2 Assessing Eating Behaviors What drives us to eat?HungerAppetiteCultural and social meaning of foodHabit or customEmotional ComfortConvenience and advertisingNutritional valueSocial interactions
3 Eating for Health Nutrition The science of the relationship between physiological functions and essential elements of foodCalorieUnit of measure that indicates the amount of energy we obtain from a foodAmericans consume more calories per person than any other group of people in the worldAmericans eat more fat (38%) than recommended by nutritionists (no more than 30%)
7 Obtaining Essential Nutrients Digestive processSequence of functions by which the body breaks down larger food particles into smaller, more usable formsOur bodies cannot synthesize some essential nutrientsSome essential nutrients obtained from food
9 Water Dehydration – abnormal depletion of body fluids The major component of bloodNecessary forElectrolyte and pH balanceTransporting cells and O2Recommended amount – 8 glasses/day (64 ounces)50-60% of body is waterIs bottled water better?
10 Protein Second most abundant substance in humans Key to every cell, antibodies, enzymes, and hormonesTransport oxygen and nutrientsRole in developing/repairing bone, muscle, skinVital for human lifeMay need additional protein if fighting off infection, recovering from surgery or blood loss, recovering from burns
11 Proteins Amino acids Building blocks of protein 20 essential amino acids must be obtained from food11 non-essential amino acids produced by the bodyLink together to formComplete protein – supplies all essential amino acidsIncomplete protein – may lack some amino acids, but these can be easily obtained from different sourcesFew Americans suffer from protein deficienciesCan you give examples of complete proteins?
14 Carbohydrates Best fuel – provide energy quickly and efficiently Two typesSimple sugarsGlucose (monosaccharide) – most common formFructose (monosaccharide) – found in fruits and berriesSucrose (disaccharide) – sources include granulated sugar, milk and milk productsComplex carbohydrates (polysaccharides)Starches – from flour, pasta, potatoesStored in the body as glycogenFiber
15 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates and athletes Sugar may be counterproductiveCHO ingestion is necessary for competitive long eventsCarbohydrate loadingMyth of sugar addictionNot related in long-term studiesModeration is the key
16 Carbohydrates and Weight Loss High protein/low carb dietsHelped educate the public about nutrients, importance ofWhole grainsFiberLow-sugar food choices
17 Fiber “Bulk” or “roughage” Indigestible portion of plants Insoluble Found in bran, whole-grain breads, most fruits and vegetablesFound to reduce risk for several forms of cancerSolubleOat bran, dried beans, some fruits and vegetablesHelps lower blood cholesterol levelsHelps reduce risk for cardiovascular disease
18 Fiber Offers many health protections Colon and rectal cancer Breast cancerConstipationDiverticulosisHeart DiseaseDiabetesObesityMost American eat far less than recommendedRecommended is grams and average is 12 grams
19 Fats Also called lipids Misunderstood but vital group of basic nutrientsMaintain healthy skinInsulate body organsMaintain body temperaturePromote healthy cell functionCarry fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and KAre a concentrated form of energy
20 Obtaining Essential Nutrients Triglycerides make up 95% of total body fatRemaining 5% composed of substances like cholesterolCan accumulate on inner walls of arteries and contribute to cardiovascular diseaseRatio of cholesterol HDL/LDL helps determine risk for heart diseaseSaturated vs. unsaturated fatSaturated mainly from animal sources, solid at room temperatureUnsaturated generally come from plants and usually liquid at room temperature
21 Percentages of Saturated, Polyunsaturated, and Monounsaturated Fats in Common Vegetable Oils Figure 9.5
22 Obtaining Essential Nutrients Avoiding trans fatty acidsCreated by process of making liquid oil into a solidIncrease LDL levels while lowering HDL levelsHigher risk of coronary and heart disease, sudden cardiac deathFound in many margarines, baked goods and restaurant deep-fried foodsFood labels listing no trans fasts can still contain less than 500 milligrams/serving
23 Obtaining Essential Nutrients Still need essential fatty acidsEat fatty fishUse healthier oils (including olive oil)Eat green leafy vegetablesWalnuts, walnut oilGround flaxseed
24 Obtaining Essential Nutrients Use moderation with fat intakeRead food labelsUse olive oil for cookingAvoid margarine with trans fatty acidsChoose lean meat, fish, poultryEat fewer cold cuts, less bacon, sausages, hot dogs, organ meatsChoose nonfat dairy productsUse substitutes for higher-fat productsThink of your food intake as an average, over a day or two—if you have a heavy breakfast, eat a light dinner
25 Vitamins Potent, essential, organic compounds Promote growth, help maintain life and healthTwo typesFat soluble – absorb through intestinal tract with fatA, D, E, and KWater soluble – dissolve in waterB-complex and C
26 Vitamins Few Americans suffer from vitamin deficiencies Often, vitamin supplements not necessaryToo much of many vitamins can be harmfulWhy do you think so many people take vitamin supplements?
29 Minerals Inorganic, indestructible elements that aid the body Vitamins cannot be absorbed without mineralsMacrominerals are needed in large amountsSodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, chlorideTrace minerals are needed in small amountsIron, zinc, manganese, copper, iodineExcesses or deficiencies of trace minerals can cause serious problems
34 ABC News: Nutrition Discussion Questions PlayVideo| NutritionDiscussion QuestionsDiscuss whether you think manufacturers are intentionally misleading consumers regarding serving size listings on their products. Why or why not?What kinds of standards for food labeling would you recommend to manufacturers?
35 The New MyPyramid Food Guide Replaced the food guide pyramid to account for varied nutritional needs throughout the U.S. populationEmphasizesPersonalizationGradual improvementPhysical activityVarietyModerationProportionality
38 Nutritional Needs for Different Groups Figure 9.9
39 Vegetarianism: Eating for Health MyPyramid Plan adaptable for a vegetarian dietTypes of vegetarian dietsVeganLacto-vegetarianOvo-vegetarianLacto-ovo-vegetarianPesco-vegetarianSemivegetarian
40 Vegetarianism: Eating for Health Reasons why 5-15% of the population are vegetariansAestheticAnimal rightsEconomicPersonalHealthCulturalReligious
41 The Medicinal Value of Food Compelling evidence that diet may be as effective as drugsFunctional FoodsAntioxidantsCarotenoids
42 The Medicinal Value of Food FolateForm of vitamin BFolate fortification 1998Neural tube defectsHeart diseaseProbioticsFound in fermented milk products
43 Supplements Dietary supplements Products taken by mouth to supplement existing dietsIncludes vitamins, minerals, herbsFDA does not evaluate supplements prior to their marketing; companies responsible for own monitoringIf in doubt about supplements, simply eat from the major food groupsA multivitamin added to a balanced diet will generally do more good than harm
44 Gender and Nutrition Men and women have different needs Women have cyclical changesMen have more lean tissue (burn more)
45 Changing the “Meat-and-Potatoes” Diet Reasons to changeHeavy red meat eaters are five times more likely to get colon cancer, and twice as likely to develop prostate cancerFruits and vegetables reduce stroke risk as well as risk for oral, bladder, and pancreatic cancersCancer of the esophagus is one of the fastest rising malignancies in the U.S., among white men in particular
46 Improved Eating for the College Student Variety of challenges for healthy eatingEating breakfast and lunch vital for keeping energy up throughout the dayMake lunch and bring it with you, including healthy snacksWill keep you from buying less healthy food on the runLimit sugar-heavy beverages and fried products
47 Improved Eating for the College Student Nutritional eating on a budget can be doneBuy vegetables locally and in seasonUse coupons or shop at discount or bulk food storesYour city or county health department may have suggestions if you don’t have the funds to eat properly
49 Food Safety: A Growing Concern Food-borne illnessAffects millions of people each yearResponsible for 5,000 deaths a yearSignsCrampingNauseaVomitingDiarrhea
50 Food Safety: A Growing Concern Key factors why food-borne illness has increasedGlobalization of food supplyInadvertent introduction of pathogens to new geographic regionsExposure to unfamiliar food-borne hazardsChanges in microbial populationsIncreases susceptibility of varying populationsInsufficient education about food safety
51 Food Safety: A Growing Concern Practice responsible food handling at homeKeep hot foods hot, and cold foods coldFreeze or eat fish, poultry, or meats within 1 or 2 daysEat leftovers within 3 daysWash hands, cutting boards, counters, and knives wellUse a meat thermometerNever thaw foods at room temperature
52 Food Irradiation: How Safe Is It? Approved by USDA in February 2000Use gamma irradiation from radioactive cobalt, cesium, or other X-ray sourcesBreaks chemical bonds in the DNA of bacteriaRays essentially pass through the foodLengthens product shelf-life, prevents spread of microorganismsReduces need for toxic chemicals currently usedMarked with the “radura” logo
53 Food Additives Reduce food-borne illness Enhance nutrients Intentional food additivesAntimicrobial agents: salt, sugar, nitratesAntioxidants: preserve color and flavorArtificial color, nutrient additives, flavor enhancersSulfitesDioxins: found in coffee filters, milk containers, and frozen foodsMethylene chloride: found in decaffeinated coffeeHormones: bovine growth hormone found in animals
54 Food Allergies and Intolerances Abnormal response to a food triggered by the immune systemFound in 5% of children and 2% of adultsOccurs when the body treats a food, usually protein, as an invaderInitial signs include rapid breathing or wheezing, hives, rash, eczema, or runny noseMore dramatic symptoms: facial swelling or respiratory problems (anaphylactic reaction)Anaphylactic reaction requires a shot of epinephrine, a hormone that stimulates the heartCan be mistaken for food intolerance or reactions to food additives
55 Food Allergies and Intolerances Food intolerancesLess dramatic reaction than food allergiesNot the result of immune system responseGenerally shows as gastric upsetLactose intolerance common, also happens in response to food additives (MSG, sulfites, gluten)May have psychological triggers
56 OrganicFood developed, grown, or raised without use of synthetic pesticides, chemicals, or hormonesBecoming much more common
57 OrganicFoods need to meet criteria set by USDA to be certified organicProduced without hormones, antibiotics, herbicides, insecticides, chemical fertilizers, genetic modification, or germ-killing radiationMonitoring systems still under developmentSome concern that buying organic means buying foods with less nutrientsBuy close to home, get it in the refrigerator quicklyIs buying organic really better?