# Culinary Foundations I

## Presentation on theme: "Culinary Foundations I"— Presentation transcript:

Culinary Foundations I

Section Objectives Upon completing this section, you should be able to: Define and apply the concept of mise en place Demonstrate proper recipe usage Identify and apply weights and measures

Mise en Place Everything in its place
Organization is essential to the efficient preparation of quality food. Basic mise en place begins with reading the recipe completely. Preheat ovens to the proper temperatures or turn on other equipment that needs time to heat, such as a steamer. Gather all ingredients. Gather all tools and small wares. Organize your workstation. Establish priorities and timing. Begin work. The concept of mise en place is simply the concept of planning, organization, and following through. It applies not only to everything done in the kitchen but to all aspects of the operation.

Contents of a Standardized Recipe
Name of food being prepared Amount of ingredient needed Weight Measure Clear directions Cooking temperature Cooking and preparation time References The Art and Science of Culinary Preparation, chapter 2 On Cooking, Fourth Edition, chapter 4 The most widely used communication tool in the kitchen is the recipe—a set of instructions for making a food dish from various ingredients.

Contents of a Standardized Recipe—continued
Yield Total quantity ÷ Number of servings Serving size ÷ Servings per pan

Standardized Recipe Example
Ingredients Point out the information missing in this recipe. This leaves the interpretation to the cook, which impacts the finished product. This is a chef’s recipe.

Recipe Usage Method

Using a Recipe Read recipe completely and thoroughly
Check amount needed and recipe yield Adjust recipe as needed Assemble and measure ingredients Collect needed utensils Follow directions for preparation and cooking Store or serve as required and directed

Weights and Measures measuring spoons scoop measuring cups ladles
portion scale volume measure balance scale

Weights and Measures Weigh: To measure food, using a scale
Measure: To measure food, by volume, using measuring equipment Volume is a three-dimensional measurement expressed mathematically as height × width × length. In its simplest form, volume is a measurement of space that an item occupies. For example, a cup of water occupies the cup. If a cup is made to U.S. measurement standards when full, it will yield one cup. This volume measurement is best used for liquid ingredients; however, it can be used to measure amounts of dry ingredients too small to measure accurately by weight. Measurement of large amounts of dry ingredients by volume is not as accurate as measurement by weight. An additional standard of volume measurement is fluid ounce. Fluid ounces are not equivalent to the weight-measurement ounces. It is simply an additional method for expressing the volume of a liquid. Volume measurement is done in specifically sized containers and utensils, including the U.S. Standard teaspoon, tablespoon, cup, pint, quart, and gallon and the metric milliliter, centiliter, deciliter, and liter. Weight is the measurement of the heaviness or mass of an item. It is the resistance of the item’s mass to gravity. Measurement for weight is considered the most accurate measurement for both liquid and dry ingredients. It is recommended that whenever possible weight should be used to measure ingredients. Weight is measured in the U.S. Standard ounce and pound and the metric gram and kilogram. Weight is measured using spring, balance, or electronic scales.

Weights and Measures Weight equivalent 16 oz = 1 lb
Measure versus weight 1 pt (16 oz ÷ 16 fl oz) water = 1 lb 16 oz (1 lb) flour = 1 qt flour (approximate) Density ± Volume

Importance of Accuracy
Prevents food waste Aids quality control Aids portion control Saves time

U.S. Standard Measures U.S. standard volume measure Teaspoon (t)
Tablespoon (T) Cup (c) Pint (pt) Quart (qt) Gallon (gal) Fluid ounce (fl oz)* U.S. standard weight measure Ounce (oz)* Pound (lb/#) *An ounce and a fluid ounce are only equal in relation to water or a water-like substance, such as milk

Measuring by Weight Most accurate method of ingredient measurement
Measure of density Generally used for dry ingredients Measured with a scale Balance/Beam/Baker’s scale Spring/Portion-control scale Electronic scale Demonstrate the weighing and measuring of ingredients. Demonstrate the difference between ounces and fluid ounces by measuring and weighing flour.

Measuring by Volume Generally used for liquid ingredients and very small amounts of dry ingredients

Weighing and Measuring Equipment
Teaspoon measure Tablespoon measure Cup measure Pint measure Quart measure Gallon measure

Equivalent Measures 3 t = 1 T 16 T = 1 c 2 c = 1 pt 2 pt = 1 qt
4 qt = 1 gal

Equivalent Measures—continued
1 T = 1/2 fl oz 1 c = 8 fl oz 1 pt = 16 fl oz* 1 qt = 32 fl oz 1 gal = 128 fl oz * Remember: 16 fl oz is equal to 16 oz (1 lb) only when water or its equivalent is being measured

Techniques for Accuracy
Weighing Set scale at zero Adjust scale for weight of container Measuring Dry ingredients Heap measure with food; level with spatula Liquid ingredients Place measure on flat surface; fill carefully to proper point