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Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs Modeling Dietary Pesticide Exposure Using Consumption and Pesticide Residue Survey Data Aaron Niman,

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Presentation on theme: "Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs Modeling Dietary Pesticide Exposure Using Consumption and Pesticide Residue Survey Data Aaron Niman,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs Modeling Dietary Pesticide Exposure Using Consumption and Pesticide Residue Survey Data Aaron Niman, LT (USPHS) Office of Pesticide Programs | Health Effects Division U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Health Category Day 2011 COA Conference, New Orleans, LA June 20-23, 2010 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs

2 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs Objectives 1.Provide overview of U.S. EPAs Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) and regulatory role in food safety 2.Introduce OPPs dietary exposure assessment methodology – Approach – Dietary Models – Key National Surveys 3.Describe recent efforts to update OPPs Food Commodity Intake Database 2

3 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs Roughly 700 Staff and Annual Budget ~150 Million USD 4 Risk Assessment Divisions 2 Risk Management Divisions Communications & Stakeholder Engagement Economic and Lab Analysis IT Support 3 Antimicrobials Health Effects Environmental Fate & Effects Biopesticides & Pollution Prevention Biological & Economic Analysis Registration Pesticide Re-Evaluation Field & External Affairs IT Office Director

4 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs Major OPP Regulatory Statutes Federal StatuteOPP Authority Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Established U.S. EPA as pesticide licensing agency Established risk/benefit standard for registering pesticide products Grants U.S. EPA strong authority to obtain toxicity and exposure data from pesticide registrants Grants U.S. EPA ability to regulate labels and packaging Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) Grants U.S. EPA authority to establish pesticide tolerances for foods and feeds Requires that FDA and USDA monitor and enforce tolerances 4

5 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs Major OPP Regulatory Statutes Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 Amended both FIFRA and FFDCA Established more health protective standard Required OPP to re-evaluate over 10,000 pesticide tolerances Required more advanced assessments methods – Aggregate pesticide exposure Food + Residential + Water – Cumulative effects of pesticides with common mode of toxicity Evaluate exposure to multiple OP pesticide, rather than individual compounds – Special sensitivity of infants and children Additional 10X factor applied to reference levels 5

6 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs OPP Risk Assessment Framework Four broad categories of risk assessment… Food Aggregate -Food - Drinking water - Residential Cumulative Occupational … each of which are evaluated in terms of toxicity testing on Acute Subchronic Chronic Carcinogenicity Reproductive/Developmental Neurotoxicity Genetics 6

7 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs Dietary Risk Assessment Approach Evaluate food consumption patterns and residue concentrations that lead to highest potential for exposure Assessments range from simple to complex, but based on same general exposure algorithm Tiering process used to refine exposure assessment to reflect more realistic assumptions 7 X = All Residue Values All Consumption Values Range of Dietary Exposures

8 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs Dietary Risk Assessment OPP Residue Tiering Process 8 Tier 1 -- Tolerance-level residues/100%CT % Crop Treated Field trial data PDP/FDA data Processing studies Cooking Factors Bridging studies Residue degradation/decline studies Market basket data Tier 4 -- highly refined residues residue refinements Refinements

9 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs Dietary Risk Assessment Higher Tiered Approaches Population-based approach to evaluate of possible exposures Generally utilize dietary exposure models to simulate exposure – DEEM (Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model ) – CARES – SHEDS-Dietary (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation) 9 X= All Residue Values All Consumption Values Range of Dietary Exposures

10 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs Dietary Risk Assessment Models Exposure assessment models based on nationally-representative monitoring surveys Key data surveys and databases: – USDAs What We Eat In America (WWEIA) Nationally representative food consumption survey – USDAs Pesticide Data Program (PDP) Nationally representative commodity residue sampling program – U.S. EPAs Food Commodity Intake Database (FCID) Recipe database that links WWEIA foods to PDP residue data 10

11 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs Dietary Risk Assessment Models Food Consumption (WWEIA) Food Recipe Database (FCID) Raw Ingredient Consumption Ingredient Pesticide Residue (PDP) + = Dietary Exposure 11 Risk Acceptable Level aPAD, cPAD, etc.

12 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs USDAs What We Eat In America National food survey conducted as part of the National Health Assessment and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) – Collected on two-year continuous basis – Nationally representative and uses consistent data collection methods – Data collected on two days of 24-hour dietary recall Captures dietary recall data on foods as reported eaten e.g., pizza, cake, cheese, chicken tortilla, etc. Additional Information: 12

13 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs USDAs Pesticide Data Program Sampling program that analyzes pesticide residue from food samples collected near the point of purchase (i.e., grocery stores) Sample analysis (as if for consumption) Often targets foods consumed by children Additional Information: 13 Pesticide Data Program Participating States

14 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs Food Commodity Intake Database (FCID) Translates foods as reported eaten to raw agricultural commodities using U.S. EPA food vocabulary Converts more than 5,000 food codes into recipes containing roughly 540 difference food commodities Database may also have useful applications in risk assessment and identification of ingredient-based disease outbreaks Examples include: Apple pie apples, wheat, soybean oil, etc. Big Mac wheat flour, beef, cucumbers, etc. Cheese Pizza wheat flour, milk, tomatoes, etc. 14

15 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs Food Commodity Intake Database: Example 15

16 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs Food Commodity Intake Database (FCID) Also includes additional information on food commodities (used subsequently in exposure modeling) – Cooked Status (Yes, No) – Food Form (Fresh, frozen, etc.) – Cooking Method (Baked, boiled, etc.) OPP currently updating FCID so that it is able to link to WWEIA consumption data collected in NHANES

17 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs FCID Graphical User Interface OPP working to improve accessibility of FCID Developed database and user interface in MS Access Working to develop web application with USDAs Food Safety Inspection Service and U-Marylands Joint Institute of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (JIFSAN) Functionality – Improve transparency of coded fields – Make recipes fully searchable – Make recipe format more user-friendly – Link FCID directly to WWEIA – Enable users to estimate consumption of food commodities Weighted mean and percentile calculations 17

18 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs Search Recipes by Food Name 18

19 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs Next Steps Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model – Adding more recent consumption data – Working to make free and publically available FCID Updates and Tools – More compatible with more recent NHANES-WWEIA food consumption – Foodrisk.org Web Application Recipe search tool Population consumption estimate tool 19

20 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs 20 Acknowledgements: Katie Egan Toiya Goodlow Ranwa Hammamy David Hrdy Yuen-Shaung Ng Aaron Niman Allison Nowotarski Sheila Piper Kristin Rury Bernie Schneider Julie Van Alstine Phil Villanueva Additional Information: EPA Pesticide Website: Purdue Pesticide Program Resources:


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