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Presented by: Filiz MOROVA İzmir Development Agency Assessment of Counter Current Washing and Change in Rope Route for Water Use Minimization in a Wet.

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Presentation on theme: "Presented by: Filiz MOROVA İzmir Development Agency Assessment of Counter Current Washing and Change in Rope Route for Water Use Minimization in a Wet."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presented by: Filiz MOROVA İzmir Development Agency Assessment of Counter Current Washing and Change in Rope Route for Water Use Minimization in a Wet Processing Textile Mill

2 Textile Manufacturing is one of the Largest Industrial Consumers of Water Environmental Technology Best Practice Program, guide Code EG98, Water Use in TextileDyeing and Finishing states that; the water consumption is: 150-200 kg/kg of product

3 Reducing the Water Consumption in Textile Mills Reducing the water consumption REDUCE WASTEWATER GENERATED & INCREASE THE COST EFFECTIVENESS. In the Guide called as A Step Towards Cleaner Production, Susan Barclay and Chris Buckley states that; Within any process, there are five main aspects that should be taken into account when considering the implementation of waste minimisation. raw materials used and other input materials such as water the type of technology, the manner is which the process is executed, the products that are formed, and the wastes and emissions that are generated.

4 The Textile Mill Studied The Textile Mill studied; is one of the major mills in Turkey has a capacity of 20 000 ton denim fabric per year includes Cotton Fiber Production, Dyeing, Sizing and Finishing 8

5 The Textile Mill Studied The production is 24 hours a day & 3 shifts/day The water consumption of 2000 m 3 /day Chemical consumption of 1000 ton/month Over 100 chemicals used It has own WWTP and Co-generation Units 9

6 Production Flow COTTON FIBER PRODUCTION DYING PROCESSES WEAVING FINISHING PROCESSES 150-200 kg of water/kg of product SIZING PROCESSES

7 Dyeing Processes Dyeing Machine includes the equipment which is used for preparation and softening processes. The flow chart for Dyeing Processes in the Mill; Preparation Pre-Washing Dyeing Back-Washing Water consumed in these processes is; about 40 % of the total water used through this whole production line of the Mill Softening

8 How to minimize the waste - How to reduce water consumption - NEW TECHNIQUES

9 WATER CONSUMPTION REDUCTION STUDY PROCESS REVIEWING DETERMINING THE WATER USAGE IN DYING PROCESS ASSESSMENT OF THE WATER CONSUMPTION REDUCTION OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY OF CHOSEN OPTIONS Through out the study;

10 Brain storms with the managers of the selected Textile Mill / Site Visits Literatural Reviews European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Reference Document on Best Available Techniques (BAT) for the Textiles Industry was accepted as main reference document. WATER CONSUMPTION REDUCTION STUDY

11 Rerouting the Rope-Guide Counter-Current Washing in Back- washing

12 Rerouting the Rope-Guide What is Rope-Guide? Different Dyeing recipes exist for Different Denim Products. Each recipe has its own application method in the Textile Mill. There are four Dyeing Machines in the Mill, which includes; Preparation, Pre-washing, Dyeing and Back-washing Units in different numbers of their application tanks. Therefore, there are some differences of applications of different Dyeing recipe. To adjusting the following Dyeing recipe application to the Dyeing machine, Rope-Guide is used in the Mill.

13 Prepara tion Tank Pre- wash ing 1 Pre- wash ing 2 Pre- wash ing N Dyein g 1 Dyein g 2 Dyein g N Back- washi ng 1 Back- washi ng 2 Back- washi ng N Route of Rope-Guide (Dyeing Recipe A) Water Flow New Route of Rope-Guide (Dyeing Recipe B) Rerouting the Rope-Guide Rope guide is fixed to the rope which will be going through the Dyeing processes, and it determines the route of the rope which will be dyed. Rerouting Rerouting is to change the route of the rope-guide in an environmental friendly way, which provides reduction of water consumption.

14 5 dyeing recipes (X, Y, Z, W, U) in different dyeing machines – Application Frequency within the period of the study: 30% of the number of the total dyeing recipe – Rerouting is applicable Rerouting alternatives were determined and application conditions were examined and application was achieved. Water saving was determined. The effect of varying dyeing time was observed. – The duration of dyeing can be changed between 165 min and 1000 min. Rerouting the Rope-Guide Materials and Methods

15 Dying Tank used as washing tank Washing Tank Washing Tank Fresh water feeding tank Q Q/3 Dying Tank used as washing tank Washing Tank Washing Tank Fresh water feeding tank Q Q/2 Fresh water Dying Machines 3 and 4 Dying Machines 1 and 2 Q Q/2 q

16 Rerouting the Rope-Guide X Type Dyeing recipe/Machine 1 V=2600 L V=1000 L Dying 1 Dying 2 Dying 3 Dying 4 Dying 5 Dying 6 Dying 7 Dying 8 Dying 9 Dying 10 Back washi ng 3 Back washi ng 2 Back washi ng 1 New route of guide-rope Water (new dying method) Old route of guide-rope Water (Old dying method) 33.3 L/min 7 dyeing tanks There isnt any extra freshwater feeding tank for dying tanks BUT.. 66.6 L/min

17 Rerouting the Rope-Guide X Type Dyeing recipe Water consumptions and water saving data for X type dying in machine 1 Amount of water consumed for back-washing in old dying method (L)63800 Amount of water consumed for back-washing in new dying method (L)56000 Water saving (%)12 265 minutes (6625 m of rope to be dyed, machine velocity=25 m/min) maximum water saving is 19 % where the minimum water saving is 4 % Amount of water consumed for back-washing in old dying method: (265 min * 200 L/min) + (1000 L/tank * 3 tank) + (2600 L/tank * 3 tank) = 63800 L Amount of water consumed for back-washing in new dying method: (265 min * 200 L/min) + (1000 L/tank * 3 tank) = 56000 L

18 Rerouting the Rope-Guide Y Type Dyeing recipe/Machine 2 Pre per atio n Pre was hing 1 Pre was hing 2 Pre was hing 4 Dyi ng 9 Dyi ng 8 Dyin g 7 Dyi ng 10 25 L/min Dyi ng 1 Dyi ng 2 Dyi ng 3 Dyi ng 4 Dyi ng 5 Dyi ng 6 New route of guide-rope Water Old route of guide-rope V=600 L V=1000 L V=2600 L Pre was hing 3 25 L/min 4 dyeing tanks are required for this type. In old method: 6 dyeing tanks are used as pre-washing tanks. Flow is splitted into 10 freshwater pathways.

19 Rerouting the Rope-Guide Y Type Dyeing recipe Water consumptions and water saving data for Y type dying in machine 2 Amount of water consumed for pre-washing in old dying method (L)40600 Amount of water consumed for pre-washing in new dying method (L)25000 Water saving (%)38 Duration of Dyeing is; 210 minutes Maximum water saving is 45 % Minimum water saving is 14 %. Amount of water consumed for pre-washing in old dying method: (210 min * 100 L/min) + (1000 L/tank * 4 tank) + (2600 L/tank * 6 tank) = 40600 L Amount of water consumed for pre-washing in new dying method: (210 min * 100 L/min) + (1000 L/tank * 4 tank) = 25000 L

20 Rerouting the Rope-Guide Z Type Dyeing recipe/machine 3 Dyin g 2 Dyin g 3 Dyin g 4 Dyin g 5 Dyin g 6 Dyin g 7 Prew ashi ng 4 Prew ashi ng 3 25 L/min Prep erati on Prew ashi ng 1 Prew ashi ng 2 25 L/min Dyin g 8 Dyin g 9 Dyin g 10 Dyin g 1 25 L/min 20 L/min V=600 LV=1000 L V=2600 L New route of guide- rope Water (new dying method) Old route of guide-rope Water (old dying method) 9 dyeing tanks are required. In old method: 1 dyeing tank is used as a pre-washing tank. when a dying tanks is used as a washing tank, there should be an extra total flow coming from the tank which feeds dying tank with freshwater. This total flow is 10-20 L/min.

21 Rerouting the Rope-Guide Z Type Dyeing recipe Water consumptions and water saving data for Z type dying in machine 3 Amount of water consumed for pre-washing in old dying method (L)51000 Amount of water consumed for pre-washing in new dying method (L)41000 Water saving (%)20 In this case dying lasts 370 minutes Maximum water saving is 23 %. Minimum water saving is 18 %. Amount of water consumed for pre-washing in old dying method: (370 min * 100 L/min) + (370 min * 20 L/min) + (1000 L/tank * 4 tank) + (2600 L/tank) = 51000 L Amount of water consumed for pre-washing in new dying method: (370 min * 100 L/min) + (1000 L/tank * 4 tank) = 41000 L

22 According to data obtained from the facility; for the three months, in which the rerouting has taken place, the percentage of those types of dyeing recipes are determined as 30 % of the total production. Preparation, dying, washing and softening processes are defines rope dyeing processes by the facility. Rerouting the Rope-Guide Reduction in Water Consumption Amount of consumed water in rope dyeing process(L) Washing water consumption (new method) (L) Washing water consumption (old method) (L) Difference (L) Reduction in total (X,Y,Z,W,U) water consumption (%) X110872560006380078007,0 Y9347925000406001560016,7 Z2656834100051000100003,8 W156767855009330078005,0 U163750920009980078004,8 Total790551299500348500490006,2

23 March-April-Mai total water use for rope dying processes Amount of consumed water (L) March42475000 April28191000 Mai31736000 Total102402000 Rerouting the Rope-Guide Reduction in Water Consumption Water consumed in three months for X,Y,Z,W,U type dyings (30% of total consumption) can be calculated as follow; 102402000 L * 0.3 = 30720600 L Water reduction amount in three months is equal to 30720600 L * 0.062 = 1,904,677 L

24 Within the selected five specific type of dying the effect of the method was investigated. By investigating this effects, it was obviously seen that water saving can be achieved. The effect of duration of dying on water saving was also investigated: when there is an additional freshwater feeding tank to the washing tank there is not significant effect of duration of dying on the water saving percentage. Rerouting the Rope-Guide Conclusion

25 Counter-Current Washing in Textile Industry The more important consideration is to achieve the required washing efficiency by using less amount of rinsing water. The counter-current washing principle is the most common and efficient one among those techniques.

26 Counter-current washing is often practiced by introducing raw water into the last wash of the washing series. The wastewater is then circulated from the last step to the next preceeding step and so on up the line. The cleanest product is washed with the cleanest water and and the most contaminated product is washed with dirtiest water. The system leads to huge savings in water use. Counter-Current Washing in Textile Industry Material Flow Water Flow

27 Counter-Current Washing in Textile Industry Typical water savings obtained by counter-current washing Number of washing tankWater saving (%) 23452345 50 67 75 80 Source:(US EPA, 1995) Since preparation and dying processes are typically continuous, counter-current washing can be used to great advantage for water conservation in washing processes. The principle of counter-current washing in textile industry is simple and usually not expensive or difficult to implement.

28 Counter-Current Washing in Textile Industry Sillanpää states that the one of the developed techniques is the split flow counter current washing which is the variation of counter-current washing. Because the various reasons for each industry, the counter-current washing was modificated and called as split flow counter current washing Product Flow Fresh water Wastewater Washin g 2 Washin g 1 Washin g 3 Washin g 4 Wastewater Filtrate SystemSaving in water (%) Direct counter-current50-80 Split flow counter-current40-65 Source: Sillanp ää, 2005

29 Reasons for using split flow counter current washing The company uses cotton as raw material. According to Textile Sector Environmental Report; in opposition of dying of synthetic raw materials, counter-current washing applications are not common in cotton dying. The cotton fiber pollution is the main reason for that. For the last washing tank, from which water is sent to the previous, the cotton fiber pollution is minimum. Therefore using filter is a solution and does not create a clogging problem. But for the washing tanks before the last tank, the fiber pollution is a problem, because the cotton lets its fiber in a suspended situation in these tanks at most. For this reason, it is thought that the filter clogging would be a big problem if direct counter-current washing were applied. Counter-Current Washing in Textile Industry Product Flow Fresh water Wastewater Washin g 2 Washi ng 1 Washin g 3 Washin g 4 Wastewater Filter

30 3 dyeing recipes (A, B, C) were selected. Two methods of washing was applied. – Normal Flow Washing (old system) – Split flow counter current washing (new system) F { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/5/1500197/slides/slide_30.jpg", "name": "3 dyeing recipes (A, B, C) were selected. Two methods of washing was applied.", "description": "– Normal Flow Washing (old system) – Split flow counter current washing (new system) F

31 Counter-Current Washing A Type recipe Product Flow Fresh water ww Washin g 2 Washin g 1 Washin g 3 ww 300 L/min 100 L/min 2 3 Product Flow Fresh water Washin g 1 Washin g 2 Washin g 3 ww Filter 185 L/min 92,5 L/min a b c Flow diagram for new system washing of dying type A Flow diagram for old system washing of dying type A Each washing tank is 1000 L 500 min washing period Retention time is 10 minute for each tank Flowrate of freshwater is 300 L/min Each washing tank is 1000 L 115 min washing period Retention time is 10.8 for first two and 5.4 min. Flowrate of freshwater is 185 L/min 1

32 Counter-Current Washing B Type recipe Flow diagram for new system washing of dying type B Flow diagram for old system washing of dying type B First washing tank is 1600 L, where others are 1000 L. 330 min washing period Retention time is 30 min for first tank where it is 18 min for others. Flowrate of freshwater is 275 L/min First washing tank is 1600 L, where others are 1000 L. 330 min washing period Retention time is 39 min for first tank and 24.3 min for 2,3,4 and 6 min for WT 5. Flowrate of freshwater is 165 L/min Product Flow Was hing 2 Waste water Was hing 4 Was hing 3 Waste water 275 L/min 55 L/min 1 2 3 Waste water Was hing 1 Waste water Was hing 5 4 5 55 L/min Product Flow Fresh water Washin g 2 ww Washin g 3 ww Washin g 5 Filter 165 L/min 41,25 L/min Washin g 1 ww Washin g 4 ww 41,25 L/min a b c d e f

33 Counter-Current Washing C Type recipe Flow diagram for new system washing of dying type C Flow diagram for old system washing of dying type C First washing tank is 1600 L, RT =30.7 minutes the other WT 1600 L with RT=19.2 minutes 330 min washing period Flowrate of freshwater is 260 L/min First washing tank is 1600 L, where others are 1000 L. 115 min washing period Retention time is 47 min for first tank and 29.6 min for 2,3,4 and 7.5 min for WT 5. Flowrate of freshwater is 135 L/min Product Flow Was hing 2 Wastew ater Was hing 4 Was hing 3 Wastew ater 260 L/min 52 L/min 1 2 3 Wastew ater Was hing 1 Wastew ater Was hing 5 4 5 52 L/min Product Flow Fresh water Washin g 2 ww Washin g 3 ww Washin g 5 Filter 135 L/min 33,75 L/min Washin g 1 ww Washin g 4 ww 33,75 L/min a b c d e f

34 Counter-Current Washing A Type recipe Results for each tank in dying type A, old system Dying Type A Old System Washing Tank 2 (2) Washing Tank 3 (3) TSS (mg/L) 19644 TDS (mg/L)23481760 Color (Pt-Co)69203320 Turbidity(NTU) 690389 Alkalinity (mg/L CaCO3)870680 COD (mg/L)1002400 Conductivity ( s/cm)34702760 pH11,110,62 Results for each tank in dying type A, new system Dying Type A New System Washing Tank 2 (c) Filter Inlet (Washing tank 3) (a) TSS (mg/L) 32234 TDS (mg/L)5198882 Color (Pt-Co)90602515 Turbidity(NTU) 726354 Alkalinity (mg/L CaCO3)1874310 COD (mg/L)1372264,5 Conductivity ( s/cm)86601221 pH11,89,5 Pollution concentration is less in last washing tanks for new system where it is more in 2nd washing tank.

35 Counter-Current Washing B Type recipe Results for each tank in dying type B, old system Results for each tank in dying type B, new system Dying Type B Old System (1)(5) TSS (mg/L)206 26 TDS (mg/L)13456 688 Color (Pt-Co)8600 4750 Turbidity(NTU)360 543 Alkalinity (mg/L CaCO3)3300 220 COD (mg/L)3740 238 Conductivity ( s/cm) 17850 969 pH12,03 9,75 Dying Type B New System 1 (f) 5 (a) TSS (mg/L) 546 22 TDS (mg/L) 24134 558 Color (Pt-Co) 22300 935 Turbidity(NTU) 1709 209 Alkalinity (mg/L CaCO3) 6960 178 COD (mg/L) 4823 102 Conductivity ( s/cm) 30400 893 pH 12,17 9,08

36 Counter-Current Washing C Type recipe Results for each tank in dying type C, old system Results for each tank in dying type C, new system Dying Type C Old System(1)(5) TSS (mg/L)5435 TDS (mg/L)2688908 Color (Pt-Co)22801330 Turbidity(NTU)138282 Alkalinity (mg/L CaCO3)1150440 COD (mg/L)511125 Conductivity ( s/cm) 42001366 pH11,1210,18 Dying Type C New System 1 (f) 5 (a) TSS (mg/L)10814 TDS (mg/L)3592632 Color (Pt-Co)2860715 Turbidity(NTU)25194 Alkalinity (mg/L CaCO3)1548240 COD (mg/L)65087 Conductivity ( s/cm) 6470954 pH11,819,48

37 Counter-Current Washing Reduction in Water Consumption Old System water consumption (L/min) New System water consumption (L/min) Reduction in water consumption (%) Type A30018538 Type B27516540 Type C26013548

38 All the processes in the Textile Mill were investigated to identify the water conservation opportunities. As well as the Literatural Review, after some site visits to the facility the processes were detected and the possible changes especially related to the water consuming processes were determined. Possible water use reduction techniques were detected. The techniques were applied in the facility. Conclusion for the Presentation

39 The water conservations obtained through the techniques of Rerouting the Rope-Guide and Split Flow Counter Current were determined in the application base. For counter-current washing, the washing water were analysed to compare the character of it, with the literatural knowledge. Future Work: Determination of the total effect of th is water conservation applications on the water consumption of the facility. Conclusion for the Presentation

40 This study was funded by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey Studies on Adopting the EU IPPC Directive in Textile Sector: BAT Applications Project No: 105Y088

41 Thank You for your Attention and Interest on Cleaner Production !!!


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