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Russell Czolgosz (Chōl·gŏsh) Lead Automation and Controls Engineer

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Presentation on theme: "Russell Czolgosz (Chōl·gŏsh) Lead Automation and Controls Engineer"— Presentation transcript:

1 Russell Czolgosz (Chōl·gŏsh) Lead Automation and Controls Engineer
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 The Secret Life of S88 ‘Cause hey, everyone needs a another acronym to remember Russell Czolgosz (Chōl·gŏsh) MTU ChE class of 1999 Lead Automation and Controls Engineer Dow Corning Corp Modified by DWC for CM4120 James H. Parshall

2 Allocation Arbitration Outline BATCH Recipe Procedure Operation
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Allocation Arbitration Outline Background What is ISA and S88? Recipe Types 4-parts of the S88 Model Physical Model Process Model Procedural Control Model Control Activity Model Tying it all together BATCH Recipe Procedure Operation The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall 2

3 Typical Manufacturing Challenges
S88 As We (Users) See It Typical Manufacturing Challenges 3/31/2017 Need Predictable Product Quality Variation in feedstocks Poor control of manufacturing processes Human error Differences between processing locations Overcome High Manufacturing Costs Low equipment utilization – difficulty in scheduling Using old processing/control technologies Labor intensive High cost of energy Poor flow of material and information Would Like New Markets/ New Products Need “Agility” but have a dedicated system Rigid design creates long product/process development times Two of the biggest business challenges that manufacturing companies face today are: successfully planning production and, conforming to the plan. The fallout from handling these activities poorly includes: missed shipment dates and, underutilizing plant resources. A prerequisite to good production planning is a solid production execution. Irrespective of good production planning software or well-trained employees, inherent variability in your processes can create havoc. S88 techniques and solutions can: help reduce the variability in your batching operations allow you to better predict the time and resources needed to execute an order. The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall 3

4 Traditional Process Development
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Traditional Process Development Design equipment for a specific process/ product Develop procedures to make that product Implement process control to meet the product requirements and fit the SOP At completion all aspects of the SOP/ product/ equipment/ control are rigid, hard-coded, and fixed This type of implementation: Hinders Process Improvement Prohibits Manufacturing Agility Prevents Asset Optimization The goal of S88 is to prevent these roadblocks. The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall 4

5 ISA S88 is... ISA – International Society of Automation
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 ISA S88 is... ISA – International Society of Automation S88 (or ISA 88) Batch Control Standard Currently a 4-part standard Part 1 Models and Terminology (ANSI/ISA-88.01) Part 2 Data Structures & Guidelines for Languages (ANSI/ISA ) Part 3 General and Site Recipe Models & Representation (ANSI/ISA ) Part 4 Batch Production Records (ANSI/ISA ) Part 5 is currently in draft SP88 is the Batch Control Standards Committee SP88 (the Committee) outlined a two-part standard. Part 1, S88.01, is about models and terminology; 1995 Part 2, S88.02, is about data structures and guidelines for languages; 2001. The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall 5

6 The Intent of S88: Promotes modularity and flexibility
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 The Intent of S88: Promotes modularity and flexibility Emphasizes good practices for design/ operation Provides a common concepts, framework, models, and terminology Improve efficiency/ control of mfg. plants (batch, semi-continuous, and continuous) It is a guideline, NOT a compliance standard “Standard” not a code or regulation that is mandated by law. The term “S88-compliant” does not make sense. “S88-aware” or “S88-consistent” would appear to be more appropriate. The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

7 S88 – Must be Interpreted! S88 defines general practices
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 S88 – Must be Interpreted! S88 defines general practices Written to apply to the entire processing industry Makes suggestions and provides examples Does not list requirements Suggests standardized modular design concepts Reusable design components Similar to object-oriented computer programming The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

8 Benefits of an S88 Solution?
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Benefits of an S88 Solution? Modularity allows for easier replication and better ROI Design concepts make validation easier 3. S88-aware solutions help track product and process data 4. Gathering requirements from customers/ conveying requirements to vendors is easier 5. Provides guidelines on how to recover from abnormal events Benefit from the replication of recipes and equipment control code. Can duplicate equipment functionality with minimal changes, significantly reducing time needed to implement subsequent projects. Good S88 design will allow validation of procedures and equipment independently. Documenting/validating without such a system is tough. Makes recipes difficult, if not impossible, to maintain. If recipes are kept at a higher level they are more flexible. The person who knows what process changes are required -scientists, process engineers, or lead operators- can make the changes directly. When there is a problem with a product, can be difficult to understand what was being done in the process at a given time. S88 software tracks the state of the batch in a log that can be integrated with a data historian or warehouse. Since common terminology and models help us know what questions to ask, S88 helps better define the manufacturing process. Working with more than one vendor is also easier. If everyone follows S88, we are much more likely to have better success integrating products from different vendors. In the long term, as vendors become more comfortable with S88, we should experience quicker turnaround time on systems and projects. Recovering from abnormal events is one of the most difficult parts of batch control. In many non-S88 installations, automatic recovery is not implemented and operators and/or engineers are needed to get equipment and the recipe back in sync. The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

9 S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Spirit of S88 Not just a standard for software, equipment, or procedures A new way of thinking – a design philosophy Understanding S88 will help you design better processes and manufacture better products Isolates equipment from recipes Identify your needs better. Make recipe development easier. Help reduce the time it takes to reach full production levels with a new system or for each new product. S88 is a framework of terminology and methodology for modular batch automation. The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

10 Improved Batch Processing
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Improved Batch Processing Throughput Cost Reduced batch cycle time Increased production rate Faster changeover More scheduled recipes Reduced downtime Faster process development Quicker product launches Reduced raw material loss Improved batch consistency Better equipment utilization Less time to add/modify recipes Lower engineering cost Lower data capture cost Better data availability Lower cost of capturing data, including less time to record batch data Data availability is better: A larger quantity of higher-quality data is accessible for analysis The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

11 Steps in Applying S88 Learn the terminology
S88 As We (Users) See It Steps in Applying S88 3/31/2017 Learn the terminology Break the process down into appropriate components Identify the steps necessary to produce the product Identify recipe parameters Tie the recipe to the procedures Map the procedure to the processing equipment The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

12 S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 S88 Recipe Types What we want to make, what equipment we need, and how we want to do it The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

13 4 Recipe Types 1. General Recipe Enterprise-wide
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 4 Recipe Types 1. General Recipe Enterprise-wide Includes product-specific processing information 2. Site Recipe Specific to a site Includes site-specific information (language, raw materials, on-site limitations, etc.) 3. Master Recipe Targeted to a specific cell Starting w/ a Site Recipe, is adapted to Process Cell-specific equipment 4. Control Recipe Consists of a Master Recipe plus Batch ID, batch size, etc. Forever tied to a particular batch and is specific to that batch – permits product tracking General Recipe May be transformed into Site Recipe May be transformed into Master Recipe May be transformed into Recipe Type is useful as a means of classifying the recipe in terms of what how much detail it must contain. A General Recipe would exist in some form in SAP or other Enterprise Management Software. General and Site Recipes say how to do something in principle. Master and Control Recipes say how to do something with actual equipment. Control Recipe Ref. S88.01 Fig.8 – Recipe types The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

14 S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Recipe Definition A recipe holds the data that uniquely identifies the components of a specific product Ingredients to use Quantity of ingredients Equipment requirements The order in which tasks are performed Recipes do not contain scheduling or equipment control information The recipe gets the equipment it needs, then pushes stored parameters out to the operators and control system. The “filled out” Control Recipe is “run” on the physical equipment so that we can make our product. The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

15 Applying S88 – 4 Models Defined
S88 As We (Users) See It Applying S88 – 4 Models Defined 3/31/2017 Process Model Physical Model Procedural Control Model Control Activity Model The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

16 S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 S88 The Process Model Describes the hierarchical ordering of process functionality needed to produce a batch. Is not equipment specific – very conceptual. Used to develop the recipe procedures section in the General and Site Recipes (high-level recipes). The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

17 S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Process Model General and Site Recipe procedures will be based on the “Process Model” Process Make PDMS Consists of an ordered set of Polymerize Remove Low Boilers Cool Product Process Stage Consists of an ordered set of Prepare Reactor Charge React Process Operation This describes the ordered set of process actions necessary to make the product. Consists of an ordered set of Add req’d 245 Fluid Add req’d Endblocker Heat to 140 C Process Action The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

18 S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 S88 The Physical Model The equipment used to perform the process. Defines the hierarchy of the equipment. This one is the easiest one to understand. The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

19 Physical Model Enterprise Site Process Cell Unit Area Equipment Module
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Physical Model Subdivision of the corporation’s PHYSICAL ASSETS organized in a hierarchy of equipment that consists of several integrated levels Consists of all the production and supporting equip necessary to make a batch Enterprise Site Process Cell Unit Area Equipment Module Control MTU Process Cell Unit Equipment Module Control PSCC A major piece of equipment within a process cell that performs a specific task Houghton PDMS Reactor Unit Solvent Recovery Unit Grouping of equipment & control modules that together perform a minor task Chem Sci Building Agitator Temp Feed Discharge Basic discrete and analog control (output) devices Agitator Controls Outlet valve Temp Controller The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall 19

20 An Example Process Cell
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 An Example Process Cell Material Charging Material Selection Pressure Control Process Cell Mix FT M Unit PT Temperature Control TT Discharge and Recirc Equipment Module Control Module Pump FT The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

21 Defining a Unit Batching cannot occur without units
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Process Cell Defining a Unit Unit Equipment Module Control Module Batching cannot occur without units Batching occurs in units Units perform one or more major processing activities A unit is used on only one batch at a time A Unit runs a recipe Combine ingredients, or perform a reaction Adds value to your product or intermediate Units function independently of each other The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

22 Examples of Units: Is Not a Unit Is a Unit Mix-making batch tank 4
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Examples of Units: Is Not a Unit Is a Unit Mix-making batch tank 4 Pasteurizer 4 Reactor 4 Pump 4 Ingredient storage tank 4 Washing machine 4 A dishwasher is a great example of a unit since it more or less runs a recipe, and we consider cleaning dishes and silverware as adding value. Kitchen blender 4 Refrigerator 4 Dishwasher 4 The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

23 S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Process Cell Equipment Modules Unit Equipment Module Control Module Equipment modules group devices for performing one or more specific minor processing activities Equipment modules run portion(s) of a recipe FT Mix M Material Charging Equipment Module The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

24 S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Process Cell Control Modules Unit Equipment Module Control Module Control modules “connect” software to the process through sensors and actuators Act as a single entity from a control standpoint Carry out Basic Control – they do not contain procedural control Material Selection Temperature Control TT The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

25 Physical Model is Collapsible
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Physical Model is Collapsible Process Cell Although a process cell must contain at least one unit: A control module does not have to be part of an equipment module to be part of a unit A unit can “own” control modules directly Unit Equipment Module Control Module The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

26 S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 S88 The Procedural Control Model Sequence of steps necessary to produce a batch. Defines the sequential control that enables equipment to perform the process task. Used to develop the Recipe Procedures section of the Master Recipe The specific control setpoints, quantities, controller modes, etc. required to make a defined quantity of a certain product Procedural control is a characteristic of batch processes. Orders the Control Modules to change setpoints or modes, change tuning parameters, reset alarms, change limits, etc. The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

27 Procedural Control Model
S88 As We (Users) See It Procedural Control Model 3/31/2017 Defines the process strategy for making a batch within a process cell A hierarchy of the actions that are performed to complete a batch Procedure Unit Operation Phase Make PDMS Defines the actions that are performed on a Unit Consists of an ordered set of Operations that control the functions of the unit Polymerize Remove Low Boilers Cool Product Defines an ordered set of phases that are arranged to perform a particular function within a unit -One or more operations could occur simultaneously Prepare Reactor Add Ingredients Heat Description of the step-by-step procedures to produce the batch. Phases are the lowest level of the Procedural Model. Phases tell the Equipment Modules in the Physical Model what to do by setting the Equipment Module in a particular state. As Equipment Modules change state, work gets done. Operations are an ordered/organized set of phases. Operations cause the phases to occur in the proper order to make the desired product. Unit Procedures are the series and parallel sets of operations that control the activities of a unit (in the equipment model.) A Procedure is the set of ordered unit procedures required to make a batch. Defines a simple action or command to set or change the state of an Equipment Module -Can be subdivided into steps and transitions Add 245 Add Endblocker The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall 27

28 Procedural Control Model Example
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Procedural Control Model Example Phases are the workhorses. Other levels simply group, organize, and direct phases. Make Toothpaste Procedure Unit Procedures Make Paste Make Gel Swirl Prepare Tank Add Ingredients React Operations Add Water Add Fillers Add NaF Phases The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

29 The Automation Specification:
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 The Automation Specification: Physical Model Enterprise Procedural Control Model A document that describes how Equipment Modules are related to a Unit and how the Phase(s) control each Equipment Module Site Procedure Area Unit Procedure Process Cell Unit Operation The Automation Specification describes how the equipment and control modules are tied to the unit. The Auto Spec also describes the various phases that each equipment or control module can be in, and all the actions that take place in each phase. Equipment Module Phase Control Module The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

30 S88 Models Tie Together thru Mapping
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 S88 Models Tie Together thru Mapping Relates the procedural control model to the physical model to provide the processing described in the process model Involves MAPPING of Procedural Elements into Physical Entities The Physical Model plus the Procedural Control Model describe the full capability of what we have. These two models describe the equipment and it’s functionality. The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

31 S88 – Model Relationships
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 S88 – Model Relationships Procedural Control Model Physical Model Process Model Procedure Process Cell Provides process functionality to carry out a… Process Combined With a + Unit Procedure Unit(s) Process Stage Provides the functionality to carry out a… + Operation(s) Unit(s) = Process Operation + = Process Action Phase(s) Unit(s) Not necessarily a one-to-one correspondence. Phase(s) + Equipment Module(s) = Process Action Ref. S88.01 Fig.7 – Procedural control/equipment mapping to achieve process functionality The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

32 Separate Models Add Flexibility
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Separate Models Add Flexibility Separation of Recipe, Procedures, Equipment/ Basic Control into separate models: Each component is maintained as an entity Changes in the Recipe do not necessarily require changes to the Phase Logic Changes to the Phase Logic do not necessarily require changes to the Recipe Changes to physical equipment do not necessarily require changes to the other models By separating the Procedure Model from the Physical Model, we are able to easily identify multiple assets in our plant that the procedures can operate on. Further, by separating the Recipe Model from either the Physical or Procedural Models, we are able to vary control parameters to produce a wide variety of products using suitable assets without a complete re-writing the automation code and SOP’s for the equipment. The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

33 Summarizing the 1st Three Models
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Summarizing the 1st Three Models Corporate sends a General Recipe to my Site Convert General Recipe to a Site Recipe then Convert Site Recipe to a Master Recipe, for each suitable cell, complete with setpoints, timing, quantities, tolerances, etc. When we make a Batch, the Master Recipe gets transformed into a Control Recipe allocate specific equipment create a batch identifier make the product, record all processing parameters Control Recipe forever tied to that batch of product The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

34 Summarizing the 1st Three Models
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Summarizing the 1st Three Models In our plant, we define: Physical Model (what Units and Equipment Modules we have and the Basic Control that operates each) Procedural Control Model (all the Phases that each Equipment Module can be in, what each Phase accomplishes, and the sequence of operations) Mapping the Physical Model onto the Procedural Control Model produces the functionality described in the Process Model Process Model describes what Process Actions will occur in each Phase of the process The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

35 Transition Expression
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Recipe Header Original Nestlé Toll House Chocolate Chip Cookies Makes about 5 dozen cookies Ingredients: 2 1/4 cups all-purpose flour 1 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon salt 1 cup (2 sticks) butter, softened 3/4 cup granulated sugar 3/4 cup packed brown sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 2 large eggs 2 cups (12-ounce package) NESTLÉ® TOLL HOUSE® Semi-Sweet Chocolate Morsels 1 cup chopped nuts Directions: PREHEAT oven to 375° F. COMBINE flour, baking soda and salt in small bowl. Beat butter, granulated sugar, brown sugar and vanilla extract in large mixer bowl until creamy. Add eggs one at a time, beating well after each addition. Gradually beat in flour mixture. Stir in morsels and nuts. Drop by rounded tablespoon onto ungreased baking sheets. BAKE for 9 to 11 minutes or until golden brown. Cool on baking sheets for 2 minutes; remove to wire racks to cool completely. Batch of Cookies! Batch Size Control Recipe Formula Inputs Master Recipe Operations Procedure Recipe Parameters Phases Transition Expression This does not tell us which oven to use, what spoon, bowl, or mixer. Simply a set of instructions that applies to any processing facility (kitchen) The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall 35

36 S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 S88 The Control Activity Model The 4th Model “Cactus Model” Shows relationships between control activities Describes flow of information throughout the enterprise The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

37 Control Activity Model
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Control Activity Model Production Information Management Recipe Planning and Scheduling Process Unit Supervision Control Personnel and Environmental Protection Below this line is outside S88 Scope Data Batch and Process Cell Information Batch Progress Batch Schedule Master Batch Schedule Batch and Unit Batch Status Statuses Commands Unit Recipes and Commands Information is second in importance only to human resources Information is typically inaccurate S88 attempts to address data quality problems Batch Control Software provides “hooks” for all these links and provides for automated flow of information The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall 37

38 Overall Value of S88 Permits easy product customization
S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 Overall Value of S88 Permits easy product customization Color, level of impurities, packaging, viscosity, composition, etc. Facilitates rapid product change-over Helps identify suitable assets at different sites Allows for easy recipe conversion into local languages Remember: S88 is only one element in a system of manufacturing The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall

39 S88 As We (Users) See It 3/31/2017 References Applying S88 Batch Control from a User’s Perspective, Jim Parshall and Larry Lamb, ISA, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2000. ISA S (R2006) Batch Control Part 1: Models and Terminology, ISA, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2006. World Batch Foundation, International Society of Automation, The Secret Life of S88 June 11, 2009 James H. Parshall


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