5Fish Revision Fish Revision Checklist Fish and fish products, chilling and freezing.You need to look at….properties and functions of ingredients in fish products,preparing, cooking and reheating,control checks for quality foods.
6Seafood- There are three types White fishShellfishOily fishCrustacea prawns scampi crabs lobsters shrimps Octopus squid cuttlefishCod haddock plaice whiting pollock coley dover soleherring mackerel sardines whitebait tuna (only counted as an oily fish if it is fresh or frozen)Molluscs scallops oysters cockles mussels winklesless than 5% fat in their flesh.10-20% fat in their flesh
7NutritionScientists suggest that we eat at least two portions of fish a week, one of which should be oil rich.Fish is a good source of protein and contains the essential fatty acids that cannot be made by the body and are needed for cell membranes.Fish is low in calories, a good source of the minerals iron, zinc, iodine and selenium and the B group vitamins
8(White fish less than 5% fat in their flesh.) Nutrition - Oily fishOily fish- rich sources of the fat soluble vitamins A and D which are important for growth and bonesSalmon is one of the major sources- good source of omega 3 (found in oil-rich fish and some plant oil) fatty acids10-20% fat in their flesh(White fish less than 5% fat in their flesh.)fatty acids are… the building blocks of fats important for a healthy heart, (lowering cholesterol levels and keeping our body healthy) Some fatty acids are made by the body some like Omega 3 fatty acids, cannot be made, and must be supplied by the diet
9Ways to buy fishFresh from a fishmonger or supermarket – you have a choice of freshly caught fishFrozen from the freezer of a supermarket – the fish is often cut into portions and has been frozen quickly after it is caughtCanned fish such as canned salmon, mackerel and pilchardsSmoked fish such as haddock and salmon which helps preserve and flavour the fish
10Cooking fishFresh fish cooks very quickly and if it is overcooked it becomes tough and dryDuring cooking the fish muscles shrink and moisture is squeezed outThe connective tissue in fish is called collagen and this changes into gelatine during cooking.
11Task - Fish cakes Design a recipe for Fish Cakes by changing a recipe -Use other ingredients to add flavour and colour and cost the recipe.-Compare the costs of different fish that you use. Canned fish may be less expensive than fresh fish.-Report on your findings.
12Task - Sustainability-Look at dolphin friendly products, sustainable fishing, fish farming.-Have a look at how labels show sustainable issues.Product analysisIn the preparation sheet, you need to learn about the properties and functions of ingredients used in fish products.The easiest way is to carry out a product analysis – an evaluation.Evaluate fish based products, then you could choose ready madeFish fingers; Fish pie; Fish curry; A fish pasta dish
13The design questionYou may be asked to design two products to meet the design criteria.This could be…- Design a fish pie that provides one of the five a day portions of vegetables- Design a fish cake that uses a sustainable fish.Try and draw a clearly labelled diagram to show the shape and size of the product.Make it clear what ingredients are used for each part of the product.You will have to justify your choice.Explain why it is a good design and how it meets the design criteria.
14Specification Functions of ingredients in fish pie Potato topping If you have to write a product specification, be very clear about the ingredients you will use, the size and shape of the product, and any design details.Functions of ingredients in fish piePotato toppingPotato protects delicate fish from over cookingProvides bulk with carbohydrate, which is cheapAdds extra nutrientsAdds extra flavourSauceAdds moisture with a glossy sauceAdds extra flavour such as herbsEnriches and adds colourAdds smooth texture and binds ingredients together
15How will your product be made? -Give the function of each ingredient you will use.-Produce a plan with step by step details.-Show two critical control points where checks are essential to make a safe product.-Give an example of feedback after a control check.-You can do this with a flow chart, list, and diagrams.-Standard components are used in manufacture-Manufacturers buy in ready made products They save time and money in large scale food production.Here are some examplesReady made pastry to roll out for piesFish already boned, skinned and chopped into pieces or mincedReady chopped onionsPrepared vegetables such as peeled, blanched potatoesInstant potato.
16Chilled foodsReady to eat chilled meals are kept in chiller cabinets in supermarkets. Cook-chill products must be hygienically and safely prepared. Cook chill foods may be fully cooked, fast chilled then stored at low temperatures above freezing point (0-3˚C).If food products are kept chilled at these low temperatures, the bacteria become inactive and do not multiply rapidly, which prolongs the shelf life.Cook chill products may be packed in modified atmosphere which also extends shelf life.
17Frozen food facts-Cook freeze foods are those such as fish pie which are fully or part cooked.-They are cooked then fast frozen and stored below freezing point -18˚C.-Frozen food can be stored for many months as microorganisms cannot grow at these temperatures.-Raw foods such as fish must meet microbiological and quality standards.-Flavours can change during freezing so food should be tasted and tested when products are designed for freezing. The texture of a frozen product can change after the product has been frozen and then thawed.Look at how products are frozen and what information is on the label. Star markings.
18Recipes to investigate Fish pie, fish fingers, fish cakes, tuna and pasta bake.Find the recipe and method and decide the function of the ingredients Carry out a plan to show quality controls and safety checks.Coating foodDelicate food such as fish needs to be coated to protect it from damage during cooking.In the food industry this is called enrobing.Fish can be coated with:A flour and water batterEgg and then breadcrumbsEgg and flourThe coating seals in the fish product and when cooked, becomes crisp, leaving the tender fish inside.Make sure you know the properties and functions of ingredients in your recipes.
19How are fish fingers made? This is an automated process and the fish pieces travel from one process to another on conveyor belts.1.The fish arrives at factories in large, frozen blocks.2.The skin has been removed and it has been checked to remove bones.3.The frozen fish is cut into planks – the name for the fish finger pieces.4.The planks pass through a batter enrober which is like a waterfall A wet batter of wheat flour and water coats the fish pieces.6.The fish pieces pass into breadcrumbs for coating.7.The fish fingers are quickly fried for 20 seconds at a specific temperature.8.They pass on the conveyor belt to the spiral freezer where they are frozen for 40 minutes at -18C.9.When frozen, the fish fingers are stored and then packed using an automated system, where they are check weighed and pass through metal detectors.10.They are packed into labeled packs, then into outer cases and held in frozen storage until they are dispatched in refrigerated transport to the stores.
20Temperature controls-Store perishable raw foods at temperatures around 5˚C.-Keep food out of the danger zone 5˚C – 63 ˚C and cook thoroughly so that the centre of the food reaches 70 ˚C for 2 minutes.-Food should be chilled as soon as it is cooked.Chill to between 0-3 ˚C within 90 minutes.-Store cooked food at temperatures between 0-3 ˚C.-Food should be kept at or below 3˚C until reheatingThis should not exceed 5 days including the day of cooking and eating.-Reheat food when you are ready to eat it. No more than 30 minutes after it is removed from chill. Heat so that the centre reaches 70 ˚C for 2 minutes. Some manufacturers recommend 72 ˚C for 32 minutes.-Serve as soon as possible and do not allow the temperature to drop below 63 ˚C.
21How to use a temperature probe There are many different types of probes used to measure food temperatures. Some have metal spikes that you can insert into the food, and others such as infra red probes can measure the outside temperature of the food.Insert the probe to a depth of 2 cm into the food. Let the measurement settle, and record the result. Wipe the probe using an anti-bacterial wipes before using again. This avoids cross contamination from other foods.In the food industry, sensors are linked to computers which monitor temperature changes in refrigerators, freezers, chill cabinets, ovens, cooling racks and storage facilities. Bacteria can multiply in warm conditions which can make the food dangerous to eat.
22Temperature control in food production Temperature control is needed through all stages of food production to make sure that food is kept out of the danger zone.The danger zone is the temperature range between 5˚C and 63˚C. If food is kept out of the danger zone this reduces the risk of dangerous bacteria multiplying and causing food poisoning.
23Buying foodKeep perishable foods in a cool bag and refrigerate as soon as possible. Food is delivered to factories in chilled delivery vans.Store perishable food in a refrigerators, and frozen food in freezers.The refrigerator should operate at 5˚C or below.The freezer should be kept at –18˚C. Industrial freezers can operate at -29 ˚C. Freezers stop bacteria growing but do not kill them, so once the food is defrosted, the bacteria can multiply in warm conditions.Refrigerators and freezers should be checked to make sure they are working properly.Food Hygiene Regulations require that most short life food must be stored at 8˚C or colder when it is being processed, during distribution and when on display in shops.
24Making a food product-Food products should be made quickly and food should not be left in a warm room, otherwise bacteria can multiply Many factories operate their production kitchens at 5˚C or below.-Cook food to a high enough temperature-Bacteria are destroyed at high temperatures, so food must be cooked and thoroughly heated to at least 70˚C at its centre for 2 minutes Then harmful microorganisms such as bacteria are destroyed Food can be tested using temperature probes.-Use an oven thermometer to check that ovens cook to the right temperature.
25Reheating foodReheated food must reach at least 70˚C at its centre for 2 minutes.If you are designing a food product that will be reheated in a microwave, you must test to find out how long it will be cooked to reach this temperature. This information goes on the label as part of serving instructions. When using a microwave oven the food is cooked from the centre outwards to the edge. It may need to be stirred or left to stand before eating to allow temperatures to even out.When food has been reheated it must be kept at a temperature at or above 63˚C. This is the holding temperature. Food should be kept warm for up to 2 hours maximum.Only re-heat foods once to avoid bacteria multiplying and the quality of food deteriorating.
26CoolingIf you need to cool foods for storage or re-heating, it must be cooled quickly. Cut large pieces of food into smaller pieces or spread foods such as rice over a larger surface area.When cool, cover and place in the refrigerator. Never store warm food in a refrigerator, as the inside temperature of the cabinet will rise.In industry, food is blast chilled after cooking, to chill it really quickly.
27Quality and safety checks Visual CheckRaw ingredients and finished products are checked by looking carefully at the productMicro-biological checkSamples are tested in a laboratory to see if there are dangerous levels of bacteriaOrganoleptic checkFinal products are tested for flavour, texture and aromaWeight CheckProducts are weighed and tested at the packaging stage(usually done by computer CAD)Chemical CheckSamples are tested in a laboratory to make sure they are free from contamination by dangerous chemicalsTemperature checkSamples are regularly checked by a temperature probe to ensure accurate temperatures for manufacture and storage.Metal checkMetal detectors are used to ensure the finished product has no metallic contamination