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The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) Joanne Holden David Haytowitz Pamela Pehrsson Agricultural Research Service.

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Presentation on theme: "The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) Joanne Holden David Haytowitz Pamela Pehrsson Agricultural Research Service."— Presentation transcript:

1 The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) Joanne Holden David Haytowitz Pamela Pehrsson Agricultural Research Service

2 Intake Assessment of Dietary Components Food Intake Component Values Component Intake Supplement Intake

3 National Nutrient Data Bank Nutrient Data Lab, BHNRC, ARS, USDA The reference source for food composition data Foundation for most other databases - National surveys - Therapeutic and research databases - Food frequency questionnaires - Product development, labeling, regulation Internet access and CD-ROM

4 Expansion of Food Composition Databases Food and Nutrient Data Dietary System (FNDDS) 7000 Recipe Foods reported by Participants ~62 Components Yield & Nutrient Retention Factors All Cells Filled Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) 7100 Foods Special Interest Databases Literature Analytical Reports Food Industry Short Lists of Foods & Values FFQ 3000 Foods

5 Information Flow Analytical Data (NFNAP, FCL, TDS, etc.) Industry Data Data from Scientific Literature Label Information Database ImputationsFormulations Recipes Algorithms Standard Reference (SR) Nutritive Value of Foods (HG72) Special Releases (Vitamin K, Carotenoids Flavonoids, Choline, Fluoride) Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Surveys

6 Database Applications NHANES: USDAs FNDDS Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) 2005 Dietary Guidelines & Clinical research – GCRCs – CRCs Epidemiological research

7 NFNAP 1 1997 – 2005 Designed to improve the quality and quantity of data in USDA food composition databases – Provide baseline nutrient data for important foods – Provide information on nutrient variability in foods – Targeted foods and nutrients – General and AI/AN population groups

8 NFNAP 1: Principle Aims Identify and prioritize Key Foods and nutrients Evaluate quality of existing data Develop sampling plans Analyze samples under USDA sponsored contracts Compile and disseminate data

9 Aim 1: Key Foods and Critical Nutrients Key Foods provide about 75% of the intake of a specific component or nutrient to the diet Based on nutrients of public health significance Consumption x concentration Foods alone and as ingredients Some foods are key for several nutrients Approximately 675 foods Ranking of Key Foods helps to set priorities for future research

10 Aim 2: Evaluate Quality of Existing Data Existing data were evaluated against the following criteria : Sampling plan Sample handling Number of samples Analytical methodology Analytical Quality Control (QC) -Existing data were frequently missing this information -Rating system applied to emerging bioactive components

11 Aim 3: Develop Sampling Plans Sample states selected proportional to the state population (US Census, 2000) Sample counties dispersed over the 48 states Sample counties selected proportional to the county population Sample Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSA) selected proportional to CMSA population 12 primary locations, multiples (24, 48), and random subsets of the primary 12 selected

12 (Census 2000 and projected 2001 Census estimates)

13 Aim 4: Analysis of Samples Use qualified commercial analytical labs For special nutrients, cooperative agreements with scientists at universities and government agencies – Vitamin K: Tufts Univ., Dr. Booth – Choline: Univ. of North Carolina, Dr. Zeisel – Fluoride: Univ. of Iowa, Dr. Levy – Proanthocyanidins: Univ. of Arkansas, Dr. Prior – Folate & Tocopherols: Univ. of Georgia, Dr. Eitenmiller – Fatty acids (including trans): Univ. of Maryland, Dr. Sampugna – Phytosterols, folate (5MTHF): VPI&SU, Dr. Phillips

14 Aim 4: Analysis of Samples Use of validated analytical methods Quality Control – Certified reference materials National Institute of Standards and Technology American Association of Cereal Chemists Others (Europe, China, etc.) – In-house materials developed – Cross validation of analyte concentrations

15 NDL Primary Labs Commercial contracts Sample Pickup Contract Statistical Consultants (NASS) FALCC Texas Tech Univ. Wisconsin NFNAP Infrastructure Industry Collaborations Specialty Labs Cooperative agreements

16 Aim 5: Data Compilation and Dissemination Data reviewed by Quality Control Panel Data migrated to NDLs Nutrient Databank System (NDBS) Data aggregated by NDLs staff scientists using statistical algorithms developed as part of NDBS redesign Released in SR Released in Special Interest Tables

17 Nutrient distribution and bias xx

18 NFNAP 1: Significant Findings Complete analytical profiles for foods! Fat levels in ground beef show major changes Fat in pizza doubled – 10 g vs. 5 g/100g in cheese pizza β-carotene in broccoli lower – 361 μg/100 g compared to 778 μg/100 g in prelim. data Vitamin C in MDII cultivar of pineapple doubled compared to older cultivars Monounsaturated fatty acids lower in jarred spaghetti sauce

19 Impact of DRI Changes FolateVit. AVit. EVit. B12 1968mgIU μg 1974μgREIUμg 1980μgREα-TEμg 1998- 2001 DFE& ug RAE & ug Mg alpha μg Incorporated Added Vitamin E and Added vitamin B12 to database to address different units for DRI upper limits

20 β-Carotene in Broccoli NFNAP Lab 1, Pass 1 Lab 1, Pass 2 Lab 2 Car98

21 Selenium in Ground Beef

22 Research and Methods Support Supported development or enhancement of analytical methods for: – Folate: FCL – Choline: UNC – Flavonoids: FCL – Proanthocyanidins: U. ARK. – Phytosterols: VPI

23 Research Infrastructure Support Developed QC program for fluoride database – Previously unknown to dental community Developed series of control composites for NFNAP QC program

24 Research Findings: Folate Demonstrated storage stability of folate Supported development of method to measure added folate and 5-methyltetrahydratefolate Updated database to reflect – Changes in enrichment standards – Adoption of Dietary Folate Equivalents (DFEs) in DRIs Showed variability between labs

25 Folate Variability between Labs for Different Food Items μg / 100 g

26 Fluoride variability in municipal water Number of samples Mg/100 g ppm


28 Bioactive Compounds ComponentYearNumber of food items Isoflavones1997128 Flavonoids2003 2006 225 ~400 Fluoride2004 2005 400 427 Proanthocyanidins2004205 Choline2004434

29 Research Accomplishments: NFNAP1 36 peer-reviewed publications/conference proceedings 23 oral presentations 71 poster presentations 12 database releases 3 articles in Agricultural Research Magazine Other media

30 NFNAP 2 - 5 New Project Objectives Institute a monitoring program for Key Foods and other foods Conduct a comprehensive analysis of selected foods Develop databases for high priority foods consumed by U.S. ethnic subpopulations Databases for bioactive components Develop validated database for ingredients in dietary supplements

31 Institute Monitoring Plan Designed to track changes in nutrient content of the food supply – Industry reformulations – Changes in nutrition labeling regulations Trans fatty acids New DRIs – Public health concerns Obesity Carbohydrates (e.g., added sugars, fiber)

32 Institute Monitoring Plan Identify foods and nutrients – Pickup of reformulated margarines in March 2006 – Pickup of reformulated cookies/crackers in April 2006 Develop sampling plan Analysis of limited nutrients in each food Statistical Assessment of differences

33 Conduct Comprehensive Analysis of Selected Foods Foods not analyzed in first phase of NFNAP Poultry products – Rotisserie chicken (analyzed in FY2005) – Fast Food products (1 st sampling 2/6/06) – Fresh/frozen chicken/turkey FDAs top 20 seafood, fruits, vegetables for nutrition labeling

34 Ethnic Foods Hispanic/Latino African American Asian/Pacific Islanders Native Americans/Alaskan Natives

35 Ethnic Foods Increased rates of diet related diseases – Obesity – CV disease – Diabetes – Cancer Use of traditional foods USDA support from 2006

36 Hispanic/Latino Foods Analyzed ~30 foods under NFNAP 1 Diverse population – Mexican – Cuban – Puerto Rican – Central/South America Varying degrees of acculturation Working with NCI to develop food priorities Full profile of nutrients to be analyzed

37 Bioactive Compounds: Future Research Vitamin D – Collaboration with food industry (e.g. Coca Cola, National Dairy Council), universities, and government incl. FCL – Validation of methods of analysis – Development of control materials – Identify foods and develop sampling plans Trans fatty acids - reformulations N-3 fatty acids database Conjugated linoleic acid? Glucosinolates/isothiocyanates?

38 Cost of Analyses Sample pickup – ~$1,000 per food (12 pickup locations) Sample preparation – ~$3,500 per food (4 composites) Analyses – ~$1,500 per sample – ~$6,000 per food (4 composites )

39 Gaps in Knowledge Lack of data for restaurant foods Limited nutrient profiles for some products Magnitude of variability for some foods and nutrients unknown Labs analytical expertise for some components Limits of NIST Standard Reference Materials and QC materials

40 Conclusions Original analytical data are an essential part of USDAs food composition databases Since the food supply is dynamic continuous support is required Nationwide sampling is critical New methods, new priorities, new protocols

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