Presentation on theme: "Equipment, recipes and basic techniques"— Presentation transcript:
1 Equipment, recipes and basic techniques Aspire: To recognise different techniques which can be used to decorate cakes.Challenge: To demonstrate some of the techniques learned and use these to decorate cakes for different occasions.Match the equipment to the correct description. Draw a neat line to connect.Smoothers: A pair of smoothers really makes the different when it comes to smoothing fondant.Angled spatula: Makes it more easy to apply buttercream frosting on the cake.Pizza cutter: To cut off excess fondant.Modelling tools: A good set of modelling tools will help you when you are making figures or flowers.Piping bag and nozzles: Start out with round, star and leaf.Colours & dusts: There are different brands of paste/gel colours on the market today.Cutters & embossers: lots of different types from rolling pins to cuttersFondant icing moulds. Flours animals shapesRolling pin: You can get rolling pins in non-stick and wood.
2 Victoria sandwich cake TASKSome ideas for different types of cake which can be decorated are included in the table below:In the final column give examples of the type of occasion this cake would be suitable for.Example of cakeName of cakesuitabilityLight fruit cakeVictoria sandwich cakeCarrot cakeMadeira cakeRich fruit cakeRich chocolate cakegingerbreadGenoese spongelight chocolate sponge cake
3 There are 4 main methods of cake making. These are: Aspire: to understand the different cake making methods and the ratio of ingredients for each method.Challenge: evaluate each method and recognise which cake to use for different decorating methodsThere are 4 main methods of cake making. These are:Whisking-no fat short shelf life as this relies on the air trapped by the whiskingCreaming –half or more than half fat to flourMelting – this has a high proportion of sugar ingredientsRubbing in -this has more fat than flourLOOK AT THE PICTURES BELOW WRITE UNDERNEATH EACH ONE THE TYPE OF METHOD YOU THINK HAS BEEN USED TO MAKE THE CAKE.CREAMING METHODRecipe100g Margarine100g Caster Sugar100g SR Flour2 eggsMethodCream the margarine and sugar until light and fluffy, using a wooden spoon.Beat the eggs in a measuring jug and add a bit at a time to the mixture. ADD ALL THE EGGSieve and gently fold in the flour into the mixture and divide into 12 cake cases.Place in the oven for minutes Gas 4RUBBING IN METHODRecipe150g Flour75g Margarine75g Caster Sugar2eggsMethodSift flour sugar together in a mixing bowl.Rubb in the fat to the mixture using your finger tips.Beat the eggs in a jug.Using a palette knife, stir in the eggs a bit at a time. Until all the egg is used.Divide the mixture between 12 cake cases and place in the oven for mins gas mark 4.MELTING METHODRecipe100g Flour80g Sugar50g Margarine1 large eggMethodWeigh out all ingredients. Melt the margarine in a sauce pan. Beat the eggs, sugar and melted margarine in a large mixing bowl.Stir in the flour and divide between 12 cake cases and cook in the oven for minutes gas mark 4.WHISKING METHODRecipe75g SR Flour75g Caster Sugar2 eggsMethodWeigh out ingredients.Whisk eggs in a mixing bowl, add sugar and whisk well until thick and creamy almost whit in colour.Sieve flour, fold gently into the mixture.Divide into 12 cake cases and cook for minutes Gas Mark 4
4 4:2:2:1 200g 100g 1 1:1:1:1 2 8:4:8:2 50g+150g 1:1:2 50g none Table to show the ratio of the main ingredients used in the different types of cake methods.CAKE MAKING METHODRATIOFLOURFATSUGAREGGRubbing in method4:2:2:1200g100g1Creaming method1:1:1:12Melting method8:4:8:250g+150gSyrup/treacleWhisked method1:1:250gnoneTask: decorating different types of cakesIn groups of 4Cook the 4 different recipes for cake makingOne person in each group uses one recipeThe cakes will be made into cup cakesPre heat oven to Gas 4, 180 C electric.Draw and annotate ideas for decorating the cakes these need to include the following themes:Cake for a boy aged 7Cake for a girl aged 7Cake for valentines dayCake for an elderly ladyDraw your designs below:Boy aged 7Girl aged 7Valentines dayElderly lady
5 Which cake has the best / worst texture and why? EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT CAKE METHODS In your groups you need to taste test the cakes and record your findings. Answering the following questions in the spaces provided based on your evaluations of all the cakes made in your group.Which cake has the best / worst texture and why?2. Which cake is the softest and why?3. Which cake is the healthiest and why?4. Which cake would have the longest shelf life and why?5. Which cake has the best flavour and why?6. What other sugar substitutes could you use in the cake recipes?Aspire: To recognise the different ingredients which can be used to make or decorate cakes.Challenge: develop an understanding of the functions of ingredients used to make and decorate cakes .To be able to recognise the reasons for faults in cake makingFUNCTIONS OF INGREDIENTSFLOURforms the structure of the cake.As the cake is heated the protein(gluten) in the flour sets the framework and shapeSR flour acts as a raising agent.Dextrinisation occurs, starch converts into sugar. On heating the sugar caramelises and gives a golden surfaceSugarSweetens and adds flavourWhen creamed with fat, helps to hold air in the mixture.Caramelisation gives colourFATadds colour and flavourHolds air bubbles which creates texture and volumeProduces a short crumb or rich even texture dependent on the ratio of fat and method usedIncreases shelf life.EGGSTrap air when whisked into a foamCoagulate (set) on heatingEmulsify holds the fat in emulsion and keeps it stableAdd colour, flavour and nutritional valueT
6 FAULTCAUSEPeaked cracked topOven too hotToo much mixture for the size of the tinBaked too high a shelf in the ovenToo stiff or too wet a mixtureOver mixing of the batter.Cake sinksToo much sugar causing collapse of the structureToo much raising agentUndercooking, caused by wrong temperature and timeDisturbed during cooking causing structure to collapse.Sugary speckled crustToo much sugarWrong type of sugar usedInsufficient creamingClose heavy textureToo much liquid in the mixtureInsufficient raising agent usedCreamed mixture has curdled and does not hold enough airWHISKING METHODEggs and sugar not beaten enoughOver beating when adding flourCourse and open textureToo much raising agent usedInsufficient mixing of flourCake very dryOvercooking of the cakeNot enough liquid usedFruit has sunkToo much liquid used to carry the weight of the fruitToo much sugar and raising agentTASKExplain in the table below how you could decorate a cake to disguise the faults listedFAULTHOW YOU WOULD DECORATE IT.PEAKED CRACKED TOPCAKE SINKSCAKE VERY DRY
7 Fondant icing(sugar paste) Modelling Paste Icing used for decorating cakesSome ideas for types of icing when decorating cakes include:MarzipanUsed for both coating and decorating cakes. The perfect base for royal icing or fondant/sugar paste icing. It forms a barrier to stop moisture from the cake seeping into the icing. Marzipan can be used for modelling it is easy to handle and pliable and it can be coloured by kneading in food colouring.Examples of the uses of marzipan :Royal icingThis is a traditional icing used to coat celebration cakes. It can be used for flat or peaked icing or piping.Examples of the uses of royal icing are:Fondant icing(sugar paste)Ready made fondant is easily obtainable from the supermarket but is also quick and easy to make. It can be bought in many colours or it can be coloured using food dyes. It can be used to cover all kinds of cakes it is soft and pliable to be used to make all kinds of sugar decorations.Examples of the uses of fondant icing:Modelling PasteSimilar to fondant icing but more versatile for making models and decorations because it contains a substance called Gum tragacanth which acts as a strengthening agent so it sets much harder and holds its shape better to make animals and figures.Examples of the uses of modelling paste:.ButtercreamMade with icing sugar and softened butterA versatile filling, icing or frosting for almost any type of cake, which can be spread evenly and patterned with a knife or piped onto a cake. Different types of flavourings can be added e.g. vanilla, coffee, citrus, chocolate and liqueur.Examples of the uses of buttercream:Glace icingThis is a quick and easy icing made by mixing icing sugar with a small amount of water and if required food colouring. It is used mainly as a simple topping for sponge cakes/buns and sometimes when making novelty cakes. Add the water carefully as too much will give a very runny icing. If you work quickly you can produce attractive designs such as feathering. Examples of the uses of glace icing:
8 Fondant Icing Ingredients Ingredients 1 tbs of Icing sugar Place softened butter in a bowl and place icing sugar on top.With a wooden spoon carefully mix ingredients together paying attention to the ‘fly-away’ nature of the icing sugar.Once combined, beat until smooth.If the butter icing is too stiff a little milk or water can be added until the right consistency is reached.Butter icing can be piped with a piping bag and nozzle or spread either between the layers of a cake or on top as a decorationTop tip: don’t make icing too wet – it is harder to spread or pipeIngredientsRatio 1:2butter to icing sugar(ie 50g butter and 100g icing sugar)Fondant IcingFondant icing (also called ready roll or dough icing) can be bought from a shop or supermarket.It can be bought in plain white or in smaller blocks of colour.Two colours can be mixed together to make a third, or if not completely mixed, to gain a marbled effectColour can be introduced using food dyes, for stronger colours food dye gels are more effective as they have less liquid in them.Fondant icing can be rolled out flat and shaped over a cake or used to model into designs, figures and shapes. It can also be cut out using cutters.To stick fondant icing to a cake a little apricot jam is usually usedTop tip: For best results keep the icing cool and dry. Fondant icing is great for strong colours and graphicsIngredients1 tbs of Icing sugar1 tsp of water Carefully mix the icing sugar with the water 1 or ½ tsp at a time until the consistency is suitable for either spreading on top of a cake or using in a piping bag.A fine nozzle can be used for writing or drawing‘Writing icing’ can be bought from shops or supermarkets ready made in tubes of colours
9 Fondant icing(sugar paste) Modelling Paste In the spaces provided Design a cake which shows the use of each of the following types of icing. Annotate/label each of the designs to show the functions of the ingredients used.MarzipanRoyal icingFondant icing(sugar paste)Modelling PasteButtercreamGlace icing
10 Decorating with Chocolate Aspire: investigate the use of other ways than icing to decorate a cake. Challenge: Recognise the versatility of chocolate and cream when used in cake decorating.Decorating with ChocolateChocolate is a versatile and delicious cake decorating medium. It can be simply grated, made into curls or cut out shapes and piped or drizzled.In the space below show how you would decorate a cake using chocolate be sure to annotate your designUsing fresh cream to decorate cakesFresh cream can be used to pipe decoration or to cover a cake but remember only use double or whipping creamIn the space below show how you would decorate a cake using chocolate be sure to annotate your design
11 Aspire: To recognise how to adapt cake recipes to suit people with specific dietary needs. Challenge: To be able to develop and adapt a cake recipe for improvement.Adapt a traditional Victoria sandwich cake and produce designs to show how to improve/develop the following.The nutritional value in order to make it a healthier productThe flavour and textureThe appearance and finisha) Healthier productb) flavour/texturec) appearance/finish
12 Adapt a traditional Victoria sandwich cake and produce designs to show how to make changes for a person with the following special dietary needs.diabetesCoeliac (gluten intolerance)Lactose intoleranceClearly annotate/label your designs to show the type of products you have used.a) diabetesb) Coeliacc) Lactose intolerance
13 Aspire: To recognise how to adapt cake recipes for different occasions Challenge: To be able to design and develop a cake in the test kitchen to showcase your ideas. Themes/occasions for cake making can include any of the following topics can you think of any others if so write them in the spaces provided. Birthdays weddings Festivals e.g. Christmas, Easter christenings Mothers day Graduations Design and make a cake for the following themes/occasions. Draw and label your designs in the boxes provided.Mother’s dayEaster
14 Weighing Mixing Depositing Baking Cutting & creaming Sheeting A child's birthday party age --- you decide ( could be a teenager or a young child)Aspire: To recognise the type of equipment needed to produce cakes. Demonstrate the use of some of this equipment in the practical sessions. Recognise the importance of a production plan and quality control when producing a productChallenge: To produce a table to show the difference between producing cakes in the kitchen and in large scale production.Task: Using the hand-out provided related to large scale production of a chocolate cake compare the making of a chocolate cake in a test kitchen with large scale production. Produce your findings in the table below or if you need more room draw it out on a sheet of A4 paper.processTest kitchenLarge scale productionWeighingMixingDepositingBakingCutting & creamingSheetingDecoratingFinishingCompleted product
15 S Shape A Appearance T Taste S Size U Unit cost M Materials A Age Match the names to the equipment used in cake making and decoratingElectric whisk baking tins balloon whisk greaseproof paper food processor rolling pinsModelling tools and cutters piping bags cake turntable piping nozzlesProduction specification This gives details of a products characteristics including shape, size and sensory qualities. A test kitchen works to a product specification in order to produce a consistent product. The following mnemonic can help you to write a product specificationS ShapeA AppearanceT TasteS SizeU Unit costM MaterialsA AgeS Storage
16 TASK Look at the products and write a product specification for each of them that the test kitchen might have usedSATUMSATUM
17 Quality control checks for decorating cakes QUALITY CONTROL WHY IS IT IMPORTANT WHEN MAKING AND DECORATING CAKES?Customers like to know that each time they buy a product it is identical to the last one purchased. To make sure this happens food manufacturers put 9in place quality control checks throughout the making of the product.A food handler carries out VISUAL checks and computers carry out more scientific checks.Some examples of quality checks for a cake might be:Are the ingredients of good quality and well within their best before/use by date? Is the packaging damaged?Are the storage areas clean, dry and at the correct temperatures?Are the ingredients weighed and measured accurately?Is the mixer at the correct speed. Using the correct attachment, for the correct length of time?Is the consistency of the mixture correct?Is it the correct depthAre the shapes identicalIs the oven temperature correct and is the product in the oven for the correct length of time?TaskWrite down 5 quality control checks you could use when decorating cakesQuality control checks for decorating cakes
18 Using the layout below, complete a plan for making your chosen design idea in the test kitchen. Main stages of makingHygiene safety and quality control checks
19 Aspire: understand the difference between CAD and CAM Aspire: understand the difference between CAD and CAM. Develop an understanding of how standard food components can be used when decorating cakes.Challenge: Recognise how CAD and CAM can be used in food production. Demonstrate the use of standard food components in cake decorating.TASK: Put the missing words into the sentences below. Choose the words from the list given below.Food mathematical safety packaging images sensory profilesComputer productsfoodCAD is Computer Aided Design.It is the use of design programs to produce or drawings that can be used in the development of production.It can help withProductNutritional modelling of to meet design criteriaModel products to meet criteriaProduce and hazard chartsHelp with calculations for scaling upHelp with production of for the productsProduct program control mass ingredients foodCAM is Computer Aided ManufactureIt is the use of computer programs to and monitor processes during the production of food products. The computer has 3 main jobs.To the machinery to carry out specific tasks e.g. weighingTo prevent spoilage hazards during the production run.To monitor the quality of the food at various stages of production.How is computer control and monitoring used in food processing?Weighing of ingredients to exact amountsMixing of ingredients for an exact time at a n exact speed.Chopping of ingredients to an exact sizeShaping of a product to an exact shape.Assembling productsCoating productsCooking of food product for an exact length of time. At an exact temperature.HOW CAN COMPUTERS MONITOR FOOD SAFELY?Sensor detectors for finding metal or foreign bodiesMicrobial level detectorsTemperature displays on fridges and freezersCritical temperature probes for hot food.TASK:Use the information from this sheet to list the processes you think CAM would be used to carry out in the mass production of a decorated cake. Write your answers on a sheet of A4 paper.
20 Using standard food components to decorate cakes Remember a standard component is a pre-prepared item/ingredient that is used in the production of another product.In the food industry manufacturers buy standard components from other food manufacturers. Ready roll/fondant icing and marzipan are easy ways to decorate products without having to prepare everything yourself. A cake business might order in ready-made marzipan in various colours, but cut and shape it themselves to make the decorations they need.SOME EXAMPLES OF STANDARD FOOD COMPONENTS USED IN CAKE DECORATING MIGHT BE:READY ROLL/FONDANT ICINGMARZIPANCAKE DECORATIONSBUTTERCREAMDECORATIONSRICE /SUGAR PAPER DECORATIONSWrite down as many advantaged and disadvantages you can think of for using standard components when decorating cakesADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES
21 Exam type questions 1. Explain two ways to make a chocolate cake a healthier option. A) B) Why is it important to research existing food products before starting to design new products? Describe ways in which a computer could be used to research existing food products. 4. Explain why the following ingredients are used when making cake products. Flour Sugar Fats Eggs
22 Sensory a chocolate cake 5. (a) Describe two developments that would improve the chocolate cake he profile below shows the results of sensory pro(a) Describe two developments that would improve the chocolate cake file for a chocolate cakeSensory profile for a chocolate cakeSensory a chocolate cakeEVEN SHAPE54321DARK COLOURED SPONGECHOCOLATE FLAVOURCREAMY FILLINGLIGHT , AIRY TEXTURE(a) Describe two developments that would improve the chocolate cake.(b) Describe ways to make sure that sensory testing is fair.
23 The cakes were different shapes and sizes 6. a)Give one example of a control check that is carried out by computerised equipment during the production of decorated cakes b)Explain why computers are used for this control check. During the production of decorated cakes the following problems were found. Complete the table below to show a cause of each problem. Explain how each problem could be prevented.Problem 1A hair wasfound in the cakeCause .Prevent by ..Problem 2The cake did not rise inthe ovenProblem 3The cakes were differentshapes andsizes
24 Explain ﬁve key features of the ‘Eat well Plate’. 7. a) Complete the chart below to explain two developments that will help each product meet healthy eating guidelines.Development ideas forhealthier chocolate éclairsDevelopment 1Reasonreducing fat levels in a chocolate cakeincreasing the ﬁbre (NSP)content of a sandwich cakeb) How do food manufacturers inform consumers about healthy eating guidelines?c) Consumers are encouraged to use the ‘Eat well Plate’.Explain ﬁve key features of the ‘Eat well Plate’.
25 What does disassembly mean? HOMEWORKSHOMEWORK 1What does disassembly mean?List three useful things you can find on the packaging of a food product.Name five faults you might find in an existing cake product that you could improve on.a)What is a target group?b) What features can you use to describe a target group?c) List five sensible things you could ask a target group if you were making a new kind of decorated cake.HOMEWORK 2Describe two ways of coming up with ideas for a new product.What should you do after you’ve come up with plenty of ideas?Sketch and label/annotate three possible ideas for a new decorated cake product.How do you know which of your ideas is the best one to develop?How could you check the nutritional content of your product?HOMEWORK 31. What does modelling mean in food technology?2. Imagine you are making a new kind of decorated cake product, but your first model’s texture is too dry. Describe three ways you could try developing your product to improve the texture.3. What type of specification might change as you make different models of your product?4. What type of specification stays the same?HOMEWORK 4List six types of fats and oilsDescribe three functions of fats and oils in making cakesName three other ways fats and oils are used in food and cooking.Explain why a diet containing no fat would be unhealthy.What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats? Give two examples of each.Which is more closely linked with cholesterol-saturated or unsaturated fat? Why can having too much cholesterol in our diet be bad for our health?Homework 5What is mass production? What does CAM stand for?What is a consistent product?What is meant by quality control?A manufacturer mass produces a decorated cake product.a) Describe how the manufacturer could use quality control to ensure the product is of a high standard.b) Give an example of possible biological contamination during the manufacturing process.c) How could the risk of contamination be controlled?HOMEWORK 6a)Evaluate a range of decorated cake products-from the hand-out given. Comment on the shaping, finishing, flavourings, ingredients and sensory characteristics of each product . Display your results in a table form.b) Produce a list of standard food components which could be used in each product.