4Why is DNA so Important?* DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic information used in the development and functioning of all living things and some viruses.* DNA is like blueprints, instructions, or a code for making proteins* DNA’s codes are converted/changed into messages (mRNA) for ribosomes to read and then make proteins.* Proteins do most of the hard work of keeping us alive
5What are the parts of DNA? 2 Strands called:Double HelixThe “Backbone”Has 2 Parts*D = Deoxyribose (SUGAR)P = Phosphate
6What are the parts of DNA? “Rungs”*The Nitrogen BasesA - TC - GA = AdenineT = ThymineC = CytosineG = Guanine
7How to remember Nitrogen Bonds: A bonds with TThink: A T & T phone company
8How to remember Nitrogen Bonds: C bonds with GThink: Half circles
9These are 2 examples of nucleic acids: Clicker Question #1These are 2 examples of nucleic acids:A. Chloroplasts & MitochondriaB. Carbohydrates & LipidsC. DNA & RNAD. Nucleus & Ribosomes
10DNA holds the instructions for making: Clicker Question #2DNA holds the instructions for making:A. EnergyB. ProteinsC. Carbon dioxideD. Deoxyribose
11If 20% of a DNA’s strand contains Thymine, then: Clicker Question #3If 20% of a DNA’s strand contains Thymine, then:A. it also has 80% GuanineB. it also has 50% CytosineC. it also has 80% AdenineD. it also has 20% Adenine
12What type of sugar is found in DNA? Clicker Question #4What type of sugar is found in DNA?A. PhosphorousB. ThymineC. RiboseD. Deoxyribose
13A. DNA B. mRNA C. tRNA D. ATP Clicker Question #5 The DNA’s code is converted into _____ so it can be sent to ribosomes to make the proteins.A. DNAB. mRNAC. tRNAD. ATP
14What are the parts of DNA? *Nucleotides:1 Sugar1 Phosphate1 Nitrogen Base
15ATT CGT TAT CGT CTG AAA ACG Lets Practice: What are the complementary nitrogen bases in this sequence of DNA?ATT CGT TAT CGT CTG AAA ACGTAAGCAATAGCAGACTTTTGCYes!We made DNA!What did we just do?
16Why is mRNA Important? * mRNA is created by DNA in the nucleus * DNA is too big and CAN’T leave the nucleus…it must send messages* mRNA is created by DNA in the nucleus* mRNA contains the messages from the DNA and are sent to ribosomes for them to read the instructions for making proteins
17What are the parts of RNA? *RNA is Made of:Ribose (SUGAR)Phosphate (same as DNA)Nitrogen Bases (A,U, C, G)Just Like DNA, RNA has:SugarPhosphateNitrogen BaseBUT…..First:Notice that RNA has 1 Strand!U stands for Uracil….a different nitrogen baseNO THYMINE in RNA!!
18A bonds with U C bonds with G RNA Nitrogen Bases:A bonds with UTHYMINE in RNA!!C bonds with G
19What 3 things make up a nucleotide? Clicker Question #6What 3 things make up a nucleotide?A. Nucleus, DNA, & RNAB. Adenine, Thymine, & CytosineC. Sugar, Phosphate, & a Nitrogen baseD. Chromosomes, Genes, & DNA
20A. In the nucleus B. In the cytoplasm C. In the mitochondria Clicker Question #7Where is mRNA made?A. In the nucleusB. In the cytoplasmC. In the mitochondriaD. In the ribosomes
21What type of sugar does RNA have? Clicker Question #8What type of sugar does RNA have?A. DeoxyriboseB. CarbohydrateC. Ribonucleic acidD. Ribose
22Which of the following nitrogen bases does RNA not have? Clicker Question #9Which of the following nitrogen bases does RNA not have?A. UracilB. ThymineC. AdenineD. Cytosine
23If a strand of DNA contains 40% of Cytosine, then Clicker Question #10If a strand of DNA contains 40% of Cytosine, thenA. it also contains 40% GuanineB. it also contains 60% ThymineC. it also contains 40% CytosineD. it also contains 60% Guanine
24How does DNA tell the cell to make a specific kind of protein? * There are 2 major steps in this process* First: Transcription* Second: Translation
25How does DNA tell the cell to make a specific kind of protein? Transcription : Process in which mRNA is synthesized from the DNA template.HINT:*** Transcription is when mRNA is made from DNA.**** mRNA: (messenger RNA) holds therecipe for making proteins
26How does Transcription work? * QUESTION…have you been to court?* There is a person typing what is said and is creating a “court transcript”…which is really a code…shortened version…and later the transcript is translated into all the words that were said for a record.SHORTENED CODE = mRNA
28Lets Practice: Create a RNA strand using this sequence of DNA? ATT CGT TAT CGT CTG AAA ACGUAAGCAAUAGCAGACUUUUGCThis is mRNA!We just transcribed DNA into mRNA!
29What does mRNA do? Clicker Question #11 A. It carries the instructions from DNA to ribosomes to make proteinsB. It carries instructions from the ribosomes to the nucleus to make DNAC. It carries the instructions from the nucleus to the mitochondria to make energyD. It carries instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm to make energy
30What is transcription? A. The process of making energy Clicker Question #12What is transcription?A. The process of making energyB. The process of making proteinsC. The process of making DNAD. The process of making mRNA
31We transcribed/made mRNA from DNA Lets Practice This Again: Create a RNA strand using this sequence of DNA?ACA CGA TTA CGG ATA CGC ATCUGUGCUAAUGCCUAUGCGUAGNow what?YES!We transcribed/made mRNA from DNAWhat did we just do?
32ACG ATA CGG CTT Now What?...Translation! Translation: Process in which mRNA attaches to the ribosome and a protein is assembled/made.Words to know:* Codon: 3 base code in DNA or RNA* Amino Acid: Compounds joined by peptide bondsto build proteinsACG ATA CGG CTTThere are 20 different Amino Acids.* Ribosome: “Reads” mRNA recipes so it cansynthesize/make proteinsDifferent combination of Amino Acids make different kinds of proteins.
33Now What?...Translation! More Words to know: * tRNA: (transfer RNA) Type of RNA thattransports amino acids to the ribosometRNAAmino Acid* Anticodon: Nitrogen bases that can pair thatcorresponds with the codons on the mRNAAnticodon
34What happens during translation? Peptide chain/Protein ChaintRNAAmino AcidAnticodonRibosomeCodon
37Where does translation occur? Clicker Question #13Where does translation occur?A. In the nucleusB. In the mitochondriaC. In the DNAD. In the ribosome
38What is made during translation? Clicker Question #14What is made during translation?A. DNAB. mRNAC. ProteinD. Energy
39What is another name for polypeptide chain? Clicker Question #15What is another name for polypeptide chain?A. Protein chainB. Carbohydrate chainC. Lipid chainD. Nucleic acid
40Translating mRNA codes into amino acids to create polypeptid chains (protein chains) #1. AUG GCA UCC UGAMethionine, Alanine, Serine, Stop#2. AUG CCC GGU UAGMethionine, Proline, Glycine, Stop#3. AUG AAG GUG UGAMethionine, Lysine, Valine, Stop
41What is the amino acid for the following codons? AAUAsparagine (Asn)GUGValine (Val)UGGTryptophan (Trp)
42How can knowing amino acid sequences in organisms help biologists? We can use the sequences to see how organisms are related!Which of the following two organisms are MOST closely related?Fish Sequence: Methionine, Isoleucine, Arginine, Isoleucine, Glycine, SerineLizard Sequence: Methionine, Isoleucine, Serine, Glycine, Alanine, TyrosineFrog Sequence: Methionine, Isoleucine, Serine, Leuicine, Lysine, LysineBird Sequence: Methionine, Isoleucine, Serine, Glycine, Alanine, Valine
45What are genetic mutations? Mutation: Permanent change in a cell’s DNA, ranging from changes in a single base pair to deletions of large sections of chromosomes.Causes of mutations include:* Viruses* Radiation* Chemicals* Errors during mitosis and meiosis
46Some mutations are harmful, some are beneficial, and some do nothing. Are mutations harmful?Some mutations are harmful, some are beneficial, and some do nothing.Harmful example:- Some mutations cause cancer & genetic disorders
51What are some types of mutations? 3. Translocation
52What are some types of mutations? 4. Duplication
53What are some types of mutations? Gene mutationsPoint mutations involve changes in one or a few nucleotides1. Substitutions: one base is changed to a different base. Only affects one amino acid or has no effect at all.
54What are some types of mutations? Gene mutationsPoint mutations involve changes in one or a few nucleotides2. Insertions and deletions: one base is inserted or removed from the DNA sequence. These are called frameshift mutations because they shift the “reading frame” of the genetic message.
55How has technology changed DNA? Genetic Engineering: Technology used to manipulate an organism’s DNA by inserting the DNA of another organism.Transgenic Organism: Organism that is genetically engineered by inserting a gene from another organism.
56How has technology changed DNA? Gel Electrophoresis: Process that involves using electric current to separate certain biological molecules by size.We use this to see DNA fragments to create a DNA fingerprintDNA fingerprints have 2 major uses:Solve crimesFiguring out “who’s the baby’s daddy”
57Which of the following are his/her parents? DNA FingerprintingWho did it?Which of the following are his/her parents?
58What is the human genome? Genome: Total DNA in each cell nucleus of an organismThe Human Genome Project:* Began in 1990 and completed in 2003* Found that we have 3 BILLION chemical base pairs* Used to understand genetic disorders
59“Dolly” the sheep was the first cloned animal What is cloning?Cloning: Process in which large numbers of identical recombinant DNA molecules are produced.“Dolly” the sheep was the first cloned animal