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Modeling Dietary Pesticide Exposure Using Consumption and Pesticide Residue Survey Data Aaron Niman, LT (USPHS) Office of Pesticide.

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Presentation on theme: "Modeling Dietary Pesticide Exposure Using Consumption and Pesticide Residue Survey Data Aaron Niman, LT (USPHS) Office of Pesticide."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modeling Dietary Pesticide Exposure Using Consumption and Pesticide Residue Survey Data
Aaron Niman, LT (USPHS) Office of Pesticide Programs | Health Effects Division U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Health Category Day 2011 COA Conference, New Orleans, LA June 20-23, 2010 Health Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs

2 Objectives Provide overview of U.S. EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) and regulatory role in food safety Introduce OPP’s dietary exposure assessment methodology Approach Dietary Models Key National Surveys Describe recent efforts to update OPP’s Food Commodity Intake Database

3 Office of Pesticide Programs
Antimicrobials Health Effects Environmental Fate & Effects Biopesticides & Pollution Prevention Biological & Economic Analysis Registration Pesticide Re-Evaluation Field & External Affairs IT Office Director Roughly 700 Staff and Annual Budget ~150 Million USD 4 Risk Assessment Divisions 2 Risk Management Divisions Communications & Stakeholder Engagement Economic and Lab Analysis IT Support

4 Major OPP Regulatory Statutes
Federal Statute OPP Authority Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Established U.S. EPA as pesticide licensing agency Established risk/benefit standard for registering pesticide products Grants U.S. EPA strong authority to obtain toxicity and exposure data from pesticide registrants Grants U.S. EPA ability to regulate labels and packaging Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) Grants U.S. EPA authority to establish pesticide tolerances for foods and feeds Requires that FDA and USDA monitor and enforce tolerances

5 Major OPP Regulatory Statutes
Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 Amended both FIFRA and FFDCA Established more health protective standard Required OPP to re-evaluate over 10,000 pesticide tolerances Required more advanced assessments methods Aggregate pesticide exposure Food + Residential + Water Cumulative effects of pesticides with common mode of toxicity Evaluate exposure to multiple OP pesticide, rather than individual compounds Special sensitivity of infants and children Additional 10X factor applied to reference levels

6 OPP Risk Assessment Framework
Four broad categories of risk assessment… Food Aggregate -Food - Drinking water - Residential Cumulative Occupational … each of which are evaluated in terms of toxicity testing on Acute Subchronic Chronic Carcinogenicity Reproductive/Developmental Neurotoxicity Genetics

7 Dietary Risk Assessment
Approach Evaluate food consumption patterns and residue concentrations that lead to highest potential for exposure Assessments range from simple to complex, but based on same general exposure algorithm Tiering process used to refine exposure assessment to reflect more realistic assumptions All Consumption Values All Residue Values Range of Dietary Exposures X =

8 Dietary Risk Assessment
OPP Residue Tiering Process Tier 1 -- Tolerance-level residues/100%CT % Crop Treated Field trial data PDP/FDA data Processing studies Cooking Factors Bridging studies Residue degradation/decline studies Market basket data Tier 4 -- highly refined residues residue refinements Refinements

9 Dietary Risk Assessment
Higher Tiered Approaches Population-based approach to evaluate of possible exposures Generally utilize dietary exposure models to simulate exposure DEEM (Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model ) CARES SHEDS-Dietary (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation) X = All Consumption Values All Residue Values Range of Dietary Exposures

10 Dietary Risk Assessment Models
Exposure assessment models based on nationally-representative monitoring surveys Key data surveys and databases: USDA’s What We Eat In America (WWEIA) Nationally representative food consumption survey USDA’s Pesticide Data Program (PDP) Nationally representative commodity residue sampling program U.S. EPA’s Food Commodity Intake Database (FCID) Recipe database that links WWEIA foods to PDP residue data

11 Dietary Risk Assessment Models
Food Consumption (WWEIA) Food Recipe Database (FCID) Raw Ingredient Consumption Dietary Exposure = Ingredient Pesticide Residue (PDP) Acceptable Level aPAD, cPAD, etc. Risk

12 USDA’s What We Eat In America
National food survey conducted as part of the National Health Assessment and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Collected on two-year continuous basis Nationally representative and uses consistent data collection methods Data collected on two days of 24-hour dietary recall Captures dietary recall data on foods as reported eaten e.g., pizza, cake, cheese, chicken tortilla, etc. Additional Information:

13 USDA’s Pesticide Data Program
Sampling program that analyzes pesticide residue from food samples collected near the point of purchase (i.e., grocery stores) Sample analysis (as if for consumption) Often targets foods consumed by children Pesticide Data Program Participating States Additional Information:

14 Food Commodity Intake Database (FCID)
Translates foods as reported eaten to raw agricultural commodities using U.S. EPA food vocabulary Converts more than 5,000 food codes into recipes containing roughly 540 difference food commodities Database may also have useful applications in risk assessment and identification of ingredient-based disease outbreaks Examples include: Apple pie  apples, wheat, soybean oil, etc. Big Mac  wheat flour, beef, cucumbers, etc. Cheese Pizza  wheat flour, milk, tomatoes, etc.

15 Food Commodity Intake Database: Example

16 Food Commodity Intake Database (FCID)
Also includes additional information on food commodities (used subsequently in exposure modeling) Cooked Status (Yes, No) Food Form (Fresh, frozen, etc.) Cooking Method (Baked, boiled, etc.) OPP currently updating FCID so that it is able to link to WWEIA consumption data collected in NHANES

17 FCID Graphical User Interface
OPP working to improve accessibility of FCID Developed database and user interface in MS Access Working to develop web application with USDA’s Food Safety Inspection Service and U-Maryland’s Joint Institute of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (JIFSAN) Functionality Improve transparency of coded fields Make recipes fully searchable Make recipe format more user-friendly Link FCID directly to WWEIA Enable users to estimate consumption of food commodities Weighted mean and percentile calculations

18 Search Recipes by Food Name

19 Next Steps Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model FCID Updates and Tools
Adding more recent consumption data Working to make free and publically available FCID Updates and Tools More compatible with more recent NHANES-WWEIA food consumption Web Application Recipe search tool Population consumption estimate tool

20 Additional Information:
Acknowledgements: Katie Egan Allison Nowotarski Toiya Goodlow Sheila Piper Ranwa Hammamy Kristin Rury David Hrdy Bernie Schneider Yuen-Shaung Ng Julie Van Alstine Aaron Niman Phil Villanueva Additional Information: EPA Pesticide Website: Purdue Pesticide Program Resources:

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