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HEALTH BENEFITS OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD

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1 HEALTH BENEFITS OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD
LUIZA GHARIBYAN Ph.D. Wellness Center, GA.U.S.A.

2 Functional food is a food where a new ingredient(s) (or more of an existing ingredient) has been added to a food and the new product has a new function (often one related to health-promotion or disease prevention). Functional foods are one of the fastest-growing segments of the food industry.    In some countries, functional foods have already become part of the dietary landscape. Millions of Americans already eat functional foods. (1) Food function

3 Functional foods, according to their generally accepted definition, are foods including whole foods and fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods or dietary components that may reduce the risk of chronic disease and provide a health and physiological benefit beyond the traditional nutrients it contains(2). "Food and nutrition professionals are uniquely qualified to interpret scientific findings on functional foods and translate such findings into practical dietary applications for consumers, other health professionals, policy makers, and the media," they said.

4 Health Canada defines functional foods as being "similar in appearance to, or may be, a conventional food, is consumed as part of a usual diet, and is demonstrated to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions. Health Canada chronic disease

5 European Commission Concerted Action on Functional Food Science in Europe considers foods to be functional if they have a beneficial affect on one or more functions of the body and are still in the form of food, not a dietary supplement.(3) A.T. Diplock et al. , Editors. Scientific Concepts of Functional Foods in Europe - Consensus Document. British Journal of Nutrition 1999;81(1):1-27. F. Bellisle et al., Editors. Functional Food Science in Europe - Theme Papers. British Journal of Nutrition 1998;80(1):1-193. European Commission Concerted Action on Functional Food Science in Europe dietary supplement

6 The American Dietetic Association (ADA) defines functional foods as foods "that include whole foods and fortified, enriched or enhanced foods have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis, at effective levels.“ The ADA breaks down functional foods into four categories: conventional foods, modified foods, medical foods, and foods for special dietary use. American Dietetic Association

7 Conventional Foods Conventional foods are the most basic of the functional foods because they haven't been modified by enrichment or fortification; they're still in their natural state. Most whole fruits and vegetables fall into this category because they're rich in phytochemicals such as lycopene and lutein, as well as other beneficial compounds. Phytochemicals lycopene lutein

8 Modified Foods Modified foods have been enriched, fortified or enhanced with nutrients or other beneficial ingredients. Calcium-fortified orange juice, folic acid enriched breads and margarine enhanced with plant sterols are functional foods that have been modified. Energy drinks that have been enhanced with herbs such as ginseng and guarana, as well as other potentially controversial foods, also fall into this category. Calcium-fortified orange juice, folic acid margarine plant sterols Energy drinks

9 Medical Foods The FDA defines medical food as "food which is formulated to be consumed or administered enterally under the supervision of a physician and which is intended for the specific dietary management of a disease or condition for which distinctive nutritional requirements, based on recognized scientific principles, are established by medical evaluation." Medical foods include specialized formulas designed for people who have specific health problems. These foods require the help and supervision of a health care provider.

10 Foods for Special Dietary Use
Foods for special dietary use are similar to medical foods, but they're available commercially and don't require the supervision of a health care provider. These foods fill special dietary needs that are due to specific health conditions, such as celiac disease, lactose intolerance, or obesity. Gluten-free foods, lactose-free dairy products and foods designed to aid weight loss are considered foods for special dietary use if you have those conditions. Infant foods are also in this category. Hasler CM, Brown AC; American Dietetic Association. "Position of the American Dietetic Association: functional foods." J Am Diet Assoc Apr;109(4): U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "Claims That Can Be Made for Conventional Foods and Dietary Supplements." Accessed August 16,

11 The healing power of foods is a popular concept that focuses on how "super foods" can have health protecting properties. Functional food products typically include health claims on their label touting their benefits: for example: "Cereal is a significant source of fiber. Studies have shown that an increased amount of fiber in one's diet can decrease the risk of certain types of cancer in (4)individuals.“(http://www.cancerproject.org/diet_cancer/nutrition/fiber.php) Fuchs CS, Giovannucci EL, Colditz GA, et al. Dietary fiber and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma in women. N Engl J Med. 1999;340: health claims Cereal fiber Studies risk cancer

12 Some countries, such as Canada, Sweden, the United States and the European Union, have specific laws concerning the labeling of such products. In the United States, the kinds of claims which are allowed are overseen and regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, some claims will fall outside of the purview of the FDA and be accompanied by the disclaimer: "These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease." Such a disclaimer typically accompanies supplements rather than foods, but since the definition of functional food is still evolving and somewhat amorphous, a functional food may find itself bearing the warning. Canada, Sweden United States European Union Labeling Food and Drug Administration

13 Ninety-five percent of functional foods haven’t been clinically tested and are making claims unsupported by clinical data,” says Steven DeFelice, chairman of the Foundation of Innovation in Medicine in Cranford, New Jersey. (5,21)    Are functional foods safe? Do they deliver what they promise? You’ve got to evaluate each one on its own merits. Here are some questions to ask: Steven DeFelice, chairman of the Foundation of Innovation in Medicine in Cranford, New Jersey. (http://www.cspinet.org/nah/4_99/functional_foods.htm

14 The first question we need to ask is does functional food work
The first question we need to ask is does functional food work. We have to pay attention for information about how much beneficial ingredients does it contain. Some food products contain only a fraction of the amount that may be beneficial.(6) If a food is fortified with vitamins or minerals, the label has to tell you exactly how much or how little has been added. That’s not the case with herbs or other added ingredients. Snapple, for example, refuses to divulge the amount of ginseng it puts into its Ginseng Tea. And even when labels say how much is in each serving, most shoppers have no idea whether that’s a lot or a little.    For example, according to its label, each cup of Peace Cereal Vanilla Almond Crisp with Ginkgo & Gotu Kola (“an Herbal Brain Power Cereal”) contains two milligrams of ginkgo leaf extract. What it doesn’t say is that two milligrams is just one or two percent of the 120 to 320 milligrams that were used as a daily dose in studies of people with Alzheimer’s.    How do companies decide how much herb or other “functional” ingredient to add to their foods? Do they evaluate the scientific literature to determine how much is effective...or safe? Don’t bet on it. “It’s highly probable that many functional foods either block or increase the absorption of drugs, which could increase their toxicity or block their effectiveness,” says Stephen DeFelice of the Foundation for Innovation in Medicine. “We urgently need more studies on interactions between functional foods and pharmaceuticals.”

15 The next question should concern the safety of functional food
The next question should concern the safety of functional food .(7)Many herbs or other ingredients used in functional foods are not tested for governmental approval. Meanwhile some of them may create several health problems.

16 It is also very important to be sure that processed functional food is healthy. For instance a calcium-fortified functional food with sugar and water is less healthful because the additional nutrients found in orange juice are missing.

17 During evaluation of functional food we have to check the information provided through nutritional labeling on food products, which may serve as useful guide in finding foods that have nutrient density and are healthful choices.

18 The Daily Value(DV) for a single serving on a food label represents the percentage of nutrient such as saturated fat or carbohydrate ,that is recommended for an individual consuming 2,000 Calories daily.

19 We can chose the product which contain less amount of cholesterol ,high percentage of protein, or no artificial colors. If the food is unprocessed ,it must be in its raw state, having not been frozen or subjected to other forms of processing. Fresh does not apply to processed food such as fresh milk or fresh bread. We have to know that health claims may be placed on food labels only if they have been approved by the FDA and are supported by adequate scientific data.(8)

20 Health Claims and the FDA
The FDA allows certain health claims to be placed on food labels. Nutrient content claims, structure and function claims, or health claims can be placed on labels. Nutrient content claims describe the content of the foods and can include words like "free," "low," and "reduced." food labels

21 Calorie-free foods, low-fat foods and reduced-sodium foods display these types of claims. Structure and function claims describe the role of a nutrient in the function of your body. A yogurt label, for example, can claim "calcium builds strong bones." Health claims must be approved by the FDA. For example, foods that contain olive oil or oats and oatmeal can make specific claims about how those ingredients affect health. Sodium olive oil oats and oatmeal The concept of functional foods first became popular in Japan in the 1980s. The Japanese government developed a regulatory agency to oversee the approval of functional foods in The name of this agency is called Foods for Specified Health Use (FOSHU). Functional foods are increasingly popular in the United States. A significant number of popular, mainstream brand name products are available on the market. The Nutrition Action Healthletter notes that an increasing number of major brands are planning or developing labels that purport the benefits of eating their functional foods. Furthermore, functional foods are reported as one of the fastest growing segments of the food economy in United States. In the past decade, functional foods have become so popular that other governments, including Japan, Canada, and the United Kingdom have devoted major health initiatives to investigating the usefulness and safety of functional foods. Some foods are said to be inherently functional foods, such as green tea, which has antioxidants, and salmon, which contains omega 3 fatty acids. Functional foods are also often created when foods are processed. Foods may be fortified to include more fiber or calcium, for example. Consumers are advised to choose foods that appear healthy according to the way they fit into their food pyramid, rather than on the claims of additional, and usually unproven, beneficial properties. Nutrition bars contain herbs, supplements, vitamin, minerals and or/protein. There are many different forms including protein bars, meal replacement bars, energy bars and diets bars. In addition to nutrition bars, fermented foods are also included in the functional food category. A common example is yogurt, which often contains live bacterial cultures known as probiotics. These fermented foods are thought to promote a healthy environment in the body.

22 Since 1993, the FDA has approved ten health claims
Since 1993, the FDA has approved ten health claims. But most functional-food-makers have figured out how to short-circuit the rules.    Instead of making a health claim, which mentions a disease, companies make claims that a food can affect the structure or function of the body. The FDA doesn’t have to approve them, and they can appear on any food, no matter how unhealthy. And they’ve gotten bolder.

23 No matter how impressive-looking a functional food’s name or package claim, check the Nutrition Facts label before deciding whether it’s good for you. Fortified junk foods are still junk.

24 Fruits and vegetables, whole grains, beans, and low-fat milk and yogurt are packed with nutrients or phytochemicals that may cut the risk of cancer, heart disease, high blood pressure, eye disease, and other health problems. Chips, candy bars, and cookies—even if they’re fat-free, low-salt, and contain no preservatives—can’t take the place of foods that come with no label, no advertising, and no gimmicks.(8) By Beth Brophy & David Schardt

25 The best foods are those that are the most nutrient-dense.
The best foods are those that are the most nutrient-dense. Nutrient-density is a measure of the amount of nutrients a food contains in comparison with the number of calories it has. The higher the level of nutrients compared to the number of calories, the more nutrient-dense a food has. By eating the healthy foods, we'll get all the essential nutrients that we need for excellent health, including vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients, essential fatty acids, fiber and more.(8a)http://www.whfoods.com/foodstoc.php)

26 Examples of natural functional food:
1. Blueberries are often referred to as a super-food. - What health benefits are associated with the consumption of blueberries? What component of blueberries are beneficial to health? Blueberries are flowering plants of the genus Vaccinium with dark-blue berries. flowering plants Vaccinium

27 Especially in wild species, blueberries contain anthocyanins(flavonoids), the antioxidant pigments and various phytochemicals possibly having a role in reducing risks of some diseases, including inflammation and certain cancers.(9) anthocyanins(flavonoids) antioxidant pigments phytochemicals inflammation cancers

28 Potential anti-disease effects.
Researchers have shown that blueberry anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, flavonols, and tannins inhibit mechanisms of cancer cell development and inflammation in vitro. Similar to red grape, some blueberry species contain in their skins significant levels of resveratrol, a phytochemical. anthocyanins proanthocyanidins resveratrol flavonols tannins cancer inflammation in vitro grape phytochemical Although most studies below were conducted using the highbush cultivar of blueberries (V. corymbosum), content of polyphenol antioxidants and anthocyanins in lowbush (wild) blueberries (V. angustifolium) exceeds values found in highbush species.

29 At a 2007 symposium on berry health benefits were reports showing consumption of blueberries (and similar berry fruits including cranberries) may alleviate the cognitive decline occurring in Alzheimer's disease and other conditions of aging. Cranberries Alzheimer's disease

30 In a USDA Human Nutrition Research Center laboratory, neuroscientists discovered that feeding blueberries to laboratory rats slowed age-related loss in their mental capacity, a finding that has important implications for humans.(10 ) Brain stroke Research at Rutgers has also shown that blueberries may help prevent urinary tract infections. Other animal studies found that blueberry consumption lowered cholesterol and total blood lipid levels, possibly affecting symptoms of heart disease. Additional research showed that blueberry consumption in rats altered glycosaminoglycans which are vascular cell components affecting control of blood pressure(3)

31 2. Cacao bean, the seed of Theobroma cacao, is known to be rich in polyphenols, such as the procyanidin monomers ((+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin) and oligomers (B-type procyanidins that are linked by C4–C8 bonds) .

32 There is now a large body of information that supports the idea that cacao flavanols and procyanidins have the ability Cacao flavonols and procyanidins exert strong antioxidant effect in vitro.

33 Several in vivo studies have provided strong support for the hypothesis that consumption of flavonol –rich foods, such as certain cocoas and chocolates may be associated with reduced risk for vascular disease.(11) 11.ARCH INTERN MED/VOL 167, APR 9, of Cocoa and Tea Intake on Blood Pressure A Meta-analysis Dirk Taubert, MD, PhD; Renate Roesen, PhD; Edgar Scho¨mig, MD These nutrients have been shown to affect numerous intracellular signaling cascades and to influence the cardiovascular system by enhancing vascular function and decreasing platelet reactivity.(from the Lecture 3) One of the in vivo studies(4) was evaluated the effect of cacao procyanidins (CP) on plasma lipid levels in high cholesterol-fed rats. These results suggested that one of the mechanisms of CP to lower plasma cholesterol is inhibition of intestinal absorption of cholesterol. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that the ingestion of monomers of procyanidins prevents coronary heart diseases . In addition, several reports have indicated that the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation was significantly decreased in humans and high cholesterolemic rabbits by dietary supplementation with cocoa or its procyanidins fraction. Moreover, many reports support the possibility that procyanidins in cacao can prevent cardiovascular disease by improving blood flow rate , improving platelet function , changing inflammatory responses in endothelial cells of blood vessels and so on.(5)

34 Fiber 3.Fiber is a functional food because it may reduce the risk of chronic disease and provide a health and physiological benefit beyond the traditional nutrients it contains Dietary fiber can be soluble (able to dissolve in water) or insoluble. Fiber cannot be digested. However, soluble fiber is fermented by bacteria in the digestive tract, and absorbs water to become a gelatinous substance. Insoluble fiber has bulking action but is mostly not fermentated.( 7 Chemically, dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides such as cellulose and many other plant components such as dextrins, inulin, lignin, waxes, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans and oligosaccharides. The natural physician’s healing therapies, Mark Stengler,N.D. 2008) Websites: 7.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dietary_fiber#cite_note-Anderson-1#cite_note-Anderson-1)

35 Total Fiber is the sum of Dietary Fiber and Functional Fiber.
Dietary Fiber consists of nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants. Functional Fiber consists of isolated, nondigestible carbohydrates that have beneficial physiological effects in humans.

36 There are three physiological effects of dietary fiber that currently have sufficient scientific evidence to be recognized as characteristics of dietary fiber—a positive effect on laxation, attenuation of blood cholesterol levels, and/or attenuation of blood glucose levels; increasing the water-binding capacity of the feces, and softening stools. (12) 7.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dietary_fiber#cite_note-Anderson-1#cite_note-Anderson-1)

37 Consumption of spices and herbs for their health benefits has traditional historic habits in many countries. Ginger- Health benefits: The active ingredient in ginger is gingerol, a compound that's thought to relax blood vessels, stimulate blood flow and relieve pain. It's commonly used as a digestive aid and contains compounds that ease motion sickness and nausea and inhibit vomiting. This makes it a helpful spice for morning sickness or for people suffering from the side effects of chemotherapy.(13) Ginger is also an anti-inflammatory, which means it may be useful in fighting heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease and arthritis. Plus, it's high in antioxidants that fight all kinds of diseases. (1) .1 The World's 7 Most Potent Disease-Fighting Spices by

38 Cinnamon is an anti-microbial food that can stop the growth of bacteria, fungi and yeast. It also has anti-clotting and anti-inflammatory properties, which help prevent unwanted clumping of blood platelets. Cinnamaldehyde (also called cinnamic aldehyde) has been well-researched for its effects on blood platelets.(13,14,15) Platelets are constituents of blood that are meant to clump together under emergency circumstances (like physical injury) as a way to stop bleeding, but under normal circumstances, they can make blood flow inadequate if they clump together too much. The cinnaldehyde in cinnamon helps prevent unwanted clumping of blood platelets. (The way it accomplishes this health-protective act is by inhibiting the release of an inflammatory fatty acid called arachidonic acid from platelet membranes and reducing the formation of an inflammatory messaging molecule called thromboxane A2.) Cinnamon's ability to lower the release of arachidonic acid from cell membranes also puts it in the category of an "anti-inflammatory" food that can be helpful in lessening inflammation. Cinnamon's essential oils also qualify it as an "anti-microbial" food, and cinnamon has been studied for its ability to help stop the growth of bacteria as well as fungi, including the commonly problematic yeast Candida. In laboratory tests, growth of yeasts that were resistant to the commonly used anti-fungal medication fluconazole was often (though not always) stopped by cinnamon extracts.  People with diabetes should also take note that cinnamon is a useful tool to help control blood sugar. 7. The World's 7 Most Potent Disease-Fighting Spices by 8. ) 9. ^ Kail, Robert V.; John C. Cavanaugh (2006). Human Development: A Life-span View (4, illustrated ed.). Cengage Learning. pp. 58. ISBN , 10.

39 Dairy Products: Milk and dairy products have been associated with health benefits for many years containing bioactive peptides, probiotic bacteria, antioxidants, vitamins, specific proteins, oligosaccharides, organic acids, highly absorbable calcium, conjugated linoleic acid and other biologically active components Consumer's increasing interest for maintaining or improving their health by eating these specific food products has led to the development of many new functional dairy products. These dairy products contain many functional ingredients that decrease the absorption of cholesterol, can significantly reduce blood pressure, play role in the regulation of satiety, food intake and obesity-related metabolic disorders and may exert antimicrobial effects. organic acids

40 Cheese Cheese is manufactured by various methods of coagulating milk and thus removing liquid called whey, rennet is normally added to this "curd" to make it stabilize Cheese is a very good source of protein and calcium. It is also a good source of phosphorus, iodine and selenium. (17)

41 In recent studies, calcium has been shown to:
Help protect colon cells from cancer-causing chemicals Help prevent the bone loss that can occur as a result of menopause or certain conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis Help prevent migraine headaches in those who suffer from them Reduce PMS symptoms during the luteal phase (the second half) of the menstrual cycle calcium

42 Calcium is best known for its role in maintaining the strength and density of bones. In a process known as bone mineralization, calcium and phosphorus join to form calcium phosphate. Calcium phosphate is a major component of the mineral complex (called hydroxyapatite) that gives structure and strength to bones. One ounce of low-fat mozzarella cheese provides 18.3% of the daily value for calcium along with 13.1% of the DV for phosphorus( 18) Calcium also plays a role in many other vital physiological activities, including blood clotting, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, regulation of enzyme activity, cell membrane function and blood pressure regulation. Because these activities are essential to life, the body utilizes complex regulatory systems to tightly control the amount of calcium in the blood, so that sufficient calcium is always available. As a result, when dietary intake of calcium is too low to maintain adequate blood levels of calcium, calcium stores are drawn out of the bones to maintain normal blood concentrations. If a person's diet does not supply adequate calcium, this situation can result in osteoporosis after many years. For young girls going through the rapid growth spurts of puberty, getting calcium from dairy products, such as cheese, may be better for building bone than taking a calcium supplement, suggests a study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.(19) At the conclusion of the study, girls getting their calcium from cheese had higher whole-body bone mineral density and cortical thickness of the tibia than girls given supplemental calcium + vitamin D, supplemental calcium alone, or placebo. While the researchers noted that differences in the rate at which different children naturally grow might account for some of the differences seen in bone mineral density, they concluded: "Increasing calcium intake by consuming cheese appears to be more beneficial for cortical bone mass accrual than the consumption of tablets containing a similar amount of calcium."( Cheng S, Lyytikainen A, Kroger H, Lamberg-Allardt C, Alen M, Koistinen A, Wang QJ, Suuriniemi M, Suominen H, Mahonen A, Nicholson PH, Ivaska KK, Korpela R, Ohlsson C, Vaananen KH, Tylavsky F. Effects of calcium, dairy product, and vitamin D supplementation on bone mass accrual and body composition in y-old girls: a 2-y randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr Nov;82(5): PMID: (19 ) adds a new point of protective data: eating more dairy actually decreases gout risk(20) (Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, Willett W, Curhan G. Purine-rich foods, dairy and protein intake, and the risk of gout in men. N Engl J Med Mar 11;350(11): PMID: )

43 Conclusion Functional foods offer great potential to improve health and/or help prevent certain diseases when taken as part of a balanced diet and healthy lifestyle. The subject of health claims is becoming increasingly important and there is broad consensus that there needs to be a regulatory framework that will protect consumers, promote fair trade and encourage product innovation in the food industry.

44 The research opportunities in nutrition to explore the relationship between a food or a food component and an improved state of health and well-being, or reduction of disease, present the greatest challenge to scientists now and in the future

45 The communication of health benefits to consumers is also of critical importance so that they have the knowledge to make informed choices about the foods they eat and enjoy. (21,22)

46 Bibliography 1.From The July 2000 Issue of Nutrition Science News
Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals by Mary Mulry, Ph.D. 2.What you need to know about health benefits of functional foods. Iowa State University Adapted from “Focus on Functional Foods” (Melinda Hemmelgarn, University of Missouri, 1999) by Elisabeth Schafer, extension communication specialist…….. July 2000 Bibliography 1. 1.From The July 2000 Issue of Nutrition Science News Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals by Mary Mulry, Ph.D. .From The July 2000 Issue of Nutrition Science News Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals 2.What you need to know about health benefits of functional foods. Iowa State University Adapted from “Focus on Functional Foods” (Melinda Hemmelgarn, University of Missouri, 1999) by Elisabeth Schafer, extension communication specialist 3 A.T. Diplock et al. , Editors. Scientific Concepts of Functional Foods in Europe - Consensus Document. British Journal of Nutrition 1999;81(1):1-27. F. Bellisle et al., Editors. Functional Food Science in Europe - Theme Papers. British Journal of Nutrition 1998;80(1):1-193. 4individuals.“(http://www.cancerproject.org/diet_cancer/nutrition/fiber.php) Fuchs CS, Giovannucci EL, Colditz GA, et al. Dietary fiber and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma in women. N Engl J Med. 1999;340: 5 6 Steven DeFelice, chairman of the Foundation of Innovation in Medicine in Cranford, New Jersey. ( 7.http://www.whfoods.com/foodstoc.php 8. By Beth Brophy & David Schardt ,http://www.cspinet.org/nah/4_99/functional_foods.htm 8a. .(8a)http://www.whfoods.com/foodstoc.php) 9 10 11.ARCH INTERN MED/VOL 167, APR 9, of Cocoa and Tea Intake on Blood Pressure A Meta-analysis Dirk Taubert, MD, PhD; Renate Roesen, PhD; Edgar Scho¨mig, MD 12 13. 1 The World's 7 Most Potent Disease-Fighting Spices by 14. ) 15 Kail, Robert V.; John C. Cavanaugh (2006). Human Development: A Life-span View (4, illustrated ed.). Cengage Learning. pp. 58. ISBN , 17. Am J Clin Nutr Nov;82(5): PMID: ) 18 (Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, Willett W, Curhan G. N Engl J Med Mar 11;350(11): PMID: ) 19.Milk and Dairy Products as Functional Foods: A Review Z.F. Bhat and Hina Bhat International Journal of Dairy Science, Year: 2011 | Volume: 6 | Issue: 1 | Page No.: 1-12 DOI: /ijds 20."( Cheng S, Lyytikainen A, Kroger H, Lamberg-Allardt C, Alen M, Koistinen A, Wang QJ, Suuriniemi M, Suominen H, Mahonen A, Nicholson PH, Ivaska KK, Korpela R, Ohlsson C, Vaananen KH, Tylavsky F. Effects of calcium, dairy product, and vitamin D supplementation on bone mass accrual and body composition in y-old girls: a 2-y randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr Nov;82(5): PMID: ) 21 22.Brown AC, Hasler CM "Position of the American Dietetic Association: Functional Foods" J Am Dietetic Assoc 2009; DOI: /j.jada Bibliography : Milk and Dairy Products as Functional Foods: A Review Z.F. Bhat and Hina Bhat International Journal of Dairy Science, Year: 2011 | Volume: 6 | Issue: 1 | Page No.: 1-12 DOI: /ijds ."( Cheng S, Lyytikainen A, Kroger H, Lamberg-Allardt C, Alen M, Koistinen A, Wang QJ, Suuriniemi M, Suominen H, Mahonen A, Nicholson PH, Ivaska KK, Korpela R, Ohlsson C, Vaananen KH, Tylavsky F. Effects of calcium, dairy product, and vitamin D supplementation on bone mass accrual and body composition in y-old girls: a 2-y randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr Nov;82(5): PMID: ) Brown AC, Hasler CM "Position of the American Dietetic Association: Functional Foods" J Am Dietetic Assoc 2009; DOI: /j.jada


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