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Traditions and Local Rights over Genetic resources in the context of

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1 Traditions and Local Rights over Genetic resources in the context of
Community Biodiversity Management Malayali E.D.Israel Oliver King and Saujanendra Swain M.S.Swaminathan Research Foundation

2 Context Role of Communities in conserving Plant genetic resources
Customary practices and local rights of Farmers Drivers of change and its effect over PGR Dynamic Community Biodiversity Management and process of Empowerment

3 Kolli Hills Malayali Tribe Tribal Settlement Terraced Fields
Paddy field Hut

4 Folk lore, Folk Songs and Life of the Tribal Communities
Kummipadal Odukkai padal Parambupadal Attukattupadal Kuravan Kurathi padal Servai padal Thirumanapadal Andikolam padal Komalipadal

5 Sanskritzed Traditions
Sacred Forests Goddesses Worship Kongayi, Pidari, Ettukkai,Kannimar, Rathathamman, Kollippavai Sanskritzed Traditions Perumansolai and Masiperiasamisolai Ancestral Worship Ayyanappattan, Panguliappattan

6 Traditional Farming Upland Paddy Mixed Farming Threshing Yard Stall Feeding Back yard poultry

7 Customary Practices Quality Seed Selection Community Seed Bank
Manual Dehusking Seed Exchange

8 Interaspecific Millet Diversity in Kolli Hills
Little millet (Samai) Panicum sumatrance Italian millet (Thinai) Setaria italica Common millet (Panivaragu) Panicum miliaceum Kodo millet (Varagu) Paspalum scrobiculatum Interaspecific Millet Diversity in Kolli Hills

9 Plant Genetic Resources
Secondary centre of Origin of Rice (1750 landraces) (24 aromatic, 27 flood resistant, 2 deep water and 10 drought resistant and some others are insect/ pest resistant, puffing quality, etc.) 8 species of minor millets, 9 species of pulses, 5 species of oil seeds, 3 species of fibrous plants, 7 species of vegetables

10 Time of maturity (Month)
Some valuable rice landraces preserved by tribal farmers for religious function Rice variety Predominant quality Festivals Time of maturity (Month) Kalakrishna Scented All festivals January Tulsi Chaitra Parva April Machhakanta White slender short grins, good taste Manabasa and Lakshmi Puja November Mer Black grains with medicinal properties Annual ceremony of forefathers * Kalajeera Temple deities Haladichudi White slender long grains, good taste Shakti puja December Deulabhoga Bold and short grains, reddish tinge on cooking with mild scent preferred during worship at temples

11 Factors responsible for Erosion of crops and Dwindling Customary Practices
Intensity (* - less, ** - strong and ***- very strong influence) Introduction of commercial crops like tapioca, coffee, pepper etc with good market linkages and promotion by govt.policies *** Access to PDS Rainfall variability especially onset ** Conversion of land to agro forestry * Lack of market channels Drudgery in processing Culinary esteem of alternate crops Land fragmentation Peer group pressure and other constraints Limited availability of farmyard manure

12 Shift from Subsistence Economy to Cash Economy

13 In the Changing Socio cultural Context Will communities sustain
with their Customary management practices of Biodiversity ?

14 Integrated Approaches in CBM – Formal
Grass root institution building Seed multiplication & distribution Technology appraisal Skill enhancement Processing & Value Addition Marketing Linkage System management Role Change Participatory Research

15 Conservation Seed Distribution Seed Multiplication Seed Storage
– Thombai Seed exchange Cultivation

16 Participatory Plant Improvement to achieve
Cultivation Participatory Plant Improvement to achieve higher productivity Traditional method of cultivation Modified method of Cultivation Between Row spacing 20 cm Between Plant spacing 10 cm

17 Drudgery Reduction and Consumption
Drudgery in Pounding

18 rpWjhdpak; muit ,ae;jpuk;
fy; ePf;fp ,ae;jpuk; ckp ePf;fp ,ae;jpuk; khT ,ae;jpuk; ney; miuf;Fk; ,ae;jpuk; Mapy; Nkhl;lh; LITTLE MILLET ITALAN MILLET FINGER MILLET

19 Value addition Training
Traditional Recipes of Millet Foods Value addition Training

20 Capacity Building on Processing Millets

21 VALUE ADDED RECIPES OF SAMAI (Little Millet) & THINAI (Italian Millet)
Samai Rice Thinai Rice Samai Uppuma Thinai Uppuma Samai Poorna Kozhukkatai Samai Kara Kozhukkatai Thinai Poorna Kozhukkatai Thinai Kara Kozhukkatai Samai Sweet Puttu Thinai Sweet Puttu Samai Sweet Pongal Thinai Sweet Pongal Samai Sweet Idiappam Samai Thinai Kara Idiappam Thinai Sweet Idiappam Samai Thinai Sweet Paniyaram Samai Kara Paniyaram Thinai Kara Paniyaram Samai Payasam Thinai Payasam Samai Idli Thinai Idli Samai Dosai Thinai Dosai Samai Wheat Flour Dosai Thinai Wheat Flour Dosai Samai Kara Pongal Thinai Kara Pongal Samai Thinai Keera Roti Samai Bonda Samai Pakoda Thinai Bonda Thinai Pakoda Samai Thinai Ribbon Pakoda Samai Thinai Omapodi Samai Thinai Adai Samai Thinai Vadai Samai Thinai Murukku Thinai Adhirasam Samai Thinai Kachayam (Photograph: Dr. E. D. Israel Oliver King)


23 Campaign for Conservation and Promotion of millets
Folk Theatre Road Show Exhibitions

24 Niche Market Linkages City Market Local Market Peri Urban Market
Coimbatore (3) Trichy (1) Tanjavur (1) Ooty (1) Madurai (1) Kolli Hills (2) Tiruvannamalai (2) Chennai (2) Namakkal (5) Peri Urban Market

25 Infrastructure Development of Millet Processing Mills
Sale Deed Dhan Settlement

26 Legal Processes of Empowerment
MOU with the Block development Office Partnership deed for Nanbargal SHG Tax Payer’s Identification Number certificate (TIN) Sales Tax Certificate (CTC) Small scale industry certificate (SSI) Sales Deed Partnership Deed TIN Cert Sales Tax Cert SSIC Cert

27 KHABCOFED (Kolli Hills Agro biodiversity Conservers federation) in the Empowerment process
Tribal Farmer collectives Access to information Access to Credits Increased mobility Public participation Governorship over common property resources Collective Decision Making processes Awareness about the PGR and policy related issues

28 Kalajeera (An aromatic Rice for Promotion)
Formation of Kalinga Kalajeera Rice Growers Cooperative Society (KKRGCS) 500 acres , involving more than 700 farm families Procurement by NAFED One & half times more price than other rice GI trial of Kalajeera in 5district

29 Community Recognition & Reward
Genome Savior Award PPV&FR Authority, Govt. of India, 2006 Krishi Bisharad Sanman ICAR, New Delhi, 2002 Equator Initiative Award UNDP, Johansburg, 2002 Felicitation by Hon’ble Chief Minister of Orissa, 2004

30 Thank You

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