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Training for Foodservice Workers Updated: February 2011

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1 Training for Foodservice Workers Updated: February 2011
HACCP in SC Schools Training for Foodservice Workers Updated: February 2011

2 Prepared by: Angela Fraser, Ph.D., Food Safety Specialist
Amanda Henderson, Nutrition and Dietetics Student Clemson University, SC Gregg Ferguson, MBA, Education Associate SC Department of Education Pam Vaughan, Child Nutrition Director Darlington County Schools, SC © 2010 Clemson University. These materials are protected by United States copyright law and may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, displayed or published without the express prior written permission of Clemson University. The Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service offers its programs to people of all ages, regardless of race, color, sex, religion, national origin, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital or family status and is an equal opportunity employer.

3 Foodborne illness Foodborne illness Each year there are:
Caused by eating contaminated food or drink.  Each year there are: 48 million Americans (1 in 6) who get sick, 128,000 who are hospitalized, and 3,000 who die from foodborne illness. Mead, P.S., L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L.F. McCaig, J.S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P.M. Griffin, and R.V. Tauxe Food-related illness and death in the U.S. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5: Complete publication available on-line at Introduction

4 What foods cause foodborne illness?
Any food that is prepared and served in schools can cause foodborne illness if not handled safely. Safely handle food from the time it is received until the time it is served. Introduction

5 Unsafe Food Handling Practices
Using food from unsafe (unapproved) sources. Not cooking foods to temperatures noted on the standardized recipes. Holding foods at unsafe temperatures for more than four hours. Improperly cleaning and sanitizing equipment after it has become contaminated. Not properly washing hands when handling food. Handling food while sick. Introduction

6 Potentially Hazardous Foods
Potentially hazardous foods must be held at 41oF or colder or 135oF or hotter. They will be labeled: No cook Same day Complex Foods that are labeled Non-Potentially Hazardous do not need to be kept a temperature control. Introduction

7 The Safe Operator

8 Reporting Foodborne Illness
If you have any one of these symptoms, tell your manager before reporting to work: Diarrhea Vomiting Fever Sore throat with fever Jaundice The Safe Operator

9 Reporting Foodborne Illness
If a health care professional has told you that you have a foodborne illness caused by one of the following, tell your manager immediately: Hepatitis A virus Norovirus E. coli 0157:H7 Salmonella Typhi Shigella spp. The Safe Operator

10 Basics of Handwashing Wet your hands with warm water.
Put enough liquid, powder, or bar soap on your hands to create a lather; it does not have to be antibacterial. Scrub for at least 15 seconds—rub palms, between fingers, and around nails. Rinse thoroughly under warm water. Dry your hands with disposable towels (preferred) or a hand dryer. Instant hand antiseptic is not required The Safe Operator

11 Demonstration Glo-Germ

12 Always wash your hands:
When switching from raw to ready-to-eat food. After handling garbage. After touching your cell phone or handling other personal belongings. After using the bathroom. After coughing, sneezing, smoking, eating, or drinking. After touching face or hair. After handling dirty equipment or utensils. When else should you wash your hands? The Safe Operator

13 Fingernails Fingernails (real or artificial) and nail polish can be physical hazards. Keep nails trimmed and filed. Workers cannot wear fingernail polish or false fingernails. The Safe Operator

14 Cover cuts, wounds, and sores
Do not handle food if you have a sore that has pus or is infected unless it is bandaged and covered. Cover affected area with a bandage, a finger cot, and then cover with a non- latex, single-use glove. The Safe Operator

15 Bare-hand Contact No bare-hand contact of exposed ready-to-eat food. Ready-to-eat food (RTE) includes: Cooked food Raw fruits and vegetables Baked goods Canned food Snack foods Beverages Alternatives to no bare-hand contact Single-use gloves Utensils Deli wraps The Safe Operator

16 When Can You Use Bare Hands?
There are times when you can touch food with your bare hands, such as when: Handling raw foods before they are cooked. Capping containers of food. Pinching rolls. Restocking and stocking packaged foods. When else can you touch foods with bare hands? The Safe Operator

17 Single-use Gloves Single-use gloves are an alternative to bare hand contact. Wear non-latex gloves because latex gloves might cause an allergic reaction in some workers. The Safe Operator

18 Changing Gloves Change gloves:
when they tear; when you handle a different food when you touch a dirty surface; when going from a nonfood preparation task to a food preparation task, after cleaning tables, scraping, or washing dirty dishes and utensils, after four hours of constant use with the same type of food item. Once you take them off, throw them out – never reuse single-use gloves. The Safe Operator

19 Examples of Single-Use Gloves
Do you wash your hands before putting on gloves? How do you remove your gloves? Where do you store your gloves? The Safe Operator

20 Taking Off Single-use Gloves
Demonstration Taking Off Single-use Gloves

21 Clothes Your clothes can contaminate food so wear:
clean clothes – if wearing long sleeves pull up to three-quarter length District-approved hair restraint It is best to change into your uniform shirt when you get to work. The Safe Operator

22 Jewelry While preparing food, never wear jewelry on your forearms and hands. This includes medical information jewelry and watches. The only exception is a plain wedding band. Follow your District’s policy for wearing other jewelry. The Safe Operator

23 Other Policies When handling food, never smoke, chew gum, or eat food
You can drink from a covered container with a straw, a small-neck bottle, or a can. Store all drinks away from food preparation/service areas. The Safe Operator

24 The Safe Operator -- Right or Wrong?
Activity The Safe Operator -- Right or Wrong? ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS: Show the following slides to the participants and have them determine if the situation is right or wrong?

25 Right or Wrong? The Safe Operator
Wrong. Worker wearing a dirty apron that has meat juice and other debris on it. She also has long loose sleeves which could collect debris as well as catch on fire. The Safe Operator

26 Right or Wrong? The Safe Operator
Right. She is wearing gloves and using a utensil to dispense food so there is no bare-hand contact between her and the food. The Safe Operator

27 Right or Wrong? The Safe Operator
Wrong. An employee may drink from a closed beverage container if the container is handled to prevent contamination of the employee’s hands, the container, and exposed food, clean equipment, utensils, linens, unwrapped single-service and single-use articles. The drink must be stored in a location away from food production and dishwashing. Each manager should designate one area where workers can drink their beverages. The Safe Operator

28 Thermometers

29 How do you use these thermometers?
Infrared – taking receiving temperatures Refrigerator thermometer – place one in each refrigerator near the front door on the second or third shelf from the top. Digital thermometer – internal temperatures of food temperatures Metal-stem thermometers – internal temperatures of food Thermometers

30 Which is the best way to store your food thermometers?
Where do you store food thermometers at your school? Food thermometers should be stored in a container so that they are stationary during storage. Each time a thermometer is moved, it can affect the temperature reading. Thermometers that are stored loose in a drawer are much less accurate and so would need to be calibrated more frequently than those that are stored in a container. Thermometers

31 Checking the Accuracy of Food Thermometers
Check the accuracy of all metal-stem food thermometers: first thing in the morning and every time the thermometer is dropped. Use the ice-point method to check accuracy. If not correct, calibrate. Thermometers

32 Ice-Point Method Steps
Fill large container with crushed ice. If only cube ice is available, crush it. Add clean tap water until the container is full. Place thermometer into water so sensing area is completely covered. Wait thirty seconds until you have a stable reading. If you need to calibrate, hold calibration nut securely with a wrench or other tool. Thermometer must read 32oF. Thermometers

33 Calibrating a Food Thermometer
Demonstration Calibrating a Food Thermometer Demonstrate how to calibrate a metal-stem thermometer. Also, demonstrate how to crush ice if cube ice is only available.

34 Digital Thermometers Most digital and thermocouples cannot be calibrated in-house. If your digital thermometer is off more than 2oF, throw it out. Return thermocouples to manufacturer for recalibration. Thermometers

35 Temperature Calibration Log

36 Hot-holding Temperatures
Hot-holding cabinet must be at least 150oF before any food placed inside. Maintaining foods at 180oF results in dry foods and wastes energy. Proofing cabinets cannot be used for holding foods. At a minimum, periodically check the serving line temperatures for quality but not for safety. Equipment

37 Receiving

38 Inspect before You Accept
Spot check delivery vehicles to be sure they are clean. Use an infrared thermometer to check the surface temperature of potentially hazardous foods. Receiving

39 Monitoring during Receiving

40 Accepting Cans No swollen ends, leaks, rusts or dents
Label can be read and is attached to product No signs of tampering or counterfeiting Not past the date stamped on the label Receiving

41 Are these acceptable? Receiving
No– bulging ends is usually a sign of underprocessing. Underprocessing means that C. botulinum spores might not have been properly destroyed. Sharp dents, leaks, and rust could promote the creation of small pin holes. If a pin hole exists, then bacteria and other external contaminants could contaminate the contents of the can making it unsafe. If bacteria should enter a food through a pin hole, it could rapidly grow because canned foods are stored in the temperature danger zone – between 50 and 70 degrees F. Receiving

42 Storage

43 Temperature of Storage Units
Refrigeration Must keep food at 41oF or colder Air temperature should be 39oF or colder Freezer Must keep food at 0oF or colder Air temperature should be 0oF or colder Dry storage Best if temperature is between 50oF and 70oF Humidity level should be between 50% and 60% Storage

44 Monitoring Equipment Temperatures
Daily -- Refrigerator Inspection Daily -- Freezer Inspection Daily – Hot-holding Unit Daily -- Storeroom Storage

45 Practice Recording Information on Storage Equipment Forms
Demonstration Practice Recording Information on Storage Equipment Forms Storage

46 First In, First Out (FIFO)
Past-dated foods will lose their quality and sometimes become unsafe. FIFO ensures proper rotation of foods in storage. When foods are received, put the oldest in the front and the newest in the back. Storage

47 How to Label Dry storage:
Write month, day, and year on the package with a dark permanent marker Example: 8/11/09, which means August 11, 2009. Storage

48 How To Label Refrigerator and Freezer Storage:
Write month, day and year on the package with a dark permanent maker Example:8/31/09, which means August 31, 2009 Storage

49 Cross-contamination in Storage
Bacteria can be transferred from one food to another if food is not properly stored. Properly cover foods. Do not cover hot food while it is being cooled. Store raw food below cooked or ready-to-eat food. Storage

50 Storage Containers Food that is removed from its original package must be stored in a durable storage container. All containers must be food-grade. No bread bags or used glass jars What other containers cannot be used for food storage? Label the side of the container with the name of the food. Storage

51 Storage – Right or Wrong?
Activity Storage – Right or Wrong? ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS: Show the program participants the following slides and have them determine if the storage situation is right or wrong.

52 Storage – Right or Wrong?
Wrong – personal belongings stored in a messy storeroom. Personal belongings need to be stored in a designated area away from food production, food storage, and dishwashing. The wooden shelves can be used if properly painted. All storage shelves must be smooth and easily cleanable. If the wooden shelves are not painted then they would not be classified as smooth and easily cleanable and so the operator would be docked points on their inspection. Storage

53 Storage – Right or Wrong?
Wrong -- because storing chemicals with foods. Chemicals must be completely separated from food items. Storage

54 Storage – Right or Wrong?
Right and Wrong – boxes of fruit need to be at least six inches off of the floor. Bins of food are covered but must be properly labeled on the side with the contents. Storage

55 Preparation

56 Thawing Improperly thawed food can support the growth of bacteria.
Safe methods of thawing are: in the refrigerator (best way) during cooking (good way) In a microwave oven Under cold running water Preparation

57 Washing Produce Put all uncut produce in a clean colander before washing in the sink. Wash under lukewarm water before: cutting combining with other ingredients cooking offering for immediate consumption After washing, store at 41oF or colder for best quality. Preparation

58 Cooling – Room Temperature Foods
Some potentially hazardous foods are made from ingredients that are stored at room temperature. These foods are not cooked but require cooling after preparation. Examples of menu items include: Tuna salad Chicken salad Melons Refrigerate all ingredients the day before you assemble them. Preparation

59 Cooking Temperatures Cook all potentially hazardous foods to the temperature noted on the standardized recipe or procedure. Cooking is a critical control point (CCP) for all menu items labeled “Same Day” or “Complex.” Commercially processed foods that are labeled “fully cooked” only need to be cooked to 135oF or hotter. k Preparation

60 Standardized Recipe Preparation

61 Sensing Areas of Thermometers
Metal-stem Thermometer Digital Thermometer Preparation

62 Measuring Cooked Food Temperatures
Remove thermometer from its case and sanitize before taking the first temperature. Sanitize by: Using an alcohol swab or Immersing in a sanitizing solution Insert sensing portion of thermometer into product at two different places in the middle of the pan. Always clean the probe after taking both temperatures by wiping off with a clean paper towel. Sanitize before putting thermometer back into its case. Preparation

63 Cleaning and Sanitizing Thermometer Probe before Use
Demonstration Cleaning and Sanitizing Thermometer Probe before Use Preparation

64 Measuring Cooking Temperatures
Batch cooking – cooking an amount of food in the same equipment at one time: Steamer Ovens, including combination ovens and pizza ovens Kettles and braising pans Fryers Ranges/stovetop Batch cooking – chicken nuggets Measure temperature of each batch at two points. Record the lowest temperature of the first batch on the Daily Production Record. Preparation

65 Measuring Cooking Temperatures
Cook all at once – lasagna Measure temperature in the middle of each pan. Record lowest temperature on the Daily Production Record. Liquids -- chili Stir food thoroughly. Measure temperature at two points in the middle of the pan. Preparation

66 How to Take Food Temperatures

67 Recording Cooked Food Temperatures
Record the lowest safe temperature of the first batch on the Daily Production Record. Temp all batches as they are removed from temperature control but do not record. Preparation

68 Thermometer Sleeves Never put a dirty thermometer back in to its sleeve. The inside of the sleeve can become contaminated and they are very difficult to clean and sanitize. If they become contaminated, you must clean by immersing in the three-compartment sink and then immersing in sanitizing solution. Preparation

69 Leftovers Temperature must be 135oF or hotter, or 410F or colder to be a safe leftover. Leftovers on a self-service bar and not packaged must be thrown out. Leftovers on the serving line are refrigerated and thrown out in 3 days. Leftovers that have been prepared but not placed on a serving line can be frozen for up to one menu cycle or 30 days, whichever comes first. Preparation

70 Where Record on Production Record

71 Cooling Leftovers Preparation

72 Cooling Complex Foods Examples of “Complex Foods” include:
Pork roast Turkey roast The temperature of foods labeled “Complex Foods” must be checked every hour during cooling. The temperature must be recorded on the Complex Cooling Log. Preparation

73 Complex Cooling Log Preparation

74 Storage of Leftovers The temperature of leftovers cannot be monitored properly so limit the amount of leftovers. Cover leftovers and label with the food name and date of preparation. Check temperature before leaving and write the temperature and time on the label. Preparation

75 Reheating Foods Reheat all food that has been cooked in house and then cooled to at least 165oF for 15 seconds. The total time to reheat a food must not be more than two hours. After second reheat, the remaining food must be thrown out. If you throw out foods, record this on the Daily Production Record under comments. Preparation

76 Service

77 Holding Temperatures during Serving
Keep food at proper temperatures: Cold-holding – 41oF or colder Hot-holding – 135oF or hotter Check temperature before placing any new food on the serving line. Service

78 Re-serving Food Once food touches a student's tray it has been served.
Only packaged foods can be re-served, such as:   packaged cookies cartons of milk ice cream bars juice boxes.   Service

79 Re-serving Food If a student places a packaged food on his or her tray but cannot pay for it, the food can be recovered by the cashier and re-served. If a student pays for the item, leaves the serving line, and then wants to return the item, it can not be re-served. It must be thrown out. Service

80 Salad Bars All unpackaged foods on a self-service salad bar must be thrown out at the end of service. Packaged foods can be re-served if they are at proper temperatures. To minimize waste, put smaller amounts on the salad bar. Service

81 Cleaning and Sanitizing

82 Cleaning and Sanitizing
Cleaning -- removing food and dirt from a surface. Sanitizing – decreasing the number of microorganisms that are on a properly cleaned surface to a level that will not make one sick. Cleaning and Sanitizing

83 High-temperature Dishmachines
Final sanitizing rinse must be 180oF or hotter Measure water temperature at the manifold. Record your observation on Daily Operation Inspection form. Cleaning and Sanitizing

84 Daily Operation Inspection

85 Three-compartment sink
1. Wash -- Water temperature at least 110oF Rinse -- Water temperature at least 110oF Sanitize -- cool to lukewarm water if using chemicals – 75 to 120oF -- 4. Air-dry -- Do not hand dry. Dry on shelves 6 inches off of the floor. Never mix chemical sanitizers with washing water detergents Cleaning and Sanitizing

86 Measuring Sanitizer Strength
A test kit that accurately measures the concentration of sanitizing solutions must be available. The strength of sanitizing solutions must be measured frequently during the day. Record reading on the Daily Operation Inspection form. . Cleaning and Sanitizing

87 Cleaning and Sanitizing
Food-Contact Surface All food-contact surface must cleaned and sanitized after becoming contaminated. Examples include: utensils, cutting boards, slicers, countertops, refrigerator shelves Cleaning and Sanitizing

88 Cleaning Food-Contact Surfaces
Immersion Wash with dish detergent. Rinse thoroughly. Immerse in a properly prepared sanitizing solution. Cleaning and Sanitizing

89 Cleaning and Sanitizing
In-place Sanitizing All food contact surfaces that cannot be removed are washed and rinsed. Spray or wipe surfaces properly with a prepared sanitizing solution. All parts are air-dried the reassembled. Food contact surfaces touched with bare-hands during reassembly must be sanitized again. Cleaning and Sanitizing

90 Cleaning Non-Food Contact Surfaces
exterior of refrigerator, stovetops, and refrigerator gaskets. Wash with detergent and rinse but do not need to sanitize. Keep free of dirt, dust, and debris. Cleaning and Sanitizing

91 Storing Cleaned and Sanitized Items
Store in a clean, dry location Not exposed to splash, dust, or other contamination At least 6 inches above the floor In a self-draining position Covered or inverted Cleaning and Sanitizing

92 Cleaning and Sanitizing
Chemicals Store separate from food, equipment, utensils, linen, and single-service and single-use items. If removed from their original package, label the container in which they are stored. Do not label lids. Mark chemicals with an “X” to help those who cannot read. . Cleaning and Sanitizing

93 Material Safety Data Sheets
OSHA requires a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for all chemicals. On every MSDS, be familiar with the following sections: 4.0 Fire and explosion data 5.0 Reactivity data 6.0 Spill or leak procedures 7.0 Health hazard data 8.0 First aid 9.0 Protective measures 10.0 Additional information/precautions Highlight important information on the MSDS. Cleaning and Sanitizing

94 Material Safety Data Sheet
Product Name Emergency Contact Information Chemical Ingredient List First Aid Procedures PPE Cleaning and Sanitizing

95 The End! Thank you. Questions?

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