Time-line of Bread 73000 BCAsia– Crushed grain mush 8000 BCAsia- Heated over fire 3000 BCMesopotamia– First baking vessels 2000 BCSwitzerland- First bread in Europe 1500 BCEgypt- First leavened bread (40 types) 1400 BCEgypt- Jews left; Matzo; Passover 800 BCGreece- Refined art of bread making 300 BCRome- Bakers guilds Mud ovens Water/wind mills for grinding 70 ADRome- First published cookbook 100 ADRome- First baking school 1000 ADEngland- Trenchers (first bread bowls)
Time-line of Bread 1202 ADEngland- First laws regulating bread 1307 ADEngland- Rift between bakers of white bread and brown bread 1620 ADAtlantic ocean- Ships biscuits 1700 ADAmerica- Batter breads 1760 ADEngland- Earl of Sandwich 1793 ADFrance- Let them eat cake 1800s England- Refined bread for aristocracy 1860sAmerica- Quick breads 1928 ADAmerica- Sliced bread 1930 ADAmerica- First fortifying w/ nutrients 1940sRussia- Bread of immeasurable value 1996 ADJordan- Riots over price of bread
Bread Ingredients In its purest form Ground grain Water Salt Unleavened or leavened with yeast Wide array of grain flours Wheat for gluten Herbs, fruits, onions, olives, seeds, etc.
Why is bread the staff of life? Inexpensive source of calories Excellent source of carbohydrates High in fiber (if whole grain) Protein Gluten in wheat is a partially complete protein Excellent source of most B vitamins plus some vitamin E and K Wide array of minerals Fe, Ca, Mg, P, Cu, Mn, Se, Zn, Cr Low in fat
Current Dietary Guidelines Make half of your grain intake whole grains 3 whole grains per day for a 2000 kcal diet Whole grains, as part of a healthy diet, may protect again chronic disease FDA has approved 3 whole grain health claims statements for use on labels
What kind of bread should I choose? Look for a WHOLE GRAIN BREAD Whole grain or Whole wheat as first ingredient Label that says 100% Whole Grain Dont be fooled by Wheat Bread, Stone Ground or brown colored breads Enriched flours or breads have some nutrients replaced, but they do not contain everything that a whole grain bread does
Our Project: Most cultures view bread as an critical part of life Actually synonymous with the word life or a similar derivative in many languages An integral part of life in most cultures deserves further study... We are currently collecting recipes & information in 2 categories: 1) Everyday breads 2) Celebratory breads
Traditional & Celebratory Breads What about rituals? Consider based on the form of ritual: Family Celebrations--holidays Family Traditions--vacations, birthdays Patterned interactions--dinner, bedtime, etc Consider based on the purpose of ritual: Connection rituals--outings, vacations, etc Love rituals--birthdays, Mothers Day, etc Community rituals--weddings, religious activities All are common in most cultures! Wolin & Bennett-- Doherty
Traditional & Celebratory Breads Value of Rituals & Traditional Celebrations 1) Stability (predictable, links past & future) 2) Continuity & Security (life goes on) 3) Protective positive forces during trauma (Ill be OK) ***something as common as bread can be an important part of traditions, rituals and celebrations
Results... Responses vary greatly Common thread- Those who respond have positive memories Lets let some of them tell you!
Classroom Applications Foodsthis is a given and well move on! TLC Adult Roles and Financial Literacy Clothing/Fashion Strategies Entrepreneurship Teen Living Interior design Child development Hospitality Life management Consumer economics Child care
Handout contents: Project letter & forms Recipes (thus far) Breadmaker adaptation when available Book list Web links