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Overview of the ANSI/ISA S88.01 Batch Control Standard © 1996.

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Presentation on theme: "Overview of the ANSI/ISA S88.01 Batch Control Standard © 1996."— Presentation transcript:

1 Overview of the ANSI/ISA S88.01 Batch Control Standard © 1996

2 Clarification u SP88 is the ISA committee responsible for developing the batch control standard u S88 is the standard developed by such a committee © 1996

3 History of SP88 u Established by ISA in October 1988 to address the following needs of industry: –No universal model for batch control systems –Difficult for users to communicate batch control requirements –Batch control is difficult to configure –Integration of different vendors equipment is difficult © 1996

4 Clarification u The 88 number was assigned not due to the year that the committee was established but rather sequentially (next number available for an ISA standard) © 1996

5 History of SP88 u Purpose: –To provide standards and recommended practices for the design and specification of batch control systems © 1996

6 History of SP88 u Scope: –To define terminology that will encourage understanding between manufacturers and users –To provide a standard batch control language –To provide a standard data structure for communications within the system architecture –To determine a standard batch control architecture that defines both physical and functional models © 1996

7 History of SP88 u In 1990 it was internationalized after a petition to IEC was accepted - Working Group 11 (WG11) of subcommittee 65A was formed © 1996

8 History of S88 u Early on, the standard was split in two parts: –Part 1 (S88.01) covering: t Models t Terminology –Part 2 covering: t Data Model and Exchange Formats t Language Guidelines for Data Exchange and Procedural Control © 1996

9 History of S88 u The draft of S88.01 was submitted to ISA and IEC for balloting for adoption as a standard on the spring of 1994 u ISA ballots were completed in October ISA approved the standard in early 1995 u The standard was published as an ANSI standard in the summer of 1995 © 1996

10 History of S88 u IEC ballots were not completed until December IEC requested extensive editorial changes to make the standard look more like a specification u After negotiation and meetings in Europe, IEC approved a reworded version of the standard on April 18, 1996 © 1996

11 The Future of S88 u Part two: –Work began in December 1994 –Publication of a draft is expected in early 1997 –An object based model is being used u Endorsing organizations have been formed: –Europe Batch Forum –World Batch Forum –Japan Batch Forum © 1996

12 The ANSI/ISA S88.01 Standard © 1996

13 Characteristics of S88.01 © 1996 u Universal terminology and models - applicable to all types of control systems u Modular structure - breaks up complex concepts into smaller elements; promotes reusability u Non-excluding/binding - not suggesting that there is only one way to do batch control nor to force users to abandon current methods

14 Characteristics of S88.01 © 1996 u Collapsible model - elements which are not applicable to particular users needs can be omitted (except for unit, master recipe and control recipe entities) u Expandable model - elements may be added to meet specific needs (as long as the integrity of the original relationship is maintained)

15 Usability of S88.01 © 1996 u Not a cookbook for designing batch control systems - Provides a framework; still requires experienced control systems engineers u Great for Functional Specifications - Models and terminology can be used to define requirements for batch control

16 Main Sections of S88.01 © 1996 u Section 3: Definitions - provides dictionary of terms used in the standard u Section 4: Batch process and equipment - provides overview of batch processes and batch manufacturing plants u Section 5: Batch control concepts - discusses control concepts to address batch processing/manufacturing

17 Main Sections of S88.01 © 1996 u Section 6: Batch control activities and functions - discusses control activities and functions associated with batch processing/manufacturing

18 Definitions u Batch: –The material that is being produced or that has been produced by a single execution of a batch process –An entity that represents the production of a material at any point in the process © 1996

19 Definitions u Batch Process: –A process that leads to the production of finite quantities of material by subjecting quantities of input materials to an ordered set of processing activities over a finite period of time using one or more pieces of equipment © 1996

20 Batch Processes and Equipment Process Process Model (Entity - Relationship Diagram) Process Stage consists of an ordered set of A sequence of chemical, physical, or biological activities for the conversion, transport, or storage of material or energy Process Operation consists of an ordered set of Process Action consists of an ordered set of A part of a process that usually operates independently from other process stages and that usually results in a planned sequence of chemical and physical changes in the material being processed © 1996 A major processing activity that usually results in a chemical or physical change in the material being processed and that is defined without consideration of the actual target equipment configuration Minor processing activities that are combined to make a process operation

21 Batch Processes and Equipment Process Process Model (Entity - Relationship Diagram) Process Stage consists of an ordered set of Example: Polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer Process Operation consists of an ordered set of Process Action consists of an ordered set of Example: Polymerize Recover Dry © 1996 Example (Polymerize stage): Prepare reactor Charge React Example (React operation): Add monomer Add catalyst Heat to deg C Hold at deg C until press. decreases

22 Batch Processes and Equipment Enterprise Physical Model (Entity - Relationship Diagram of upper levels) Site may contain An organization that coordinates the operation of one or more sites Area may contain Process Cell may contain A component of a batch manufacturing enterprise that is identified by physical, geographical, or logical segmentation within the enterprise © 1996 A component of a batch manufacturing site that is identified by physical, geographical, or logical segmentation within the site A logical grouping of equipment that includes the equipment required for the production of one or more batches

23 Batch Processes and Equipment Physical Model (Entity - Relationship Diagram of lower levels) Unit must contain Equipment Module may contain Control Module may contain A collection of associated control modules and/or equipment modules and other process equipment in which one or more major processing activities can be conducted. Examples: Kettles, Reactors, Fermenters, Crystallyzers, etc. © 1996 A functional group of equipment that can carry a finite number of specific minor processing activities. Examples: Reactor Jacket System, Material Charge Equipment, etc. The lowest level of grouping of equipment in the physical model that can carry out basic control. Examples: Regulatory Control Loops, Discrete Device Loops, etc. Process Cell may contain

24 Batch Processes and Equipment Physical Model (Entity - Relationship Diagram) Unit must contain Equipment Module may contain Control Module may contain © 1996 Process Cell may contain Reactor B Blend/Adjust Tank Reactor A

25 Batch Processes and Equipment Physical Model (Entity - Relationship Diagram) Unit must contain Equipment Module may contain Control Module may contain © 1996 Process Cell may contain M TIC LIC FQIC LI TIC Reactor B

26 Equipment Module or Control Module? FQIC Can be either depending on implementation: - If separate basic control functions are used for the valve, totalizer, and discrete/sequential control, it could be construed as an Equipment Module (i.e. multiple control modules carry out a minor processing activity - charging) - If FQIC is a regulatory control function block which controls the valve based on target and totalized values, it could be construed as a Control Module (i.e. single entity performing basic control) © 1996 Material Charge Module

27 Three types of control u Basic control: –Control that is dedicated to establishing and maintaining a specific state of equipment or process condition –May include regulatory control, interlocking, monitoring, exception handling, and discrete or sequential control © 1996

28 Three types of control u Procedural control: –Control that directs equipment-oriented actions to take place in an ordered sequence in order to carry out some process-oriented task © 1996

29 Three types of control u Coordination control: –Control that directs, initiates, and/or modifies the execution of procedural control and the utilization of equipment entities –Includes allocation (obtaining resources) and arbitration (which requester is granted the resources) © 1996

30 Batch Control Concepts Procedure Procedural Control Model (Entity - Relationship Diagram) Unit Procedure consists of an ordered set of The strategy for carrying out a process. In the context of S88, it refers to the strategy for making a batch in a process cell. Operation consists of an ordered set of Phase consists of an ordered set of A strategy for carrying out a contiguous process within a unit. It consists of the contiguous operations and the algorithm necessary for the initiation, organization, and control of those operations. © 1996 A procedural element defining an independent processing activity consisting of the algorithm for initiation, organization, and control of phases The lowest level of procedural element in the procedural control model

31 Model mapping © 1996 Procedure(s) Procedural Control Model Unit Procedure(s) Operation(s) Phase(s) Process Cell(s) Physical Model Unit(s) Equipment Module(s) Process Model Process Stage Process Operation Process Action Process Action combined with a combined with a combined with a combined with a combined with a provides process functionality to carry out a provides process functionality to carry out a provides process functionality to carry out a provides process functionality to carry out a provides process functionality to carry out a

32 Batch Control Concepts Procedure © 1996 Reactor B Blend/Adjust Tank Reactor A Blend Resin Polymerize Monomer A Polymerize Monomer B

33 Batch Control Concepts Unit Procedure © 1996 Transfer Out Prepare Reactor React Polymerize Monomer A M TIC LI FQIC Reactor A FQIC Monomer

34 Batch Control Concepts Operation © 1996 Catalyst M TIC LI FQIC Reactor A FQIC Monomer React Charge Monomer Charge Catalyst Agitator ON Heat Hold Temperature Agitator OFF

35 Definitions u Recipe: –The necessary set of information that uniquely defines the production requirements of a specific product © 1996

36 Recipe contents u Header: –Information about the purpose, source and version of the recipe such as recipe and product IDs, creator and issue date u Equipment Requirements: –e.g. allowable materials of construction, processing characteristics, selected train, specific units, etc. © 1996

37 Recipe contents u Formula: –Process inputs, process parameters, and the resulting process outputs –What, how much, for how long? u Recipe procedure: –The strategy for producing a batch –What and when (in what order)? © 1996

38 Batch Control Concepts General Recipe Recipe Types (Entity - Relationship Diagram) Site Recipe may be transformed into Master Recipe may be transformed into Control Recipe is the basis for © 1996 Product - specific processing information Product - specific processing information includes Site - specific information Site - specific information includes Process cell - specific information Process cell - specific information includes Batch ID, batch size, in-process, operator- and/or system- generated information Batch ID, batch size, in-process, operator- and/or system- generated information includes

39 Recipe Procedures (Entity - Relationship Diagr.) © 1996 Procedure Process Stage is an ordered set of Process Operation Process Action Procedure Unit Procedure Operation Phase is an ordered set of General and Site Recipes Master and Control Recipes

40 u The control recipe does not contain sufficient information to operate the process cell by itself - it must be linked to equipment control u Equipment control: –Equipment-specific functionality that provides the actual control capability for an equipment entity, including procedural, basic, and coordination control, and that is not part of the recipe Batch Control Concepts

41 Procedure Control Recipe must be linked to Equipment control at some procedural element level (e.g. Phase) Unit Procedure consists of an ordered set of Operation consists of an ordered set of Phase consists of an ordered set of © 1996 Equipment Phase Equipment Phase references

42 Batch Control Concepts Equipment Phase Equipment Phase © 1996 M TIC LI Reactor A FQIC Catalyst Equipment Module Charge Monomer Reset Totalizer Open Valve Charge Target Amount Close Valve and Stop Pump Start Pump Monomer

43 Recipe Phase vs. Equipment Phase © 1996 Raw Materials Header M FQIC A B C Recipe Phases Charge A Charge B Charge C Equipment Phase Charge RM - Independent of Recipe - Receives RM as parameter Equipment Module

44 Definitions u State: –The condition of an equipment entity or procedural element at any given time u Mode: –The manner in which the transition of sequential functions are carried out within a procedural element or the accessibility for manipulating the states of equipment entities manually or by other types of control © 1996

45 Modes and States u S88.01 only provides definitions and examples for modes and states u Mode and state propagation is up to the users and thus not specified by S88.01 © 1996

46 States example included in S88.01 © 1996 Hold Start Restart Stop Abort Reset Restarting Holding Running Stopping Aborting Pausing Resume Pause Aborted Stopped Paused HeldComplete Final States Quiescent States Transient States Idle (Initial State)

47 Modes example included in S88.01 © 1996

48 Definitions u Batch control: –Control activities and control functions that provide a means to process finite quantities of input materials by subjecting them to an ordered set of processing activities over a finite period of time using one or more pieces of equipment © 1996

49 Batch Control Activities and Functions © 1996 Outside the scope of SP88 Recipe Management Production Planning and Scheduling Production Information Management Process Management Unit Supervision Process Control Personnel and Environmental Protection Control Activity Model (Context Diagram) Most functions inside these activities are outside the scope of SP88

50 Production Planning and Scheduling u Develop Batch Schedules: –Based on source information and a scheduling algorithm –Using resource availability as input –Taking into account target equipment capacities –With a method for batch sizing and organizing © 1996

51 Production Planning and Scheduling u Develop Batch Schedules: –Allowing revisions on demand based on significant changed in batch progress and cell status –Allowing manual intervention © 1996

52 Production Information Management u Manage Batch History: –Receive and store batch history information –Manipulate historical data –Produce reports © 1996

53 Production Information Management u Sample Batch Information Recorded: –Batch IDs –Timing (start and end of all procedural elements) –Equipment utilized –Control recipe utilized –Actual process values (measured and manual) –Events and alarms (time stamped) © 1996

54 Production Information Management u Sample Batch Information Recorded: –Calculated parameters –Laboratory data –Operator interventions –Operator IDs –Operator comments –Trends of selected process variables © 1996

55 Batch Control Activities and Functions © 1996 Recipe Management (Data Flow Diagram) Manage General Recipe Manage Site Recipe General Recipe Manage Master Recipe Define General Recipe Proced. Element Define Master Recipe Proced. Element General Recipe Master Recipe Process Management General Recipe Procedural Element Procedural Element Master Recipe General Recipe Procedural Element Information Site Recipe

56 Recipe Management u Manage General Recipes: –Selecting and combining procedural elements to create general recipe –Incorporating formula information –Specifying equipment requirements –Maintaining the general recipe –Managing changes to general recipes © 1996

57 Recipe Management u Define General Recipe Procedural Elements: –Naming individual procedural elements –Specifying parameter variables –Describing intended process functionality –Combining lower level elements and specifying a sequence for execution –Creating, modifying and archiving procedural elements © 1996

58 Recipe Management u Define General Recipe Procedural Elements: –Maintaining inventory of procedural elements –Managing changes to procedural elements u Manage Site Recipes: –Same functions as managing general recipes combined with site specific information © 1996

59 Recipe Management u Manage Master Recipes: –Selecting and combining procedural elements to create master recipe –Incorporating formula information –Specifying equipment requirements –Creating, modifying and archiving master recipes and maintaining recipe headers –Maintaining inventory of master recipes –Managing changes to master recipes © 1996

60 Recipe Management u Define Master Recipe Procedural Elements: –Naming individual procedural elements –Specifying parameter variables –Describing intended process functionality –Combining lower level elements and specifying a sequence for execution –Creating, modifying and archiving procedural elements © 1996

61 Recipe Management u Define Master Recipe Procedural Elements: –Maintaining inventory of procedural elements –Managing changes to procedural elements © 1996

62 Batch Control Activities and Functions © 1996 Collect Batch and Process Cell Information Manage Batches Manage Process Cell Resources Unit Supervision Recipe Management Production Planning and Scheduling Production Information Management Unit Recipes, Commands, and Batch and Status Information Batch Information Commands and Status Information Process Cell Information Batch and Resource Information Batch Scheduling Information Master Recipe Batch and Process Cell Information Batch Progress and Process Cell Status Information Process Management (Data Flow Diagram)

63 Process Management u Scope is the Process Cell u Manage Batches: –Creating control recipe from master recipe, schedule and operator input –Assigning unique batch ID –Verifying control recipe as it is created –Sizing control recipe to meet batch quantity needed –Distributing unit recipes in a timely manner © 1996

64 Process Management u Manage Batches: –Maintaining current control recipes until batches are completed –Assigning start batch conditions (as soon as unit available, based on operator, etc.) –Modifying control recipe as needed to handle processing exceptions –Requesting and releasing units and other equipment © 1996

65 Process Management u Manage Batches: –Monitoring and controlling the execution of control recipes –Processing state and mode change requests –Allowing temporary suspension of batches including subsequent re-introduction into the Process Cell –Maintaining batch status information –Updating information on batches © 1996

66 Process Management u Manage Process Cell Resources: –Obtain scheduling information –Allocate and reserve equipment –Arbitrating multiple requests for equipment –Receiving status information from Unit Supervision and Process Control –Updating batch progress information to scheduling © 1996

67 Process Management u Manage Process Cell Resources: –Updating resource information –Managing unallocated equipment u Collect Batch and Process Cell Information: –Mode and state changes –Copies of control recipes –Time that unit recipes were distributed –Operator intervention © 1996

68 Process Management u Collect Batch and Process Cell Information: –Time of commands sent to Unit Supervision and Process Control –Delays due to lack of equipment availability –Time of allocation, reservation and release of resources –Requests and results for equipment allocation and reservation –Status changes in unallocated equipment © 1996

69 Batch Control Activities and Functions © 1996 Collect Batch and Unit Information Acquire and Execute Procedural Control Elements Manage Unit Resources Process Control Process Management Production Information Management Commands and Status Information Batch Information Commands and Status Information Unit Information Batch and Resource Information Batch and Unit Information Unit Recipes, Commands and Status Information Unit Supervision (Data Flow Diagram)

70 Unit Supervision u Scope is the Unit u Acquire and Execute Procedural Elements: –Determining which procedural elements are to be executed –Verifying that procedural elements exist –Executing unit procedures, operations, and phases © 1996

71 Unit Supervision u Acquire and Execute Procedural Elements: –Associating recipe procedural elements with equipment procedural elements –Initiating and parameterizing equipment phases u Manage Unit Resources: –Interfacing with arbitration functions –Ensuring propagation of unit and procedural element modes and states © 1996

72 Unit Supervision u Manage Unit Resources: –Enabling collection of batch relevant production information from external equipment u Collect batch and unit information: –Mode and state changes –Timing of commands to Process Control –Timing of execution of unit recipe procedure events © 1996

73 Unit Supervision u Collect batch and unit information: –Timing and sequence of allocation, reservation, and release of equipment entities –Equipment status changes –Values derived during execution of the unit recipe © 1996

74 Batch Control Activities and Functions © 1996 Collect Data Execute Equipment Phases Execute Basic Control Unit Supervision Production Information Management Data Commands and Status Information Data Commands and Status Information Process Control (Data Flow Diagram) Personnel and Environmental Protection Commands and Status Information Data Commands and Status Information Commands and Status Information

75 Process Control u Scope is the Unit, Equipment Module, and Control Module u Execute Equipment Phases: –Executing phases as directed by Unit Supervision –Propagating modes and states between procedural elements, equipment entities, and units –Handling manual intervention into the execution of equipment phases © 1996

76 Process Control u Execute Basic Control: –Executing control functions (regulatory, interlocks, sequential, etc.) –Propagating of modes and states between any equipment entities and/or procedural elements –Handling manual intervention into basic control u Collect data: –From sensors, derived values, and events within the domain of Process Control © 1996


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