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Chapter 2 Planning a Healthy Diet

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1 Chapter 2 Planning a Healthy Diet

2 Chapter Outline Diet planning principles Food Guides Exchange lists
Using MyPlate Exchange lists Food labels Nutrient Claims

3 Diet-Planning Principles (6)
Adequacy Balance Variety Nutrient density Kcal/energy control Moderation

4 Diet-Planning Principles (6)
Adequacy diet that provides enough energy and nutrients to meet the needs of healthy people

5 Diet-Planning Principles (6)
Balance Diet that provides enough, but not too much of each type of food Don’t want overeating of one food type to “crowd” out intake of other nutrients….

6 Diet-Planning Principles (6)
Variety Diet that includes a wide selection of foods within each food group Eat a variety of fruits, not just oranges

7 Diet-Planning Principles (6)
Nutrient Density Select foods that provide the most nutrients for the least number of calories (nutrient dense foods) FF vs. baked potato…… Other examples ??

8 Diet-Planning Principles (6)
Kcal Control Intake that meets nutritional needs without excess kcal intake

9 Diet-Planning Principles (6)
Moderation Diet that limits the intake of foods high in: Added sugars Salt Saturated and trans fats Cholesterol Alcohol

10 Diet-Planning Principles (6)
Adequacy Balance Variety Nutrient density Kcal/energy control Moderation

11 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2010)
KEY RECOMMENDATIONS Maintain calorie balance over time to achieve and sustain a healthy weight. Focus on consuming nutrient-dense foods and beverages

12 Foods to increase Fruits and vegetables – eat a variety Whole grains
Variety of proteins Seafood Foods that provide more potassium, dietary fiber, calcium, and vitamin D

13 Reduce intake of: Salt (sodium) Saturated fats, trans fats, solid fats
Cholesterol Refined grains (replace with whole grains) Alcohol

14 Diet Planning Guides Food Group Plans Food Group Plans include:
Foods within each food group provide similar nutrients and are from similar food sources Plan recommends the amount of food to be eaten in each food group. Food Group Plans include: USDA Food Guide (MyPlate) DASH diet


16 “New” Food Pyramid

17 Food Pyramid  My Plate (6/11)

18 USDA Food Guide Assigns foods to 5 (6?) major food groups
Recommends daily intake levels from each group Recommendations vary depending on caloric needs Recommends weekly intake goals for several food groups.

19 My Plate - Grains 5-8 ounces bread, pasta, cereal, rice
Half should be from whole grains 1 slice of bread ½ English muffin, bun ½ cup cooked rice, pasta, cereal 1 ounce dry cereal


21 Fruits and Vegetables Make half your plate fruits and vegetable!

22 My Plate - Vegetables 2-3 cups vegetables
Choose a variety from all 5 subgroups weekly (see next slide) 1 cup cooked or raw vegetables 2 cups leafy vegetables (raw) ¾ cup vegetable juice

23 Eat a Variety of Vegetables
Vegetable subgroups Dark green – broccoli and dark greens Red, orange, yellow – carrots, peppers, winter squash, sweet potatoes Legumes – black beans, kidney beans, soybeans, navy beans…. Starchy – corn, peas, potatoes, lima beans Other – green beans, brussel sprouts, mushrooms, tomatoes, vegetable juices…

24 My Plate - Fruits 1 – 1 ½ cups of fruit Consume a variety of fruits
No more than 1/3 from juices 1 orange, apple, banana (all medium size) ½ grapefruit ½ cup canned fruit or berries 3/4 cup fruit juice

25 My Plate - Dairy 3 cups/serving dairy Choose low/no-fat options
1 cup milk 80 kcal, skim 100 kcal, 1% milk 159 kcal, whole milk 1 cup yogurt 1 ½ ounces cheese (170 kcal for cheddar) Calcium enriched soy milk

26 Food Plate - Proteins 5-6 ½ ounces meat and meat alternatives
Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, seeds, nuts, legumes – ounce equivalents ½ ounce nuts 1 egg 1/4 cup cooked legumes = 1 ounce 1 tablespoon pb

27 My Plate - Oils Oils – 5-7 teaspoons per day Olive oil Canola oil
Corn oil Vegetable oil

28 My Plate – Empty Calories
Fats and sugars – eat sparingly Butter, margarine Cream, sour cream, cream cheese, mayo. Candy, soda, sugar, honey…. Sports drinks, energy drinks

29 My Plate Strengths: Drawbacks:

30 Putting the Plan into Action
Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

31 Other Recommendations
Physical Activity Adults should do at least 2 hours and 30 minutes each week of aerobic physical activity at a moderate level OR 1 hour and 15 minutes each week of aerobic physical activity at a vigorous level.

32 Exchange Lists Foods are grouped by proportion of carb, fat, protein
Carbohydrate exchange lists Starches, fruits, vegetables, milk, sweets Fat group Butter, oil, bacon, olives, nuts Meat and meat substitutes group 1 ounce = 1 exchange

33 Exchange Lists Allowed a certain number of “exchanges” from each group each day, e.g. 9 starch exchanges 4 vegetable 3 fruit 2 milk 6 lean meat 5 fat (do not need to know details of this slide)

34 Exchange Lists Used by diabetics, Weight Watcher style diets…
Strengths: kcal control, moderation, adequacy, balance Drawbacks: Can be complicated at first 1 exchange may not = 1 serving

35 Food Labels Ingredient list Serving size
Listed by weight in product (most to least) Serving size Set by gov’t for each food type Not the same as Food Pyramid serving

36 Food Labels Nutritional content compared to Daily Values
Daily Values are estimates of the needs of 200 kcal per day consumer, see page 56 Not the same as RDA – why?

37 Food Labels Specific nutrition facts Kcal/serving Kcal from fat
Total fat, grams and % Daily Value (DV) Grams saturated fat, % DV Grams trans fats – added 2006 Cholesterol (mg and % DV) Sodium (mg and % DV)

38 Food Labels Nutrition Facts, cont’d Total grams carbohydrate
Grams sugar Grams and % DV: fiber Grams protein % DV: Vitamin A Vitamin C Iron Calcium


40 Food Labels “Health” claims allowed on food labels are regulated by the FDA Law changed in 2003 to allow more health claims Much more confusing now Now health claims with limited evidence can now be put on labels with a “disclaimer”/explanation.


42 Food Labels

43 Food Labels “Structure-function” claims do not require FDA approval
Cannot mention a disease or symptom Limited regulation of claims on dietary supplements (since 1994)


45 Food Labels “May reduce the risk of heart disease.”
A “health” claim Regulated and needs FDA approval. “Promotes a healthy heart.” A “structure-function” claim No FDA approval or proof needed to make

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