Research Context: Fish Based Products Design Theme: Chilling and Freezing
Revision Session What is going to be covered today: Recap on research, designing, development and specifications. Fish and nutrition Standard components Sustainability Packaging and labelling Preservation, chilling and freezing CAD/CAM/HACCP
Research A research based question will be on the exam. What types of research have you done for your coursework?
Research There are two types of research; primary can be carrying out questionnaires, Shop Surveys and letters/emails. Secondary research can be internet, interview, books and packaging.
Recipes – exam tip You must learn 2 recipes and know how to make them. Annotate (label and make notes) all designs and make sure you read the specification given. Flow charts must be in the correct order, must have safety points including HACCP and timings. For each recipe you must know how to develop it in several ways and be able to justify your reasons.
Sketching in your exam – examples of good practice: Draw in pencil Colour in if possible Label all parts of your design
Choosing your final design: You will have to give detailed reasons for your choice of final design. Remember look at the specification they gave you and relate back to that e.g. if the specification asks for the product to be colourful and you have put a range of different coloured vegetables in then use that as a reason for choice
Task Complete the development and specification exam revision questions in your pack.
Nutrients in fish Draw a fish and identify all the nutrients that are in fish. What types of fish do you eat or can you think of?
Nutrients 1.Fish is a good source of Protein, Fat (oily fish), Calcium, Vit A, D &B and Omega 3. 2.What are the functions of these nutrients (why do we need them?)
Function of nutrients Protein is needed for growth and repair Fat is needed for energy and warmth Calcium is needed for strong bones Vit A is needed for night vision and forms cells in skin Vit D is needed for strong bones and teeth Vit B (thiamine, riboflavin and niacin) is needed for releasing energy Omega 3 helps brain function and prevents heart disease
Task Complete the exam questions on protein, meat, poultry and fish in your pack.
Types of fish 1.There are three types of fish, white fish, oily fish and shellfish. Many products can be made with fish, some are: fish cakes, fish fingers, fish pie, paella, kedgeree, goujons, salad nicoise and chowder. How can fish be cooked?
Research – functions of fish in recipes Flavour Nutrition Texture
Standard Components Standard components are pre-prepared items used in food production. They are made at a different time, and often at a different place by another company. Common examples are: Pre-prepared sandwiches Pastry cases Flan cases Grated cheese Saves timeTime must be allowed for ordering and supply Quality is guaranteed Can be more expensive A wider range of products can be produced e.g. tortilla wraps could be used for a variety of savoury fillings. The manufacturer is relying on another company that could let them down Advantages Disadvantages
Preservation Fish coagulates (sets) at 60˚c. Preservation means extending shelf life of products. Fish can be preserved by smoking and canning. Smoked fish does not need further cooking. Canned fish is already cooked and stored in brine. What other sorts of preservation can you think of?
Task Complete the preservation exam questions in your booklet.
Sustainability Sustainable fishing is a activity that uses up resources or damages the environment so that it cannot be used in the future. You should avoid eating Cod and Salmon and eat Pollock and Trout instead. Complete the environmental issues questions in your book
Safe Storage of Food Low risk foods: this means foods with high acid or sugar content, raw vegetables, edible oils and fats Medium risk foods: this means dried or frozen products, freshly processed products and those with a high fat content High risk foods: this means unprocessed meat, fish, eggs and dairy products
Chilling and Freezing Foods have to be chilled at 1-8˚c to slow the rate of bacterial reproduction. Foods have to be frozen at 0˚c to -18˚c to slow down the rate of bacterial production so the bacteria is dormant or inactive.
Task Complete the preservation exam revision questions that are in your booklet.
Sensory Testing of Food Products Sensory testing involves the scientific measurement of the qualities of a food product. There are a variety of tests which can be done depending on what you want to find out. It is important to select the correct one for the purpose: Difference tests – these are used to find out if there are any noticeable differences between 2 or more products. E.g. coca cola and diet coca cola Ranking tests – a set of coded samples are given to the tester in a random order. The tester ranks the samples in order of a specific quality e.g. sweetness. This test is often used to screen one or two of the best samples in a group. Descriptive tests or profiling – a set of sensory descriptors is given for the testers to use e.g. colourful, glossy, dry etc. and the tester gives a score for each descriptor
Packaging Why are foods packaged? To protect the product – against physical damage, chemical contamination or micro-organisms, insects or rodents To contain the product e.g. eggs, fruit and vegetables To preserve the product e.g. tin cans and modified atmosphere packaging (where foods in a package are flushed with a mixture of gases to prolong their shelf life) To identify and provide information on the product To prevent tampering – tamperproof packaging techniques now make it easy to detect if a package has been opened, examples include plastic collars on bottle tops, paper strips across jar lids and aluminium foil seals on fruit juice cartons
Labelling The 1996 Food Labelling regulations state that a food label must include the following information: Name of the product clearly displayed The name and address of the manufacturer A list of all ingredients in descending order of weight (largest to smallest) Storage instructions, giving specific details of the best conditions and temperatures for safe storage Shelf-life of the product must be shown Cooking instructions (if appropriate) The country for where the product originated The net weight of the product
Manufacturing methods and equipment There are different types of manufacturing system, each one suitable for different scales of production: One-off production is when a single product is made to the individual needs of a customer, for example a designer wedding cake. This is classed as a luxury food item. Batch production involves the making of a set number of identical products (large or small). Typically batch production is used in a bakery, where a certain number of several different types of bun, loaf, cake etc, will be made every morning. Mass production is used to make foods on a large scale, either wholly or partially using machines. The production line involves individual tasks that will be carried out repetitively. This is time-efficient and helps to keep the costing of the product low. Continuous-flow production is a method of high-volume production, used in foods such as milk and packet pizzas. Production lines run 24 hours a day. Where production line machines are controlled by computers this is called Computer-Aided Manufacture (CAM). A mass production line in a milk-bottling plant
Quality Assurance of Food Products. Factory equipment There are different types of specialised machinery used in food manufacture. Computerised scales weigh food more accurately. Centrifuge machines separate liquids from solids. Date-stamping machines will label many packaged foods with a date stamp on the production line. Depositors add an exact amount of food into a number of containers at the same time. Mandolins slice or cut food products so portions are consistently the same size. Bench or floor-standing mixers are used in bakeries to add and mix exact quantities of ingredients to the food, maintaining consistency. Boiling vats are huge drums used for cooking foods, such as soups. Deck ovens are computer-controlled ovens that cook a batch of several products at the same time.
Special Dietary needs of Consumers Coeliacs Disease – allergic to gluten therefore cannot eat anything made from wheat e.g. flour Lactose intolerant – allergic to lactose (found in milk) therefore cannot eat any dairy produce Vegans – vegetarians who do not eat any foods associated with animals Ovo-lacto vegetarian – vegetarians who do not eat meat but will eat eggs and milk Allergies – the most common food allergy is a nut allergy Pregnant women – needs lots of protein rich foods, vitamins and minerals. She should avoid soft cheeses and pate due to bacteria that might be present. Children – needs plenty of protein and calcium. Reduce the amount of sugar and fat.
Control Checks During Food Manufacture Visual checks to cartons to see if they have been tampered with/damaged. Ones damaged should be removed. Visual check date rotation first in first used. Weighing and measuring use digital scales for accuracy. Automatic mixing for computer controlled amount of time. Fixed cooking period using timer Visual check – are they the correct colour? Correct amount in each packet Detector for foreign objects e.g. metal, jewellery Weight check Temperature of sealing Temperature of storage/distribution area
Decorations and Finishes A decoration is something you apply to a product AFTER it has been made e.g. melted chocolate, icing, piped cream A finish is something that you do to the actual product to change its appearance during the making of the product e.g. glaze with egg, glaze with sugar and water, flute pastry edges, put nuts on top
How hazards are controlled during food production HACCP: HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control point. It involves: Identifying possible risks before, during and after production of a product The risks are analysed in terms of how likely they are to happen and how serious they are For each hazard preventative measures and testing/checking is planned in to ensure that the hazard (Critical control point) is reduced.
How do manufacturers obtain consistent products? Consistency means: Same quantities of ingredients used Same amount of filling, coating, casing Same colour Same shape Same texture Same strength of flavour Same size Same nutritional content Human error means that hand produced food products are not as accurate and consistent as those made by machinery. Automated equipment can repeat tasks many times without getting tired or risking workers health and safety
CAD (Computer Aided Design) Designing a new food product with the aid of a computer is known as computer aided Design. CAD can be used to: Calculate the nutritional value of the food product Work out the sizes and costs of different batch production runs Work out the shelf life of a product Present the products sensory profile Predict what will happen if ingredients or methods are changed Plan how a product will be manufactured Present ideas for the packaging
CAM (Computer Aided Manufacture) CAM is using computers to control pre- programmed equipment to make products. CAM has many uses in food production including: Automated production processes Data logging e.g. recording pH values, temperatures Responding to monitoring feedback e.g. reducing or increasing temperature of environment as needed Control of designated tolerances e.g. weight, dimensions, moisture content, flavour colour, shape
Explain 1.Expand upon (knowledge) 2.Show you understand (apply to case) 3.Give an example
Recommend 1.Make a choice 2.Give reasons for choice and 3.Make relevant to your design
Discuss 1.Put forward both sides of the case then, 2.Reach a conclusion. 3.Give reasons for the conclusion.
And finally……… Good luck to you all, dont panic and do your very best!!