# NEED What are GHGs IPCC UCS CO2 graph - paleo Temp graph - paleo Pfaff plan.

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NEED What are GHGs IPCC UCS CO2 graph - paleo Temp graph - paleo Pfaff plan.

OUTLINE To show the direct relationship between engine emissions and carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere---- and global warming. To relate the science to the society To provide courses of action.

The Planet The Engine

winter summer CO 2 Level Season Happy Planet ! REGULAR BREATHING

The real planet we live on CO 2, ppm (parts per million) Year 1958 2004 315 375

Where does the CO 2 come from? GASOLINE OR COAL OR NATURAL GAS ALWAYS PRODUCES CARBON DIOXIDE AND WATER WHEN BURNED IN AIR Other products too, in very small amounts.

Burning hydrocarbon fuels MUST produce CO 2 and water

In different units: 1 gallon of gas produces 18 lbs (8kg) of carbon dioxide RULE OF THUMB: 1 MILE ~ 1/2 POUND OF CO2. CO 2 stays in the atmosphere for about 100 years, so it adds up.

Lets calculate: 1 gallon of gas produces 8 kg of carbon dioxide IF 800 MILLION VEHICLES IN THE WORLD BURN 2 GALLONS EACH PER DAY How many kg of CO 2 are produced per year?

Lets calculate: 1 gallon of gas produces 8 kg of carbon dioxide IF 800 MILLION VEHICLES IN THE WORLD BURN 2 GALLONS EACH PER DAY = 800 x 10 6 x 2 x 8 x 365 = 4672000 x 10 6 5 x 10 12 kg Total kg of CO 2

Lets calculate: 1 gallon of gas produces 8 kg of carbon dioxide So 5 x 10 12 kg ( 5 billion tons) of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere each year, just from cars and trucks. IS THAT A BIG NUMBER?

Our Atmosphere is very Thin

The Atmosphere The atmosphere of the earth is mainly Nitrogen (78%) and Oxygen (21%) by volume. Carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) is only around 0.038% Q. How many parts per million is 0.038%?

The Atmosphere The atmosphere of the earth is mainly Nitrogen (78%) and Oxygen (21%) by volume. Carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) is only around 0.038% Q. How many parts per million is 0.038%? A. 0.038x10 -2 = 380 x 10 -6 = 380 ppm

The Atmosphere Carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) is only around 0.038% Q. How many parts per million is 0.038%? A. 0.038x10 -2 = 380 x 10 -6 = 380 ppm CO 2, ppm Year 1958 2004 315 375

Mass of the Atmosphere is 5.2 thousand trillion tons So pA = m atm g So m atm = pA/g = p (4πR 2 )/g = 5.2 x10 18 kg

Lets calculate: 1 gallon of gas produces 8 kg of carbon dioxide Vehicles add 5 x 10 12 kg of CO 2 into the atmosphere each year. IS THAT A BIG NUMBER? Mass of atmosphere = 5.2 x10 18 kg

i.e. One part of CO 2 per million parts of atmospheric mass per year. (in volume units it is nearly 0.7 ppmv/yr) This is for vehicles only (add power plants etc. and it comes to around 2 ppmv/yr)

CO2 YEAR

CO 2 and Temperature

temperature Carbon dioxide Easy to understand Much harder to understand

The State of Our Global Temperature The 10 warmest years have all occurred since 1994

Greenhouse Gases

The State of Our Atmosphere Data from IPCC 10001200140016001800 Year 750 1750 260 360 250 310 CH 4 (ppb) CO 2 (ppm) N 2 O (ppb) 2000

CO 2 and Temperature

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX VS. ENERGY USE From A Pasternack LLNL Rep. No. UCLR-ID 140773 (Oct. 2000)

Carbon dioxide Information center CDIAC.ORNL.GOV INDIA CO2 EMISSIONS

INDIA CO2/capita

US CO2/capita Carbon dioxide Information Center cdiac.ornl.gov

US CO2 emissions Carbon dioxide Information Center cdiac.ornl.gov

Carbon emissions are related to: Population (N) amount of carbon to make a unit of energy (C/E) energy usage per unit of GDP (E/GDP) GDP/capita (GDP/N)

Kaya Identity N = population GDP = Gross Domestic Product E = energy usage C=carbon into the atmosphere

N GDP/N E/GDP C/E Kaya Identity: Hoffert et al Nature V.395 29 Oct. 1998 C x x x =

CO2 and global warming are due to: Population increase (demography, geography,economics,sociology,psychology,history….) Increase in standard of living (development,sociology,economics,business,engineering,government………… ) The amount of carbon we use to produce the energy (engineering, chemistry,physics,materials science…….) The energy usage per unit of GDP (business, economics,engineering,operations research……..)

MORE INFO: Google 1. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 2. UCS (Union of Concerned Scientists) 3. Tom Pfaffs Sustainability Calculus Page 4. State of the Planet course, Cornell 5. Institute for the Environment, Berkeley

ACTION 1.Internalization 2.Education/Research 3.Outreach 4.Involvement with policy 5. Examine Tradition

IPCC 2007

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