Introduction3 Foodborne illness –Caused by eating contaminated food or drink. Each year there are: –48 million Americans (1 in 6) who get sick, –128,000 who are hospitalized, and –3,000 who die from foodborne illness.
What foods cause foodborne illness? Any food that is prepared and served in schools can cause foodborne illness if not handled safely. Safely handle food from the time it is received until the time it is served. Introduction4
Unsafe Food Handling Practices Using food from unsafe (unapproved) sources. Not cooking foods to temperatures noted on the standardized recipes. Holding foods at unsafe temperatures for more than four hours. Improperly cleaning and sanitizing equipment after it has become contaminated. Not properly washing hands when handling food. Handling food while sick. Introduction5
Potentially Hazardous Foods Potentially hazardous foods must be held at 41 o F or colder or 135 o F or hotter. They will be labeled: –No cook –Same day –Complex Foods that are labeled Non-Potentially Hazardous do not need to be kept a temperature control. Introduction6
7 The Safe Operator
Reporting Foodborne Illness If you have any one of these symptoms, tell your manager before reporting to work: Diarrhea Vomiting Fever Sore throat with fever Jaundice The Safe Operator8
9 Reporting Foodborne Illness If a health care professional has told you that you have a foodborne illness caused by one of the following, tell your manager immediately: Hepatitis A virus Norovirus E. coli 0157:H7 Salmonella Typhi Shigella spp.
The Safe Operator10 Basics of Handwashing 1.Wet your hands with warm water. 2.Put enough liquid, powder, or bar soap on your hands to create a lather; it does not have to be antibacterial. 3.Scrub for at least 15 secondsrub palms, between fingers, and around nails. 4.Rinse thoroughly under warm water. 5.Dry your hands with disposable towels (preferred) or a hand dryer. 6.Instant hand antiseptic is not required
Demonstration Glo-Germ 11
Always wash your hands: When switching from raw to ready-to-eat food. After handling garbage. After touching your cell phone or handling other personal belongings. After using the bathroom. After coughing, sneezing, smoking, eating, or drinking. After touching face or hair. After handling dirty equipment or utensils. When else should you wash your hands? The Safe Operator12
The Safe Operator13 Fingernails Fingernails (real or artificial) and nail polish can be physical hazards. Keep nails trimmed and filed. Workers cannot wear fingernail polish or false fingernails.
The Safe Operator14 Cover cuts, wounds, and sores Do not handle food if you have a sore that has pus or is infected unless it is bandaged and covered. Cover affected area with a bandage, a finger cot, and then cover with a non- latex, single-use glove.
The Safe Operator15 Bare-hand Contact No bare-hand contact of exposed ready-to-eat food. Ready-to-eat food (RTE) includes: –Cooked food –Raw fruits and vegetables –Baked goods –Canned food –Snack foods –Beverages Alternatives to no bare-hand contact –Single-use gloves –Utensils –Deli wraps
When Can You Use Bare Hands? There are times when you can touch food with your bare hands, such as when: –Handling raw foods before they are cooked. –Capping containers of food. –Pinching rolls. –Restocking and stocking packaged foods. When else can you touch foods with bare hands? The Safe Operator
17 Single-use Gloves Single-use gloves are an alternative to bare hand contact. Wear non-latex gloves because latex gloves might cause an allergic reaction in some workers.
Changing Gloves Change gloves: –when they tear; –when you handle a different food –when you touch a dirty surface; –when going from a nonfood preparation task to a food preparation task, –after cleaning tables, scraping, or washing dirty dishes and utensils, –after four hours of constant use with the same type of food item. Once you take them off, throw them out – never reuse single-use gloves. The Safe Operator18
Examples of Single-Use Gloves Do you wash your hands before putting on gloves? How do you remove your gloves? Where do you store your gloves? The Safe Operator19
Demonstration Taking Off Single-use Gloves 20
Clothes Your clothes can contaminate food so wear: –clean clothes – if wearing long sleeves pull up to three- quarter length –District-approved hair restraint It is best to change into your uniform shirt when you get to work. The Safe Operator21
Jewelry While preparing food, never wear jewelry on your forearms and hands. –This includes medical information jewelry and watches. –The only exception is a plain wedding band. Follow your Districts policy for wearing other jewelry. The Safe Operator22
The Safe Operator23 Other Policies When handling food, never smoke, chew gum, or eat food You can drink from a covered container with a straw, a small-neck bottle, or a can. Store all drinks away from food preparation/service areas.
24 Activity The Safe Operator -- Right or Wrong?
The Safe Operator25 Right or Wrong?
The Safe Operator26 Right or Wrong?
The Safe Operator27 Right or Wrong?
How do you use these thermometers? Thermometers29
Which is the best way to store your food thermometers? Where do you store food thermometers at your school? Thermometers
Checking the Accuracy of Food Thermometers Check the accuracy of all metal-stem food thermometers: first thing in the morning and every time the thermometer is dropped. Use the ice-point method to check accuracy. If not correct, calibrate. Thermometers31
Ice-Point Method Steps Fill large container with crushed ice. If only cube ice is available, crush it. Add clean tap water until the container is full. Place thermometer into water so sensing area is completely covered. Wait thirty seconds until you have a stable reading. If you need to calibrate, hold calibration nut securely with a wrench or other tool. Thermometer must read 32 o F. Thermometers32
Demonstration Calibrating a Food Thermometer 33
Digital Thermometers Most digital and thermocouples cannot be calibrated in-house. –If your digital thermometer is off more than 2 o F, throw it out. –Return thermocouples to manufacturer for recalibration. Thermometers34
Temperature Calibration Log Introduction35
Hot-holding Temperatures Hot-holding cabinet must be at least 150 o F before any food placed inside. –Maintaining foods at 180 o F results in dry foods and wastes energy. –Proofing cabinets cannot be used for holding foods. At a minimum, periodically check the serving line temperatures for quality but not for safety. Equipment36
Inspect before You Accept Spot check delivery vehicles to be sure they are clean. Use an infrared thermometer to check the surface temperature of potentially hazardous foods. Receiving38
Monitoring during Receiving Receiving
Accepting Cans No swollen ends, leaks, rusts or dents Label can be read and is attached to product No signs of tampering or counterfeiting Not past the date stamped on the label Receiving40
Receiving41 Are these acceptable?
43 Temperature of Storage Units Refrigeration –Must keep food at 41 o F or colder –Air temperature should be 39 o F or colder Freezer –Must keep food at 0 o F or colder –Air temperature should be 0 o F or colder Dry storage –Best if temperature is between 50 o F and 70 o F –Humidity level should be between 50% and 60%
Demonstration Practice Recording Information on Storage Equipment Forms Storage
46 First In, First Out (FIFO) Past-dated foods will lose their quality and sometimes become unsafe. FIFO ensures proper rotation of foods in storage. When foods are received, put the oldest in the front and the newest in the back.
How to Label Dry storage: –Write month, day, and year on the package with a dark permanent marker –Example: 8/11/09, which means August 11, Storage47
How To Label Refrigerator and Freezer Storage: –Write month, day and year on the package with a dark permanent maker –Example:8/31/09, which means August 31, 2009 Storage48
Storage49 Cross-contamination in Storage Bacteria can be transferred from one food to another if food is not properly stored. Properly cover foods. Do not cover hot food while it is being cooled. Store raw food below cooked or ready-to-eat food.
Storage50 Storage Containers Food that is removed from its original package must be stored in a durable storage container. All containers must be food- grade. –No bread bags or used glass jars –What other containers cannot be used for food storage? Label the side of the container with the name of the food.
51 Activity Storage – Right or Wrong?
Storage52 Storage – Right or Wrong?
Storage53 Storage – Right or Wrong?
Storage54 Storage – Right or Wrong?
56 Thawing Improperly thawed food can support the growth of bacteria. Safe methods of thawing are: –in the refrigerator (best way) –during cooking (good way) –In a microwave oven –Under cold running water
Preparation57 Washing Produce Put all uncut produce in a clean colander before washing in the sink. Wash under lukewarm water before: –cutting –combining with other ingredients –cooking –offering for immediate consumption After washing, store at 41 o F or colder for best quality.
Cooling – Room Temperature Foods Preparation58 Some potentially hazardous foods are made from ingredients that are stored at room temperature. These foods are not cooked but require cooling after preparation. Examples of menu items include: –Tuna salad –Chicken salad –Melons Refrigerate all ingredients the day before you assemble them.
Cooking Temperatures Cook all potentially hazardous foods to the temperature noted on the standardized recipe or procedure. Cooking is a critical control point (CCP) for all menu items labeled Same Day or Complex. Commercially processed foods that are labeled fully cooked only need to be cooked to 135 o F or hotter. k Preparation59
Standardized Recipe Preparation60
Sensing Areas of Thermometers Metal-stem ThermometerDigital Thermometer Preparation61
Preparation62 Measuring Cooked Food Temperatures Remove thermometer from its case and sanitize before taking the first temperature. Sanitize by: –Using an alcohol swab or –Immersing in a sanitizing solution Insert sensing portion of thermometer into product at two different places in the middle of the pan. Always clean the probe after taking both temperatures by wiping off with a clean paper towel. Sanitize before putting thermometer back into its case.
Demonstration Cleaning and Sanitizing Thermometer Probe before Use 63Preparation
Measuring Cooking Temperatures Batch cooking – cooking an amount of food in the same equipment at one time: –Steamer –Ovens, including combination ovens and pizza ovens –Kettles and braising pans –Fryers –Ranges/stovetop Batch cooking – chicken nuggets –Measure temperature of each batch at two points. –Record the lowest temperature of the first batch on the Daily Production Record. Preparation64
Cook all at once – lasagna Measure temperature in the middle of each pan. Record lowest temperature on the Daily Production Record. Liquids -- chili Stir food thoroughly. Measure temperature at two points in the middle of the pan. Record lowest temperature on the Daily Production Record. Measuring Cooking Temperatures Preparation
How to Take Food Temperatures Preparation
Recording Cooked Food Temperatures 1.Record the lowest safe temperature of the first batch on the Daily Production Record. 2.Temp all batches as they are removed from temperature control but do not record. Preparation67
Thermometer Sleeves Never put a dirty thermometer back in to its sleeve. The inside of the sleeve can become contaminated and they are very difficult to clean and sanitize. If they become contaminated, you must clean by immersing in the three-compartment sink and then immersing in sanitizing solution. Preparation
Leftovers Temperature must be 135 o F or hotter, or 41 0 F or colder to be a safe leftover. Leftovers on a self-service bar and not packaged must be thrown out. Leftovers on the serving line are refrigerated and thrown out in 3 days. Leftovers that have been prepared but not placed on a serving line can be frozen for up to one menu cycle or 30 days, whichever comes first. Preparation69
Where Record on Production Record
Cooling Leftovers Preparation71
Cooling Complex Foods Examples of Complex Foods include: –Pork roast –Turkey roast The temperature of foods labeled Complex Foods must be checked every hour during cooling. The temperature must be recorded on the Complex Cooling Log. Preparation72
Complex Cooling Log Preparation
Storage of Leftovers The temperature of leftovers cannot be monitored properly so limit the amount of leftovers. Cover leftovers and label with the food name and date of preparation. Check temperature before leaving and write the temperature and time on the label. Preparation74
Preparation75 Reheating Foods Reheat all food that has been cooked in house and then cooled to at least 165 o F for 15 seconds. The total time to reheat a food must not be more than two hours. After second reheat, the remaining food must be thrown out. If you throw out foods, record this on the Daily Production Record under comments.
77 Holding Temperatures during Serving Keep food at proper temperatures: –Cold-holding – 41 o F or colder –Hot-holding – 135 o F or hotter Check temperature before placing any new food on the serving line.
Re-serving Food Once food touches a student's tray it has been served. Only packaged foods can be re-served, such as: –packaged cookies –cartons of milk –ice cream bars –juice boxes. Service78
Re-serving Food If a student places a packaged food on his or her tray but cannot pay for it, the food can be recovered by the cashier and re-served. If a student pays for the item, leaves the serving line, and then wants to return the item, it can not be re-served. It must be thrown out. Service79
Salad Bars All unpackaged foods on a self-service salad bar must be thrown out at the end of service. Packaged foods can be re- served if they are at proper temperatures. To minimize waste, put smaller amounts on the salad bar. Service80
81 Cleaning and Sanitizing
82 Cleaning and Sanitizing Cleaning -- removing food and dirt from a surface. Sanitizing – decreasing the number of microorganisms that are on a properly cleaned surface to a level that will not make one sick.
Cleaning and Sanitizing83 High-temperature Dishmachines Final sanitizing rinse must be 180 o F or hotter Measure water temperature at the manifold. Record your observation on Daily Operation Inspection form.
Daily Operation Inspection
Cleaning and Sanitizing85 Three-compartment sink 1. Wash -- Water temperature at least 110 o F 2.Rinse -- Water temperature at least 110 o F 3.Sanitize -- c ool to lukewarm water if using chemicals – 75 to 120 o F Air-dry -- Do not hand dry. Dry on shelves 6 inches off of the floor. Never mix chemical sanitizers with washing water detergents
Cleaning and Sanitizing86 Measuring Sanitizer Strength A test kit that accurately measures the concentration of sanitizing solutions must be available. The strength of sanitizing solutions must be measured frequently during the day. Record reading on the Daily Operation Inspection form.
Cleaning and Sanitizing87 Food-Contact Surface All food-contact surface must cleaned and sanitized after becoming contaminated. Examples include: –utensils, –cutting –boards, –slicers, –countertops, –refrigerator shelves
Cleaning Food-Contact Surfaces Immersion –Wash with dish detergent. –Rinse thoroughly. –Immerse in a properly prepared sanitizing solution. Cleaning and Sanitizing88
In-place Sanitizing All food contact surfaces that cannot be removed are washed and rinsed. Spray or wipe surfaces properly with a prepared sanitizing solution. All parts are air-dried the reassembled. Food contact surfaces touched with bare-hands during reassembly must be sanitized again. Cleaning and Sanitizing89
Cleaning and Sanitizing90 Cleaning Non-Food Contact Surfaces Non-food contact surfaces: –exterior of refrigerator, stovetops, and refrigerator gaskets. Wash with detergent and rinse but do not need to sanitize. Keep free of dirt, dust, and debris.
Cleaning and Sanitizing91 Storing Cleaned and Sanitized Items Store in a clean, dry location Not exposed to splash, dust, or other contamination At least 6 inches above the floor In a self-draining position Covered or inverted
Cleaning and Sanitizing92 Chemicals Store separate from food, equipment, utensils, linen, and single-service and single-use items. If removed from their original package, label the container in which they are stored. Do not label lids. Mark chemicals with an X to help those who cannot read.
Cleaning and Sanitizing93 Material Safety Data Sheets OSHA requires a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for all chemicals. On every MSDS, be familiar with the following sections: –4.0 Fire and explosion data –5.0 Reactivity data –6.0 Spill or leak procedures –7.0 Health hazard data –8.0 First aid –9.0 Protective measures –10.0 Additional information/precautions Highlight important information on the MSDS.
Material Safety Data Sheet Cleaning and Sanitizing94 Product Name Emergency Contact Information Chemical Ingredient List First Aid Procedures PPE