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Equipment, recipes and basic techniques

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1 Equipment, recipes and basic techniques
Aspire: To recognise different techniques which can be used to decorate cakes. Challenge: To demonstrate some of the techniques learned and use these to decorate cakes for different occasions. Match the equipment to the correct description. Draw a neat line to connect. Smoothers: A pair of smoothers really makes the different when it comes to smoothing fondant. Angled spatula: Makes it more easy to apply buttercream frosting on the cake. Pizza cutter: To cut off excess fondant. Modelling tools: A good set of modelling tools will help you when you are making figures or flowers. Piping bag and nozzles:  Start out with round, star and leaf. Colours & dusts: There are different brands of paste/gel colours on the market today. Cutters & embossers: lots of different types from rolling pins to cutters Fondant icing moulds. Flours animals shapes Rolling pin: You can get rolling pins in non-stick and wood.

2 Victoria sandwich cake
TASK Some ideas for different types of cake which can be decorated are included in the table below: In the final column give examples of the type of occasion this cake would be suitable for. Example of cake Name of cake suitability Light fruit cake Victoria sandwich cake Carrot cake Madeira cake Rich fruit cake Rich chocolate cake gingerbread Genoese sponge light chocolate sponge cake

3 There are 4 main methods of cake making. These are:
Aspire: to understand the different cake making methods and the ratio of ingredients for each method. Challenge: evaluate each method and recognise which cake to use for different decorating methods There are 4 main methods of cake making. These are: Whisking-no fat short shelf life as this relies on the air trapped by the whisking Creaming –half or more than half fat to flour Melting – this has a high proportion of sugar ingredients Rubbing in -this has more fat than flour LOOK AT THE PICTURES BELOW WRITE UNDERNEATH EACH ONE THE TYPE OF METHOD YOU THINK HAS BEEN USED TO MAKE THE CAKE. CREAMING METHOD Recipe 100g Margarine 100g Caster Sugar 100g SR Flour 2 eggs Method Cream the margarine and sugar until light and fluffy, using a wooden spoon. Beat the eggs in a measuring jug and add a bit at a time to the mixture. ADD ALL THE EGG Sieve and gently fold in the flour into the mixture and divide into 12 cake cases. Place in the oven for minutes Gas 4 RUBBING IN METHOD Recipe 150g Flour 75g Margarine 75g Caster Sugar 2eggs Method Sift flour sugar together in a mixing bowl. Rubb in the fat to the mixture using your finger tips. Beat the eggs in a jug. Using a palette knife, stir in the eggs a bit at a time. Until all the egg is used. Divide the mixture between 12 cake cases and place in the oven for mins gas mark 4. MELTING METHOD Recipe 100g Flour 80g Sugar 50g Margarine 1 large egg Method Weigh out all ingredients. Melt the margarine in a sauce pan. Beat the eggs, sugar and melted margarine in a large mixing bowl. Stir in the flour and divide between 12 cake cases and cook in the oven for minutes gas mark 4. WHISKING METHOD Recipe 75g SR Flour 75g Caster Sugar 2 eggs Method Weigh out ingredients. Whisk eggs in a mixing bowl, add sugar and whisk well until thick and creamy almost whit in colour. Sieve flour, fold gently into the mixture. Divide into 12 cake cases and cook for minutes Gas Mark 4

4 4:2:2:1 200g 100g 1 1:1:1:1 2 8:4:8:2 50g+150g 1:1:2 50g none
Table to show the ratio of the main ingredients used in the different types of cake methods. CAKE MAKING METHOD RATIO FLOUR FAT SUGAR EGG Rubbing in method 4:2:2:1 200g 100g 1 Creaming method 1:1:1:1 2 Melting method 8:4:8:2 50g+150g Syrup/treacle Whisked method 1:1:2 50g none Task: decorating different types of cakes In groups of 4 Cook the 4 different recipes for cake making One person in each group uses one recipe The cakes will be made into cup cakes Pre heat oven to Gas 4, 180 C electric. Draw and annotate ideas for decorating the cakes these need to include the following themes: Cake for a boy aged 7 Cake for a girl aged 7 Cake for valentines day Cake for an elderly lady Draw your designs below: Boy aged 7 Girl aged 7 Valentines day Elderly lady

5 Which cake has the best / worst texture and why?
EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT CAKE METHODS In your groups you need to taste test the cakes and record your findings. Answering the following questions in the spaces provided based on your evaluations of all the cakes made in your group. Which cake has the best / worst texture and why? 2. Which cake is the softest and why? 3. Which cake is the healthiest and why? 4. Which cake would have the longest shelf life and why? 5. Which cake has the best flavour and why? 6. What other sugar substitutes could you use in the cake recipes? Aspire: To recognise the different ingredients which can be used to make or decorate cakes. Challenge: develop an understanding of the functions of ingredients used to make and decorate cakes .To be able to recognise the reasons for faults in cake making FUNCTIONS OF INGREDIENTS FLOUR forms the structure of the cake. As the cake is heated the protein(gluten) in the flour sets the framework and shape SR flour acts as a raising agent. Dextrinisation occurs, starch converts into sugar. On heating the sugar caramelises and gives a golden surface Sugar Sweetens and adds flavour When creamed with fat, helps to hold air in the mixture. Caramelisation gives colour FAT adds colour and flavour Holds air bubbles which creates texture and volume Produces a short crumb or rich even texture dependent on the ratio of fat and method used Increases shelf life. EGGS Trap air when whisked into a foam Coagulate (set) on heating Emulsify holds the fat in emulsion and keeps it stable Add colour, flavour and nutritional value T

6 FAULT CAUSE Peaked cracked top Oven too hot Too much mixture for the size of the tin Baked too high a shelf in the oven Too stiff or too wet a mixture Over mixing of the batter. Cake sinks Too much sugar causing collapse of the structure Too much raising agent Undercooking, caused by wrong temperature and time Disturbed during cooking causing structure to collapse. Sugary speckled crust Too much sugar Wrong type of sugar used Insufficient creaming Close heavy texture Too much liquid in the mixture Insufficient raising agent used Creamed mixture has curdled and does not hold enough air WHISKING METHOD Eggs and sugar not beaten enough Over beating when adding flour Course and open texture Too much raising agent used Insufficient mixing of flour Cake very dry Overcooking of the cake Not enough liquid used Fruit has sunk Too much liquid used to carry the weight of the fruit Too much sugar and raising agent TASK Explain in the table below how you could decorate a cake to disguise the faults listed FAULT HOW YOU WOULD DECORATE IT. PEAKED CRACKED TOP CAKE SINKS CAKE VERY DRY

7 Fondant icing(sugar paste) Modelling Paste
Icing used for decorating cakes Some ideas for types of icing when decorating cakes include: Marzipan Used for both coating and decorating cakes. The perfect base for royal icing or fondant/sugar paste icing. It forms a barrier to stop moisture from the cake seeping into the icing. Marzipan can be used for modelling it is easy to handle and pliable and it can be coloured by kneading in food colouring. Examples of the uses of marzipan : Royal icing This is a traditional icing used to coat celebration cakes. It can be used for flat or peaked icing or piping. Examples of the uses of royal icing are: Fondant icing(sugar paste) Ready made fondant is easily obtainable from the supermarket but is also quick and easy to make. It can be bought in many colours or it can be coloured using food dyes. It can be used to cover all kinds of cakes it is soft and pliable to be used to make all kinds of sugar decorations. Examples of the uses of fondant icing: Modelling Paste Similar to fondant icing but more versatile for making models and decorations because it contains a substance called Gum tragacanth which acts as a strengthening agent so it sets much harder and holds its shape better to make animals and figures. Examples of the uses of modelling paste:. Buttercream Made with icing sugar and softened butter A versatile filling, icing or frosting for almost any type of cake, which can be spread evenly and patterned with a knife or piped onto a cake. Different types of flavourings can be added e.g. vanilla, coffee, citrus, chocolate and liqueur. Examples of the uses of buttercream: Glace icing This is a quick and easy icing made by mixing icing sugar with a small amount of water and if required food colouring. It is used mainly as a simple topping for sponge cakes/buns and sometimes when making novelty cakes. Add the water carefully as too much will give a very runny icing. If you work quickly you can produce attractive designs such as feathering. Examples of the uses of glace icing:

8 Fondant Icing Ingredients Ingredients 1 tbs of Icing sugar
Place softened butter in a bowl and place icing sugar on top. With a wooden spoon carefully mix ingredients together paying attention to the ‘fly-away’ nature of the icing sugar. Once combined, beat until smooth. If the butter icing is too stiff a little milk or water can be added until the right consistency is reached. Butter icing can be piped with a piping bag and nozzle or spread either between the layers of a cake or on top as a decoration Top tip: don’t make icing too wet – it is harder to spread or pipe Ingredients Ratio 1:2 butter to icing sugar (ie 50g butter and 100g icing sugar) Fondant Icing Fondant icing (also called ready roll or dough icing) can be bought from a shop or supermarket. It can be bought in plain white or in smaller blocks of colour. Two colours can be mixed together to make a third, or if not completely mixed, to gain a marbled effect Colour can be introduced using food dyes, for stronger colours food dye gels are more effective as they have less liquid in them. Fondant icing can be rolled out flat and shaped over a cake or used to model into designs, figures and shapes. It can also be cut out using cutters. To stick fondant icing to a cake a little apricot jam is usually used Top tip: For best results keep the icing cool and dry. Fondant icing is great for strong colours and graphics Ingredients 1 tbs of Icing sugar 1 tsp of water  Carefully mix the icing sugar with the water 1 or ½ tsp at a time until the consistency is suitable for either spreading on top of a cake or using in a piping bag. A fine nozzle can be used for writing or drawing ‘Writing icing’ can be bought from shops or supermarkets ready made in tubes of colours

9 Fondant icing(sugar paste) Modelling Paste
In the spaces provided Design a cake which shows the use of each of the following types of icing. Annotate/label each of the designs to show the functions of the ingredients used. Marzipan Royal icing Fondant icing(sugar paste) Modelling Paste Buttercream Glace icing

10 Decorating with Chocolate
Aspire: investigate the use of other ways than icing to decorate a cake. Challenge: Recognise the versatility of chocolate and cream when used in cake decorating. Decorating with Chocolate Chocolate is a versatile and delicious cake decorating medium. It can be simply grated, made into curls or cut out shapes and piped or drizzled. In the space below show how you would decorate a cake using chocolate be sure to annotate your design Using fresh cream to decorate cakes Fresh cream can be used to pipe decoration or to cover a cake but remember only use double or whipping cream In the space below show how you would decorate a cake using chocolate be sure to annotate your design

11 Aspire: To recognise how to adapt cake recipes to suit people with specific dietary needs.
Challenge: To be able to develop and adapt a cake recipe for improvement. Adapt a traditional Victoria sandwich cake and produce designs to show how to improve/develop the following. The nutritional value in order to make it a healthier product The flavour and texture The appearance and finish a) Healthier product b) flavour/texture c) appearance/finish

12 Adapt a traditional Victoria sandwich cake and produce designs to show how to make changes for a person with the following special dietary needs. diabetes Coeliac (gluten intolerance) Lactose intolerance Clearly annotate/label your designs to show the type of products you have used. a) diabetes b) Coeliac c) Lactose intolerance

13 Aspire: To recognise how to adapt cake recipes for different occasions Challenge: To be able to design and develop a cake in the test kitchen to showcase your ideas. Themes/occasions for cake making can include any of the following topics can you think of any others if so write them in the spaces provided. Birthdays weddings Festivals e.g. Christmas, Easter christenings Mothers day Graduations Design and make a cake for the following themes/occasions. Draw and label your designs in the boxes provided. Mother’s day Easter

14 Weighing Mixing Depositing Baking Cutting & creaming Sheeting
A child's birthday party age --- you decide ( could be a teenager or a young child) Aspire: To recognise the type of equipment needed to produce cakes. Demonstrate the use of some of this equipment in the practical sessions. Recognise the importance of a production plan and quality control when producing a product Challenge: To produce a table to show the difference between producing cakes in the kitchen and in large scale production. Task: Using the hand-out provided related to large scale production of a chocolate cake compare the making of a chocolate cake in a test kitchen with large scale production. Produce your findings in the table below or if you need more room draw it out on a sheet of A4 paper. process Test kitchen Large scale production Weighing Mixing Depositing Baking Cutting & creaming Sheeting Decorating Finishing Completed product

15 S Shape A Appearance T Taste S Size U Unit cost M Materials A Age
Match the names to the equipment used in cake making and decorating Electric whisk baking tins balloon whisk greaseproof paper food processor rolling pins Modelling tools and cutters piping bags cake turntable piping nozzles Production specification This gives details of a products characteristics including shape, size and sensory qualities. A test kitchen works to a product specification in order to produce a consistent product. The following mnemonic can help you to write a product specification S Shape A Appearance T Taste S Size U Unit cost M Materials A Age S Storage

16 TASK Look at the products and write a product specification for each of them that the test kitchen might have used S A T U M S A T U M

17 Quality control checks for decorating cakes
QUALITY CONTROL WHY IS IT IMPORTANT WHEN MAKING AND DECORATING CAKES? Customers like to know that each time they buy a product it is identical to the last one purchased. To make sure this happens food manufacturers put 9in place quality control checks throughout the making of the product. A food handler carries out VISUAL checks and computers carry out more scientific checks. Some examples of quality checks for a cake might be: Are the ingredients of good quality and well within their best before/use by date? Is the packaging damaged? Are the storage areas clean, dry and at the correct temperatures? Are the ingredients weighed and measured accurately? Is the mixer at the correct speed. Using the correct attachment, for the correct length of time? Is the consistency of the mixture correct? Is it the correct depth Are the shapes identical Is the oven temperature correct and is the product in the oven for the correct length of time? Task Write down 5 quality control checks you could use when decorating cakes Quality control checks for decorating cakes

18 Using the layout below, complete a plan for making your chosen design idea in the test kitchen.
Main stages of making Hygiene safety and quality control checks

19 Aspire: understand the difference between CAD and CAM
Aspire: understand the difference between CAD and CAM. Develop an understanding of how standard food components can be used when decorating cakes. Challenge: Recognise how CAD and CAM can be used in food production. Demonstrate the use of standard food components in cake decorating. TASK: Put the missing words into the sentences below. Choose the words from the list given below. Food mathematical safety packaging images sensory profiles Computer products food CAD is Computer Aided Design. It is the use of design programs to produce or drawings that can be used in the development of production. It can help with Product Nutritional modelling of to meet design criteria Model products to meet criteria Produce and hazard charts Help with calculations for scaling up Help with production of for the products Product program control mass ingredients food CAM is Computer Aided Manufacture It is the use of computer programs to and monitor processes during the production of food products. The computer has 3 main jobs. To the machinery to carry out specific tasks e.g. weighing To prevent spoilage hazards during the production run. To monitor the quality of the food at various stages of production. How is computer control and monitoring used in food processing? Weighing of ingredients to exact amounts Mixing of ingredients for an exact time at a n exact speed. Chopping of ingredients to an exact size Shaping of a product to an exact shape. Assembling products Coating products Cooking of food product for an exact length of time. At an exact temperature. HOW CAN COMPUTERS MONITOR FOOD SAFELY? Sensor detectors for finding metal or foreign bodies Microbial level detectors Temperature displays on fridges and freezers Critical temperature probes for hot food. TASK: Use the information from this sheet to list the processes you think CAM would be used to carry out in the mass production of a decorated cake. Write your answers on a sheet of A4 paper.

20 Using standard food components to decorate cakes
Remember a standard component is a pre-prepared item/ingredient that is used in the production of another product. In the food industry manufacturers buy standard components from other food manufacturers. Ready roll/fondant icing and marzipan are easy ways to decorate products without having to prepare everything yourself. A cake business might order in ready-made marzipan in various colours, but cut and shape it themselves to make the decorations they need. SOME EXAMPLES OF STANDARD FOOD COMPONENTS USED IN CAKE DECORATING MIGHT BE: READY ROLL/FONDANT ICING MARZIPAN CAKE DECORATIONS BUTTERCREAM DECORATIONS RICE /SUGAR PAPER DECORATIONS Write down as many advantaged and disadvantages you can think of for using standard components when decorating cakes ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

21 Exam type questions 1. Explain two ways to make a chocolate cake a healthier option. A) B) Why is it important to research existing food products before starting to design new products? Describe ways in which a computer could be used to research existing food products. 4. Explain why the following ingredients are used when making cake products. Flour Sugar Fats Eggs

22 Sensory a chocolate cake
5. (a) Describe two developments that would improve the chocolate cake he profile below shows the results of sensory pro(a) Describe two developments that would improve the chocolate cake file for a chocolate cake Sensory profile for a chocolate cake Sensory a chocolate cake EVEN SHAPE 5 4 3 2 1 DARK COLOURED SPONGE CHOCOLATE FLAVOUR CREAMY FILLING LIGHT , AIRY TEXTURE (a) Describe two developments that would improve the chocolate cake. (b) Describe ways to make sure that sensory testing is fair.

23 The cakes were different shapes and sizes
6. a)Give one example of a control check that is carried out by computerised equipment during the production of decorated cakes b)Explain why computers are used for this control check. During the production of decorated cakes the following problems were found. Complete the table below to show a cause of each problem. Explain how each problem could be prevented. Problem 1 A hair was found in the cake Cause . Prevent by .. Problem 2 The cake did not rise in the oven Problem 3 The cakes were different shapes and sizes

24 Explain five key features of the ‘Eat well Plate’.
7. a) Complete the chart below to explain two developments that will help each product meet healthy eating guidelines. Development ideas for healthier chocolate éclairs Development 1 Reason reducing fat levels in a chocolate cake increasing the fibre (NSP) content of a sandwich cake b) How do food manufacturers inform consumers about healthy eating guidelines? c) Consumers are encouraged to use the ‘Eat well Plate’. Explain five key features of the ‘Eat well Plate’.

25 What does disassembly mean?
HOMEWORKS HOMEWORK 1 What does disassembly mean? List three useful things you can find on the packaging of a food product. Name five faults you might find in an existing cake product that you could improve on. a)What is a target group? b) What features can you use to describe a target group? c) List five sensible things you could ask a target group if you were making a new kind of decorated cake. HOMEWORK 2 Describe two ways of coming up with ideas for a new product. What should you do after you’ve come up with plenty of ideas? Sketch and label/annotate three possible ideas for a new decorated cake product. How do you know which of your ideas is the best one to develop? How could you check the nutritional content of your product? HOMEWORK 3 1. What does modelling mean in food technology? 2. Imagine you are making a new kind of decorated cake product, but your first model’s texture is too dry. Describe three ways you could try developing your product to improve the texture. 3. What type of specification might change as you make different models of your product? 4. What type of specification stays the same? HOMEWORK 4 List six types of fats and oils Describe three functions of fats and oils in making cakes Name three other ways fats and oils are used in food and cooking. Explain why a diet containing no fat would be unhealthy. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats? Give two examples of each. Which is more closely linked with cholesterol-saturated or unsaturated fat? Why can having too much cholesterol in our diet be bad for our health? Homework 5 What is mass production? What does CAM stand for? What is a consistent product? What is meant by quality control? A manufacturer mass produces a decorated cake product. a) Describe how the manufacturer could use quality control to ensure the product is of a high standard. b) Give an example of possible biological contamination during the manufacturing process. c) How could the risk of contamination be controlled? HOMEWORK 6 a)Evaluate a range of decorated cake products-from the hand-out given. Comment on the shaping, finishing, flavourings, ingredients and sensory characteristics of each product . Display your results in a table form. b) Produce a list of standard food components which could be used in each product.


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