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Writers use certain key words to let us know what is significant in a piece of writing. When we see words such as: "also," "likewise," or "in the same.

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Presentation on theme: "Writers use certain key words to let us know what is significant in a piece of writing. When we see words such as: "also," "likewise," or "in the same."— Presentation transcript:

1 Writers use certain key words to let us know what is significant in a piece of writing. When we see words such as: "also," "likewise," or "in the same way," we know the author is showing us details or qualities that are alike about the subjects of the writing. When we see words such as "however," "otherwise," or "on the other hand," we know the author is telling us about details that are different. When a paragraph describes both the qualities that are alike and the things that are different about the subjects, the author is using what structural form of writing?

2 When you write about how two things are the same you compare them. When you write about how these things are different, you contrast them. A paragraph that does both in using the structural form called compare and contrast.

3 Writers try to let us know what is important in their writing. When we see words such as: "so", "because", "since", or "thus" the author is letting us know that an event has happened because of some other event. One event depends on the other. A paragraph that describes certain events that have come about as a direct result of other events is using what structural form?

4 Cause and effect makes a connection between one event and another event that happens as a direct result.

5 MP3 players have become a problem at Vince Lombardi Middle School. Many teachers have complained that students are bringing MP3 players to school and attempting to listen to them in class. "The earphones are now so small that students think that we will not notice that they are wearing them," said math teacher Marissa Randall. According to social studies teacher Geno Ricci, "The students don't think it's a problem. They listen to the MP3 players when they're with their parents and when they're with their friends. As a result, they've begun to think that not paying attention is normal and paying attention is weird!" Beginning in April, students will no longer be able to bring MP3 players to class or to listen to them in the school during normal school hours. "We are doing this because we want kids to get the best education possible. Some people might think it is an excessive restriction," said Principal Sondra White. "We were slow to react to students bringing cell phones to class. We are not making that mistake twice." Which text structure did the author use to develop the passage?

6 When a passage is organized by cause and effect, the text shows that one event causes another thing to happen. Look for words or phrases like "because," "then," "since," or "as a result."

7 In America, ketchup can be used with food all year long. You can put it on french fries, hot dogs, and hamburgers. Ketchup is a tomato-based sauce that is used for dipping and for flavoring. It is often made from tomatoes, vinegar, corn syrup, salt, and spices. Before ketchup was tomato-based, it was made from different foods. There were ketchups made from mushrooms and walnuts. Even cucumbers, red peppers, and fruits were used. Each of these ingredients gave ketchup a distinct flavor. Identify the text structure of the passage above.

8 The paragraph is organized by using definition. Ketchup is defined as "a tomato- based sauce that is used for dipping and for flavoring." The rest of the paragraph provides more information about how it came to be.

9 The Jeep Cherokee Scrambler is designed to perform under tough conditions. It offers both high protection and high style. This heavy duty mountain bike features a steel/aluminum hard tail frame. Full suspension adds a heavy duty shock absorber to the back wheel. It also features front fork suspension. This bike gives you more comfort and greater control as you attack the trails. It also features 21 speeds, front disc brakes, a headset, plastic pedals, and all-terrain tires. The Jeep MTB-style is padded to keep you comfortable on long rides. How is this passage organized?

10 The text simply describes a situation or a thing. Passages that are organized to describe often use a lot of adjectives.

11 To drill or not to drill: that is the question. Prudhoe Bay in Alaska is home to North America's largest oil field. Many think this would be a prime drilling spot to help the U.S.'s energy crisis. However, the bay is located just west of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Anti-drillers believe that gas prices will not go down with this drilling. They argue that drilling near the wildlife refuge will instead endanger the lives of the animals living there. Many animals will lose their water supply, their food, and their homes. Anti-drillers also claim that the amount of oil under the bay will only satisfy the nation's oil needs for six months. Anti-drillers have been arguing against Prudhoe Bay drilling for over 30 years. How is this passage organized?

12 The selection describes the causes and effects of drilling oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The author does not propose solutions, but simply shows the argument against drilling for oil in the Arctic.

13 Two strong black men were on the front lines of the civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X both believed in equality for all people. However, they argued their shared goal in very different ways. King believed in a nonviolent approach to change. He wanted to keep the peace and fight for rights through speech and peaceful action. Malcolm X argued that sometimes violence was necessary. He believed that all people of color needed to fight for equality through whatever means necessary. He did not believe that speeches and other peaceful urgings were going to change the world. The selection above uses its text structure to:

14 The passage describes the similarities and differences between the way Malcolm X believed the struggle for civil rights should be and the way Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. believed it should be. It doesn't make any judgments on which method was better or worse.

15 In the candy business, Chocolateers and Mr. Choco Late the top makers of chocolate are rivals. Both of the companies do their best to make the best possible tasting candy. They search for the best cacao beans to use in their chocolate. Plus, they take all the time to make the candy perfect while the other candy makers choose to cut corners. Although they believe in the same methods, they try to make their candies different. The Chocolateers use special vanilla beans and berry flavors. These flavors satisfy people who have a taste for fruits. In contrast, Mr. Choco Late adds hints of mint and coconut into some of its recipes. The mint gives a burst of freshness while the coconut gives a tropical taste. Although Chocolateers' and Mr. Choco Late's flavors are very different, both claim to be better than other. Which of the following best describes how the passage is organized?

16 There are two companies being compared and contrasted in the passage: Chocolateers and Mr. Choco Late. To show this, the author highlights what each company has in common and how they differ from one another.

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