2Section ObjectivesUpon completing this section, you should be able to:Define and apply the concept of mise en placeDemonstrate proper recipe usageIdentify and apply weights and measures
3Mise en Place Everything in its place Organization is essential to the efficient preparation of quality food.Basic mise en place begins with reading the recipe completely.Preheat ovens to the proper temperatures or turn on other equipment that needs time to heat, such as a steamer.Gather all ingredients.Gather all tools and small wares.Organize your workstation.Establish priorities and timing.Begin work.The concept of mise en place is simply the concept of planning, organization, and following through. It applies not only to everything done in the kitchen but to all aspects of the operation.
4Contents of a Standardized Recipe Name of food being preparedAmount of ingredient neededWeightMeasureClear directionsCooking temperatureCooking and preparation timeReferencesThe Art and Science of Culinary Preparation, chapter 2On Cooking, Fourth Edition, chapter 4The most widely used communication tool in the kitchen is the recipe—a set of instructions for making a food dish from various ingredients.
5Contents of a Standardized Recipe—continued YieldTotal quantity ÷ Number of servingsServing size ÷ Servings per pan
6Standardized Recipe Example IngredientsPoint out the information missing in this recipe.This leaves the interpretation to the cook, which impacts the finished product.This is a chef’s recipe.
8Using a Recipe Read recipe completely and thoroughly Check amount needed and recipe yieldAdjust recipe as neededAssemble and measure ingredientsCollect needed utensilsFollow directions for preparation and cookingStore or serve as required and directed
10Weights and Measures Weigh: To measure food, using a scale Measure: To measure food, by volume, using measuring equipmentVolume is a three-dimensional measurement expressed mathematically as height × width × length. In its simplest form, volume is a measurement of space that an item occupies. For example, a cup of water occupies the cup. If a cup is made to U.S. measurement standards when full, it will yield one cup. This volume measurement is best used for liquid ingredients; however, it can be used to measure amounts of dry ingredients too small to measure accurately by weight. Measurement of large amounts of dry ingredients by volume is not as accurate as measurement by weight.An additional standard of volume measurement is fluid ounce. Fluid ounces are not equivalent to the weight-measurement ounces. It is simply an additional method for expressing the volume of a liquid. Volume measurement is done in specifically sized containers and utensils, including the U.S. Standard teaspoon, tablespoon, cup, pint, quart, and gallon and the metric milliliter, centiliter, deciliter, and liter.Weight is the measurement of the heaviness or mass of an item. It is the resistance of the item’s mass to gravity. Measurement for weight is considered the most accurate measurement for both liquid and dry ingredients. It is recommended that whenever possible weight should be used to measure ingredients. Weight is measured in the U.S. Standard ounce and pound and the metric gram and kilogram. Weight is measured using spring, balance, or electronic scales.
11Weights and Measures Weight equivalent 16 oz = 1 lb Measure versus weight1 pt (16 oz ÷ 16 fl oz) water = 1 lb16 oz (1 lb) flour = 1 qt flour (approximate)Density ± Volume
12Importance of Accuracy Prevents food wasteAids quality controlAids portion controlSaves time
13U.S. Standard Measures U.S. standard volume measure Teaspoon (t) Tablespoon (T)Cup (c)Pint (pt)Quart (qt)Gallon (gal)Fluid ounce (fl oz)*U.S. standard weight measureOunce (oz)*Pound (lb/#)*An ounce and a fluid ounce are only equal in relation to water or a water-like substance, such as milk
14Measuring by Weight Most accurate method of ingredient measurement Measure of densityGenerally used for dry ingredientsMeasured with a scaleBalance/Beam/Baker’s scaleSpring/Portion-control scaleElectronic scaleDemonstrate the weighing and measuring of ingredients.Demonstrate the difference between ounces and fluid ounces by measuring and weighing flour.
15Measuring by VolumeGenerally used for liquid ingredients and very small amounts of dry ingredients
17Equivalent Measures 3 t = 1 T 16 T = 1 c 2 c = 1 pt 2 pt = 1 qt 4 qt = 1 gal
18Equivalent Measures—continued 1 T = 1/2 fl oz1 c = 8 fl oz1 pt = 16 fl oz*1 qt = 32 fl oz1 gal = 128 fl oz* Remember: 16 fl oz is equal to 16 oz (1 lb) only when water or its equivalent is being measured
19Techniques for Accuracy WeighingSet scale at zeroAdjust scale for weight of containerMeasuringDry ingredientsHeap measure with food; level with spatulaLiquid ingredientsPlace measure on flat surface; fill carefully to proper point