOPHT BC9FinishingFull body cationic. NEARFINISH MR JETFinishingBodied effect.