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Pompeii and Herculaneum Food and Dining

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Presentation on theme: "Pompeii and Herculaneum Food and Dining"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pompeii and Herculaneum Food and Dining
Cooking Food at Home Eating Out Food Types

2 Cooking Food at Home Food and dining were of great importance in both Pompeii and Herculaneum. Sources suggest dinner was the main meal of the day and would commence around four o’clock, as it was such a lengthy and significant process. In wealthier households dinner consisted of three main courses; an entrée, main meal and dessert. However, this was generally saved for celebrations and special occasions. Although some foods were prepared and bought elsewhere such as baked bread, meals of fish, poultry, vegetables, eggs and various other fresh ingredients were prepared in the home. Garum or fish sauce was a very popular as a flavouring sauce, as well as wine as a beverage.

3 Kitchen at the House of The Vettii
Displayed in this source is a typical kitchen located in the House of the Vettii. Generally only those larger houses had separate kitchens or cooking areas, as it is more likely that many families cooked meals on portable braziers. Shown in the source is a stone cooking range, as well as bronze cooking pots. The cooking would take place on top of the range, the bronze pots being placed on iron braziers over a small fire. Typical cookery containers included cauldrons, skillets and pans and reveal that food was generally boiled rather than baked.

4 Carbonized Food items This source displays carbonized food items from Herculaneum, as displayed in the San Diego National History Museum. The photograph displays remains of barely grain, fava beans bread and various other basic ingredients. Carbonized eggs and fish have also been discovered. Ingredients such as bread, eggs and beans were the basic staple foods of the Pompeian and Herculean diet and were consumed by all levels of society.

5 Recipe from Book by Apicius
Although the recipe book is Roman, it reflects the styles of food prepared in the homes of Pompeian’s and Herculeans. The recipe book holds over 500 recipes which reflect a sophisticated, upper class style of cookery. However, the book provides insight into the ingredients available to the Campania region and common basic foods. This recipe for soufflé demonstrates the use of fish, onion and raisins in meals. The book also suggests the use of imported spices such as oregano and the popularity of Garum for flavouring. “ PATINA DE PISCICULIS (Soufflé of Small Fishes) Ingredients: 500g boiled fillet of small fishes or whole sardelles 150g dried raisins (sultanas) 1/2 tsp freshly ground pepper 1 tblsp Liebstoeckl 1 tblsp oregano 2 small diced onions 200ml oil 50ml Liquamen, or 1/2 tsp salt some cornstarch”

6 Triclinium at the House of Julia Felix

7 Eating Out Although dining in was an important part of the Pompeian/ Herculean culture, residents also enjoyed eating out with their family and friends. Dining out was a popular social event and several locations were provided for all members of society to enjoy a meal out of the house. Families could be invited to banquets or special meals at other residents homes or eat out at taverns or fast food restaurants.

8 Tavern of Hedonism at Pompeii
This source displays the Tavern of Hedonism located within Pompeii. Taverns (cauponae) and wine bars were spread throughout both towns, particularly near the entrance to the Amphitheatre. Couches were provided inside the bars for eating and drinking with friends. Wine was a popular beverage in the Campania region as the land was perfect for farming and orchards and wine production were common industries in both towns.

9 Outdoor Dining Area The source demonstrates an outdoor dining area at a house in Pompeii. Dinner parties were popular social occasions and may commence as early as four in the afternoon. These parties were also important for business men or politicians as they could boast about their cooks and display their collection of silver and glass ware to impress clients. Guests could be called upon to provide entertainment through reciting poetry, song or sometimes even dancers, jugglers or actors. After dinner drinking was an important ritual to end the night.

10 Grande Taberna in Herculaneum
The source displays the Grand Taberna in Herculaneum which was one of the towns Thermopolia or fast food outlets. The large ceramic jars situated in the counter would often hold Garum for customer’s convenience. These Dolia would also hold hot dishes and drinks. Generally food was taken away or eaten standing up, as large fast food stores would be opposite leisure buildings such as the Palaestra.

11 Inscription at the House of the Moralist
This inscription is located above the dining room doors at the House of the Moralist. The source demonstrates the great importance of dining to the Pompeian people as dining out to other people’s houses or holding banquets was considered a very popular social event. Unacceptable behaviour was not tolerated at these events, proper etiquette was to be displayed at all times. “Remove lascivious expressions and flirtatious fawning eyes from another man’s wife; may there be decency in your expression. … put off to another time your troublesome quarrels if you can, or leave and take them with you to your own house.” House of the Moralist.

12 Food Types The volcanic soil created fertile farming lands around the region, suitable for growing plants such as cabbages, onions, wheat and olives. Basic food supplies of the towns were bread, fish, beans and vegetables as these ingredients could all be produced locally. Fresh, clean drinking water was also readily available to both towns through the drinking fountains and aqueduct. The variety of meat, fruit, vegetables and bread reveals that residents of Pompeii and Herculaneum had a nutritious and healthy diet.

13 Food Scraps design found on floor of a triclinium
This image is located on the floor of a triclinium or dining room in Pompeii. The source displays a variety of food scraps common to the family household after preparing a meal. Bones of fish and other sea animals are depicted, as well as vegetable scraps. This reveals that residents of Pompeii and Herculaneum had a nutritious and well balanced diet.

14 Mosaic of sea and bird life in the House of the Faun, Pompeii
The source displays a variety of the sea life that was popularly consumed in both towns. Fish was the most common meat served as the towns were conveniently located near the sea and the main industry of Herculaneum was fishing, as revealed in the finding of hooks, nets and a large boat shed. The mosaic also displays an olive branch, another plant grown in the region for single olives and olive oil production.

15 Bakery of Modestus at Pompeii
The photograph displays the Bakery of Modestus is Pompeii where 81 loaves of bread were found carbonised in an oven. Bakeries refined their own grain in stone mills, usually three or four in a courtyard with a table for kneading dough. Skeletons of donkeys have been uncovered at Herculaneum, revealing the work of animals in turning the mills. The discovery of bodies with warn down teeth demonstrates the regular consumption of bread as the teeth were flattened from bread milled with stone.

16 Ceiling Mural at the House of the Fruit Orchard, Pompeii
This mural is located on the ceiling of the triclinium at the House of the Fruit Orchard. Fruit was an important aspect of the daily diet as it was locally grown and the basic ingredient of other food types such as wine. The fertile plains of the Campania region enabled the growth of a variety of fruits such as lemons, peaches, figs, cherries, plums and grapes.

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