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Russian cuisine and Russian cooking recipes

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1 Russian cuisine and Russian cooking recipes

2 Russian cuisine is one of the most popular and widely spread in the world.
French cuisine is festive and elegant, Chinese cuisine is exotic, Russian cuisine is healthy and delicious. Russian dishes are easy to cook and they do not demand much skill and special ingredients, they do not need exotic equipment and tool and everybody who knows how to hold a cooking knife and how to peel potatoes can cook delicious Russian dishes.

3 Russian cooking traditions
In old Russ, grain - that is rye, barley, oats, millet and wheat - was always the main food product. Since days of old the Russian s have been known as land-tiller. That is why bread remains their major national food. Pies have always been a par of the holiday fare. The pies are customarily filled with different kinds of meat, fish, and berries. As for the groats, millet was most often used since it was the main agricultural product. They also made various kinds of kashas (cereals), round loaves, baked puddings, and krupenik.

4 Russian cooking traditions
Russians have always eaten vegetables. In old times it was the turnip, cabbage, radish, and cucumbers. Since the 18th century the potato began to play an ever more important part as one of the most loved ingredients of the Russian board. The abundance of berries, mushroom, and honey in Russian cuisine is accounted for by the country's vast expanses, especially in the north.

5 Russian cooking traditions
One more important thing should be mentioned for better understanding of Russian cooking traditions. Russian is an Orthodox country and all the feasts were always strictly followed. Totally there are more than 200 days in a year in which the Orthodox Christians should avoid eating meat, milk and milk products (including butter), eggs. That is why Russian cuisine widely uses vegetables, fish, berries, and mushrooms. In order to cook tasty dishes using just vegetables it is necessary to use different spice, Russians used dill, parsley, celery, later they used spidery which were delivered from other countries - pepper, cinnamon, cardamom, cloves. Nearly all dishes include onion.

6 Russian cooking traditions
In general each cuisine roughly can be divided into two groups of dishes - official dishes and every-day dishes. The same is with Russian cuisine. Official dishes demands much time for cooking, often they include many different products. So in the end these recipes are Russian only by name, something like "Pork with Russian sauce", "Russian cutlets" etc.

7 Recipes of so-called every-day Russian cuisine.
In the every-day dishes that are cooked of common products and in limited time range, reflect the real Russian cuisine and they give the real impression about Russian cuisine. Recipes are written in accordance with classical Russian cooking book which was called "The book about tasty and healthy cuisine" but with some practical comments.

8 Appetizers Most often Russian appetizers are rather spicy and look good enough to wet the appetite. They are served with various seasonings and condiments, such as horse-radish, kvass, garlic and piquant tomato sauces lending the dishes special pungency.

9 Appetizers Russian vinaigrette salad Mixed meat jelly (holodets) Fish jelly Salted herrings, home style

10 Russian vinaigrette salad
Ingredients 5 potatoes 1 beetroot 2 carrots 1-2 pickled cucumber 4-5 tbsp. shredded sauerkraut 2 tbsp. 3 % vinegar 1 medium-size onion 4 tbsp. vegetable oil salt to taste  

11 Russian vinaigrette salad
Way of cooking Boil the potatoes, beetroot, carrots, and pickled cucumbers and cut them in thin slices or (what's more traditional for this disch in small cubes (1/4-1/2"). Cut one onion or the corresponding amount of green onion the same way and press the saurkrautt until the juice comes out. Put them all together, dress with the vegetable oil, vinegar and salt. Mix Good appetite!

12 Russian vinaigrette salad
Comments I dare to recommend you to use non deodorated sunflower oil - it will give good flavor. If you are not fond of spicy food - do not add vinegar. Even you like the spice food do not add - pickled cucumbers and sauerkraut give enough of sourness. You can add canned green peas, too. And do not fear to add too much of beetroot - this dished is based on taste of it.

13 Ingredients Way of cooking Russian vinaigrette salad Comments
5 potatoes 1 beetroot 2 carrots 1-2 pickled cucumber 4-5 tbsp. shredded sauerkraut 2 tbsp. 3 % vinegar 1 medium-size onion 4 tbsp. vegetable oil salt to taste Way of cooking Boil the potatoes, beefroot, carrots, and pickled cucumbers and cut them in thin slices or (what's more traditional for this dish in small cubes (1/4-1/2"). Cut one onion or the corresponding amount of green onion the same way and press the sauerkraut until the juice comes out. Put them all together, dress with the vegetable oil, vinegar and salt. Mix. Good appetite! Russian vinaigrette salad Comments I dare to recommend you to use non deodorated sunflower oil - it will give good flavor. If you are not fond of spicy food - do not add vinegar. Even you like the spice food do not add - pickled cucumbers and sauerkraut give enoough of sourness. You can add canned green peas, too. And do not fear to add too much of beetroot –this dished is based on taste of it.

14 Mixed meat jelly (holodets)
Ingredients 1 lb (1 kg) pig's leggs 1.5 lb (600 gm) cow haunches 1 carrot 1 piece parsley 3 onions 1 garlic 4 hardboiled eggs 5-6 black peppercorns salt

15 Mixed meat jelly (holodets)
Way of cooking Chop the leg and haunches, put them in a sauce-pan, pour cold water over them, and start heating. Bring to a boil, remove the scum, add the vegetables and condiment, salt and boil on a very low heat till meat comes off the bones (3-4 hours). When th broth settles, remove and pour out the grease. Put a ring of an egg on the bottom of cups or small tureens. Remove the meat from bones. Cut the big chunks into pieces and put them in the cups. Dress the broth with minces garlic, salt and pepper to taste, and bring it to a boil again. Pour the broth ino the cups and put it to the cold.

16 Mixed meat jelly (holodets)
Comments Remove vegetables after 2 hours boiling, all throw away except carrot - it will use it for decoration. Boil meat for 5 hours. When you poor mixture of broth and meat add to the caps (plates) not boiled eggs (jelley is nutrient enough) but slices of carrot.

17 Mixed meat jelly (holodets)
Ingredients 1 lb (1 kg) pig's leggs 1.5 lb (600 gm) cow haunches 1 carrot 1 piece parcley 3 onions 1 garlic 4 hardboiled eggs 5-6 black peppercorns salt Way of cooking Chop the leg and haunches, put them in a sauce-pan, pour cold water over them, and start heating. Bring to a boil, remove the scum, add the vegetables and condiment, salt and boil on a very low heat till meat comes off the bones (3-4 hours). When th broth settles, remove and pour out the grease. Put a ring of an egg on the bottom of cups or small tureens. Remove the meat from bones. Cut the big chunks into pieces and put them in the cups. Dress the broth with minces garlic, salt and pepper to taste, and bring it to a boil again. Pour the broth into the cups and put it to the cold. Mixed meat jelly (holodets) Comments Remove vegetables after 2 hours boiling, all throw away except carrot - it will use it for decoration. Boil meat for 5 hours. When you poor mixture of broth and meat add to the caps (plates) not boiled eggs (jelley is nutrient enough) but slices of carrot.

18 Fish jelly Ingredients
2 lb (1 kg) fresh fresh-water fish (pike-perch, carp, sazan) 1 onion 1 carrot 4-5 black and aromatic peppercorns 2-3 bay leaves 1 piece and root parsley 1 lemon dill salt

19 Fish jelly Way of cooking
Scale, gut and wash the fish. Cut it into small bits. Pour water over the fish's heads and tails and bring to a boil removing the scum. Add the salt, culinary roots and spices; boil again for 1/2 hour. Strain the broth, add the bits of fish and boil till done. Make sure the bits do not crumble. Remove the bones carefully and lay out in small forms. Use the strained fish broth as the base for making a jelly with gelatin and a beaten-up egg-white (for coloring). Let the jelly settle and pour into the forms. Adorn with slices of the lemon and parsley.

20 Fish jelly Comments The best result can be with pike perch

21 Fish jelly Ingredients Way of cooking Comments
2 lb (1 kg) fresh fresh-water fish (pike-perch, carp, sazan) 1 onion 1 carrot 4-5 black and aromatic peppercorns 2-3 bay leaves 1 piece and root parsley 1 lemon dill salt Way of cooking Scale, gut and wash the fish. Cut it into small bits. Pour water over the fish's heads and tails and bring to a boil removing the scum. Add the salt, culinary roots and spices; boil again for 1/2 hour. Strain the broth, add the bits of fish and boil till done. Make sure the bits do not crumble. Remove the bones carefully and lay out in small forms. Use the strained fish broth as the base for making a jelly with galantine and a beaten-up egg-white (for coloring). Let the jelly settle and pour into the forms. Adorn with slices of the lemon and parsley. Fish jelly Comments The best result can be with pike perch

22 Salted herrings, home style
Ingredients 1 lb (500 gm) mild salted herings 1 oz(30-50 gm) diluted mustard 5 oz (150 gm) vegetable oil

23 Salted herrings, home style
Way of cooking Skin the herrings, remove the fillet, smear them with mustard on both sides. Fold each fillet into a thick roll and put them in a glass jar. Pour the vegetable (sunflower-seed or olive) oil over them and put them in a fridge. Before serving, lay them out in a herring-dish, and adorn with branches of herbs. The herring can be served with hot boiled potatoes topped with parsley or drill.

24 Salted herrings, home style
Comments You can put on herring sliced into ring onion or chopped green onion

25 Salted herrings, home style
Ingredients 1 lb (500 gm) mild salted herings 1 oz(30-50 gm) diluted mustard 5 oz (150 gm) vegetable oil Way of cooking Skin the herrings, remove the fillet, smear them with mustard on both sides. Fold each fillet into a thick roll and put them in a glass jar. Pour the vegetable (sunflower-seed or olive) oil over them and put them in a fridge. Before serving, lay them out in a herring-dish, and adorn with branches of herbs. The herring can be served with hot boiled potatoes topped with parsley or drill. Salted herrings, home style Comments You can put on herring sliced into ring onion or chopped green onion

26 Soups In Russia soups are served as the first course at dinner. In the Russian language the world "soup" was naturalsed quite late. Originally, Russian soups were called "khlebovo" or "pokhlyobka" - soup with cereals. The typical Russian soups are schi (soup with cabbage or sauerkraut) or borsch (beet and cabbage soup), rassolnik (soup with pickled cucumbers), okroshka (cold kvass soup), solyanka (soup with vegetables, pickled cucumbers, olives and bits of meat) and pohlyobka.

27 Soups Ukranian borsch Solyanka Rassolnik Meat schi with sauerkraut
Green soup Okroshka, variant 1 Mushroom soup

28 Ukranian borsch Ingredients
2 lb (1 kg) meat (beef and pork) 2 medium beets 2 potatoes 1/3 head cabbage 2 onion 1 carrot 3 tomatoes or 2-3 tbsp tomato paste 1 parsley root 2 tbsp butter or oil salt 5-6 black peppercorns 1 garlic bulblets drill

29 Ukranian borsch Way of cooking
Place the meat, 1 onion, 1/2 carrot and 1/2 parsley root in a pot. Add water and 1 teaspoonful of salt, boil the broth during hours. In the end remove vegetables and roots from the broth. Meanwhile chop the beef into small cubes or grade it. Put into a small pan, add some water and 1-3 tbsp of butter or vegetable oil and stew during minutes. Then add tomato paste, a little bit sugar and stew it 10 minutes more. The beef should be nearly ready before adding it into the broth (but do not add it yet!). While the beef is stewing slightly brown chopped onion and carrot. Then add sliced tomatoes and fry for 5-7 minutes more. When broth is ready shred the cabbage. Bring it to the broth and boil. If the cabbage is hard boil it for 10 minutes, if it it is fresh and soft add it right before adding potatoes. Potatoes chopped into cubes 1x1" and bring to borsch. Add fried onion, carrot and tomatoes. If your health does not allow you to have fried food just add fresh onion and carrot. Boil all for 10 minutes, then add stewed beef, pepper and boil 5 minutes more. In the end add 2 bay leaves, chopped garlic, drill, salt to taste and turn off the oven. Let the borsch to brew for a half of hour. Serve the borsch with sour cream.

30 Ukranian borsch Comments
You can use instead of meat haricot beans, just 2/3 lb (300 gm). As well you can add 1-2 chopped paprika, bring it together with fried onion and carrot

31 Ukranian borsch Comments
Ingredients 2 lb (1 kg) meat (beef and pork) 2 medium beets 2 potatoes 1/3 head cabbage 2 onion 1 carrot 3 tomatoes or 2-3 tbsp tomato paste 1 parsley root 2 tbsp butter or oil salt 5-6 black peppercorns 1 garlic bulblet drill Way of cooking Place the meat, 1 onion, 1/2 carrot and 1/2 parsley root in a pot. Add water and 1 teaspoonful of salt, boil the broth during hours. In the end remove vegetables and roots from the broth. Meanwhile chop the beef into small cubes or grade it. Put into a small pan, add some water and 1-3 tbsp of butter or vegetable oil and stew during minutes. Then add tomato paste, a little bit sugar and stew it 10 minutes more. The beef should be nearly ready before adding it into the broth (but do not add it yet!). While the beef is stewing slightly brown chopped onion and carrot. Then add sliced tomatoes and fry for 5-7 minutes more. When broth is ready shred the cabbage. Bring it to the broth and boil. If the cabbage is hard boil it for 10 minutes, if it it is fresh and soft add it right before adding potatoes. Potatoes chopped into cubes 1x1" and bring to borsch. Add fried onion, carrot and tomatoes. If your health does not allow you to have fried food just add fresh onion and carrot. Boil all for 10 minutes, then add stewed beef, pepper and boil 5 minutes more. In the end add 2 bay leaves, chopped garlic, drill, salt to taste and turn off the oven. Let the borsch to brew for a half of hour. Serve the borsch with sour cream. Ukranian borsch Comments You can use instead of meat haricot beans, just 2/3 lb (300 gm). As well you can add 1-2 chopped paprika, bring it together with fried onion and carrot

32 Solyanka Ingredients 5 tbsp. veal 5 tbsp beef 5 tbsp. ham 3 tbsp. sausages 6-7 tbsp. beef kidneys (I dare to assume that you can easy do without them) 2 onions 2 pickled cucumbers 3 tbsp. tomato paste 3 tbsp. butter (I dare to use vegetable or olive oil - care your liver!) 4 pints (2 litres) bullion 8 canned black or green olives 10 black peppercorns 1 bay leaf salt herbs 4 tbsp. sour cream 1/2 lemon  

33 Solyanka Way of cooking
This dish is quite nourishing and rich in calories so be aware of but its taste is really good, of course if to cook it correct. As usually I give you the "official" recipe of cooking, then some practical advises that greatly improve its taste. Make marrow-bone broth. Shred the onions and fry without letting the onion brown. Add the tomato paste. Remove the skin and seads from the cucumbers, cut into slices and boil a little. Cut the boiled meat ingredients (beef, veal, ham, kidneys, tongue, sausages) into fine slices. Put the slightly fried onion and tomato paste, slightly boiled cucumbers, meat ingredients, and herbs and boil for 5-10 minutes. When serving out the olives (without the stones), sour cream, a ring of lemon (peeled), and finely chopped herbs in a plate.

34 Solyanka The same dish but with some improvements.
Shred the onion into semi-rings. Soften it in the pan but a bit. Add chopped into cubes (1/3-1/3") cucumbers, add some broth and stew all but a bit, do not allow cucumbers to get soft. Add tomato paste (I would recommend 5-6 tbsp.) and boil for 5-7 minutes when cucumbers get a little bit soft. Put onion-cucumber-tomato mixture into broth (chicken or beaf) and heat it to boiling. Right away after boiling add chopped (again into small cubes 1/2-1/2") meat products (the more various the better) and heat to get it to boil. Then add olives into solyanka. It is highly recommended to add a little bit of canned capers. Important thing - the soup should be thick enough, a little bit viscid. If you are going to eat fresh cooked solyanka at once you can follow the recipe above, if you want to stand a treat to your friends in a day or two it is better to keep separetly onion-cucumber-tomato mixture, broth and chopped meat mixture. Just before serving join all - it will take you a few minutes but you can enjoy fresh delicious solyanka.

35 Solyanka Comments While stewing cucumber-onion-tomato add 1/2-2/3 tbsp. of sugar. Serve solaynka as hot as possible. Do not use summer sausage.

36 Solyanka Ingredients Way of cooking Comments
5 tbsp. veal, 5 tbsp beef, 5 tbsp. ham, 3 tbsp. sausages 6-7 tbsp. beef kidneys (I dare to assume that you can easy do without them) 2 onions 2 pickled cucumbers 3 tbsp. tomato paste 3 tbsp. butter (I dare to use vegetable or olive oil - care your liver!) 4 pints (2 litres) bullion 8 canned black or green olives 10 black peppercorns, 1 bay leaf salt, herbs, 4 tbsp. sour cream, 1/2 lemon   Way of cooking This dish is quite nourishing and rich in calories so be aware of but its taste is really good, of course if to cook it correct. As usually I give you the "official" recipe of cooking, then some practical advises that greatly improve its taste. Make marrow-bone broth. Shred the onions and fry without letting the onion brown. Add the tomato paste. Remove the skin and seeds from the cucumbers, cut into slices and boil a little. Cut the boiled meat ingredients (beef, veal, ham, kidneys, tongue, sausages) into fine slices. Put the slightly fried onion and tomato paste, slightly boiled cucumbers, meat ingredients, and herbs and boil for 5-10 minutes. When serving out the olives (without the stones), sour cream, a ring of lemon (peeled), and finely chopped herbs in a plate. The same dish but with some improvements. Shred the onion into semi-rings. Soften it in the pan but a bit. Add chopped into cubes (1/3-1/3") cucumbers, add some broth and stew all but a bit, do not allow cucumbers to get soft. Add tomato paste (I would recommend 5-6 tbsp.) and boil for 5-7 minutes when cucumbers get a little bit soft. Put onion-cucumber-tomato mixture into broth (chicken or beaf) and heat it to boiling. Right away after boiling add chopped (again into small cubes 1/2-1/2") meat products (the more various the better) and heat to get it to boil. Then add olives into solyanka. It is highly recommended to add a little bit of canned capers. Important thing - the soup should be thick enough, a little bit viscid. If you are going to eat fresh cooked solyanka at once you can follow the recipe above, if you want to stand a treat to your friends in a day or two it is better to keep separatly onion-cucumber-tomato mixture, broth and chopped meat mixture. Just before serving join all - it will take you a few minutes but you can enjoy fresh delicious solyanka. Solyanka Comments While stewing cucumber-onion-tomato add 1/2-2/3 tbsp. of sugar. Serve solaynka as hot as possible. Do not use summer sausage.

37 Rassolnik (with kidneys)
Ingredients 1 lb (0,5 kg) kedneys 4 pints (2 liters) meat broth 5 potatoes 1 onion 3 pickled cucumbers 1/4 cup pearl-barley 1/2 cup sour cream 1 tbsp. flour 1 piece parsley drill parsley salt to taste

38 Rassolnik (with kidneys)
Way of cooking Remove the film and excessive fat from the kidneys, soak in cold water for 2-3 hours changing the water several times. Put the kidneys on hot water, bring to a boil, lay in a colander, wash with cold water, and cook in meat broth till done. Cut the kidneys into thin slices across the fibres. Wash the pearl-barley several times in cold water, spill into boiling water, boil till done; wash in cold water and put in the meat broth. Boil well and add the potatoes cut in slices. Brown the herbs, onion, chopped and slightly boiled cucumbers, dress with the flour, add the slices of kidneys, and continue boiling for another 10 minutes. At last dress with the sour cream and serve with the herbs.

39 Rassolnik (with kidneys)
Comments Instead of kidneys you can use chicken meat. In this case use the broth in which you boil the chicken. As well I dare to recommend you to boil the pearl-barney in the broth without washing - the taste of rassolnik will be more rich. You can try to add to rassolnik some tomatoes past (3-4 tbsp.), add it into frying pan to onion and cucumbers.

40 Rassolnik (with kidneys)
Ingredients 1 lb (0,5 kg) kedneys 4 pints (2 litres) meat broth 5 potatoes 1 onion 3 pickled cucumbers 1/4 cup pearl-barley 1/2 cup sour cream 1 tbsp. flour 1 piece parsley drill parsley salt to tasts Way of cooking Remove the film and excessive fat from the kidneys, soak in cold water for 2-3 hours changing the water several times. Put the kidneys on hot water, bring to a boil, lay in a colander, wash with cold water, and cook in meat broth till done. Cut the kidneys into thin slices across the fibres. Wash the pearl-barley several times in cold water, spil into boiling water, boil till done; wash in cold water and put in the meat broth. Boil well and add the potatoes cut in slices. Brown the herbs, onion, chopped and slightly boiled cucumbers, dress with the flour, add the slices of kedneys, and contibue boiling for another 10 minutes. At last dress with the sour cream and serve with the herbs. Rassolnik (with kidneys) Comments Instead of kidneys you can use chicken meat. In this case use the broth in which you boil the chicken. As well I dare to recommend you to boil the pearl-barney in the broth without washing - the taste of rassolnik will be more rich. You can try to add to rassolnik some tomatoes past (3-4 tbsp.), add it into frying pan to onion and cucumbers.

41 Meat schi with sour cream
Ingredients: 2 lb (1 kg) beef brisket or pork 1 lb (0.5 kg) sour cream 1 carrot 1 onion 3 tbsp vegetable oil 1 piece parsley

42 Meat schi with sour cream
Way of cooking Boil meat broth till half done. Brown finely chopped onion and carrot in the frying pan. Add it to the broth and put the sour cream in. Before finishing boiling add herbs. Salt to taste. Yu can serve the schi with sour cream.

43 Meat schi with sour cream
Comments The schi will have "Russian oven cooking taste" if you stew sauerkraut before adding it to the broth. Fry onion and carrot slightly just to make it soft, then add sour cream, fry it about 5 minutes and then stew about minutes.

44 Meat schi with sour cream Ingredients: Way of cooking Comments
2 lb (1 kg) beef brisket or pork 1 lb (0.5 kg) sauerkraut 1 carrot 1 onion 3 tbsp vegetable oil 1 piece parsley Way of cooking Boil meat broth till half done. Brown finely chopped onion and carrot in the frying pan. Add it to the broth and put the sour cream in. Before finishing boiling add herbs. Salt to taste. Yu can serve the schi with sour cream. Meat schi with sour cream Comments The schi will have "Russian oven cooking taste" if you stew sauerkraut before adding it to the broth. Fry onion and carrot slightly just to make it soft, then add sour cream, fry it about 5 minutes and then stew about minutes.

45 Green soup Ingredients
2 lb sorrel 2 1/4 qt beef stock 2 ea onions 1 carrot 1 1/2 tbsp salt 2 potatoes 1 tbsp dill 1 tbsp scallions 1/4 cup of sour cream 4 hardboiled eggs

46 Green soup Way of cooking
Bring the beef stock to a boil in a large pot. Add the onion, salt, & sorrel. Slice the potatoes into 3/4" cubes and add to pot. Cook for 10 minutes. Reduce heat and simmer for 1 hour. Remove from heat and place into a large tureen and add the dill. Serve and garnish with a dollop of sour cream and slices of egg.

47 Green soup Comments In spring time you can add chopped herb of small nettle - pour it over first with boiling water.

48 Green soup Ingredients Way of cooking Comments
2 lb sorrel 2 1/4 qt beef stock 2 ea onions 1 carrot 1 1/2 tbsp salt 2 potatoes 1 tbsp dill 1 tbsp scallions 1/4 cup of sour cream 4 hardboiled eggs Way of cooking Bring the beef stock to a boil in a large pot. Add the onion, salt, & sorrel. Slice the potatoes into 3/4" cubes and add to pot. Cook for 10 minutes. Reduce heat and simmer for 1 hour. Remove from heat and place into a large tureen and add the dill. Serve and garnish with a dollop of sour cream and slices of egg. Green soup Comments In spring time you can add chopped herb of small nettle - pour it over first with boiling water.

49 Okroshka, variant 1 Meat okroshka
Ingredients 1.5 liter bread kvass 4 hard-cooked eggs, 10 oz (300 gm) boiled beef several green onions 2-3 radishes 2 fresh cucumbers 3 boiled potatoes 1-2 tbsp sour cream 1 tbsp sugar mustard salt  

50 Okroshka, variant 1 Way of cooking
Grind the egg-yolk together with the sour cream, mustard, salt and sugar, dilute in cold kvass, add small cubes of the fresh cucumbers, radishes, boiled beef, minced egg-whites, boiled potatoes, chopped green onions.

51 Okroshka, variant 1 Comments
This dish is very good in summer time, it slakes the thirst and satisfy the hunger. You can try okroshka not only with kvass but with mineral water and with kefir or curdled milk - taste is other.  

52 Okroshka, variant 1 Ingredients Way of cooking Comments
1.5 litr bread kvass 4 hard-cooked eggs, 10 oz (300 gm) boiled beef several green onions 2-3 radishes 2 fresh cucumbers 3 boiled potatoes 1-2 tbsp sour cream 1 tbsp sugar mustard salt   Way of cooking Grind the egg-yolk together with the sour cream, mustard, salt and sugar, dilute in cold kvass, add small cubes of the fresh cucumbers, radishes, boiled beef, minced egg-whites, boiled potatoes, chopped green onions. Okroshka, variant 1 Comments This dish is very good in summer time, it slakes the thirst and satisfy the hunger. You can try okroshka not only with kvass but with mineral water and with kefir or curdled milk - taste is other.  

53 Mushroom soup Ingredients 50 g of dried mushrooms 800 g potatoes
1 carrot 1 onion 20 g parsley  

54 Mushroom soup Way of cooking
First make a mushroom stock. Carefully wash some dried mushrooms and put them in saucepan with cold water: 2 liters to 50 gr. of dried mushrooms. Soak them for 3-4 hours and then cook them in the same water until they are tender. Strain the stock and wash the mushrooms again. To make mushroom soup from this stock, finely chop 80 gr. of carrots, 20 grammes of parsley root and 80 gr. of onions. Salt. Meanwhile dice 800 gr. of potatoes. Put the salted vegetables and potatoes in the stock and simmer for minutes. Add the shredded mushrooms during cooking, and salt to taste at the end. Mushroom soup is usually served with sour cream. You can make soup with fresh mushrooms and vegetables.

55 Mushroom soup Comments
At a pinch you can take field mushrooms that can be bought at any supermarket.

56 Mushroom soup Ingredients Way of cooking Comments
50 g of dried mushrooms 800 g potatoes 1 carrot 1 onion 20 g parsley   Mushroom soup Way of cooking First make a mushroom stock. Carefully wash some dried mushrooms and put them in saucepan with cold water: 2 liters to 50 gr. of dried mushrooms. Soak them for 3-4 hours and then cook them in the same water until they are tender. Strain the stock and wash the mushrooms again. To make mushroom soup from this stock, finely chop 80 gr. of carrots, 20 gr. of parsley root and 80 gr. of onions. Salt. Meanwhile dice 800 gr. of potatoes. Put the salted vegetables and potatoes in the stock and simmer for minutes. Add the shredded mushrooms during cooking, and salt to taste at the end. Mushroom soup is usually served with sour cream. You can make soup with fresh mushrooms and vegetables. Comments At a pinch you can take field mushrooms that can be bought at any supermarket.

57 Pastry In Russian cooking bread and pastry have always been especially important. Guests were met with bread and salt. Of no lesser importance were pies - a symbol of wealth and well-being. Russian women were famous for their skills in making different sorts of cookies: blini (pancakes), kulebyakas, rasstegais, cheese cakes, spice-cakes, etc. Howere, especially popular were patties made from sour dough.

58 Pastry Pancakes (classical) Buckwheat pancakest Apple pancakes
Fast thick pancakes Kulebiaka Kulich (Easter bread) Rasstegai (small open pie with filling)

59 Pancakes (classical) Blini
Ingredients 1.5 cup wheat flour 1/3 oz (10 gm) sugar 1/3 oz (10 gm) yeast 1/3 oz (10 gm) vegetable oil 2 eggs 2 cups of milk or water salt 

60 Pancakes (classical) Blini
Way of cooking Heat 200 grams of milk or water to degrees C, dissolve the yeast, add sugar, salt egg and melted butter. Mix well. Leave it for 2-3 hours in a warm place, and when it has risen, add rest of flour and mix well. Leave it to rise again. Now you are ready to bake. Heat frying-pan with a long handle, rub with butter, pour in some batter and swirl the pan lightly to spread it evenly. When one side is baked, turn the pancake over and bake other side.

61 Pancakes (classical) Blini
Comments Pancakes can be served with red or black caviar (if you have any) or with salted fish, such as salmon, chum or herring. They can also be served with sour cream or melted butter. Many people like pancakes sweet, and eat them with all kinds of jam and tea. You can make pancakes of wheat, buckwheat or oats flour

62 Pancakes (classical) Blini
Ingredients 1.5 cup wheat flour 1/3 oz (10 gm) sugar 1/3 oz (10 gm) yeast 1/3 oz (10 gm) vegetable oil 2 eggs 2 cups of milk or water salt  Way of cooking Heat 200 grams of milk or water to degrees C, dissolve the yeast, add sugar, salt egg and melted butter. Mix well. Leave it for 2-3 hours in a warm place, and when it has risen, add rest of flour and mix well. Leave it to rise again. Now you are ready to bake. Heat frying-pan with a long handle, rub with butter, pour in some batter and swirl the pan lightly to spread it evenly. When one side is baked, turn the pancake over and bake other side. Pancakes (classical) Blini Comments Pancakes can be served with red or black caviar (if you have any) or with salted fish, such as salmon, chum or herring.They can also be served with sour cream or melted butter. Many people like pancakes sweet, and eat them with all kinds of jam and tea. You can make pancakes of wheat, buckwheat or oats flour

63 Buckwheat pancakest Ingredients
3 cup buckwheat flour 1 oz (35 gm) yeast 4 cups milk salt 

64 Buckwheat pancakest Way of cooking
Pour 1 cup of warm milk over the buckwheat flour, add the yeast diluted with a small amount of warm water and stand in a warm place for a couple of hours. After that pour 2 cups of hot milk into it, add salt, stir well, and let it stay in the warm place until done. Then carefully, without stirring, bake pancakes in greased frying-pan.

65 Buckwheat pancakest Ingredients
3 cup buckwheat flour 1 oz (35 gm) yeast 4 cups milk salt  Way of cooking Pour 1 cup of warm milk over the buckwheat flour, add the yeast diluted with a small amount of warm water and stand in a warm place for a couple of hours. After that pour 2 cups of hot milk into it, add salt, stir well, and let it stay in the warm place until done. Then carefully, without stirring, bake pancakes in greased frying-pan.

66 Apple pancakes Ingredients
2 lb (1 kg) flour 7 sour apples 5 eggs 3 oz (80 gm) yeast 2 cups milk cream

67 Apple pancakes Way of cooking
Make sourdough in milk. To this end dilute the yeast with a small amount of warm milk, pour half the flour into it and stand in a warm place to let the dough rise. Bake the apples in n oven, rub through a sieve to make apple paste. Mix the apple paste with the sourdough, add the remaining flour and egg-yolks. Mix well and dilute with the cream until as thick as sour cream. Let the dough rise again and bake pancakes.

68 Apple pancakes Comments
I dare to advise you to use not baked apples, pancakes will be more fresh and juicy.

69 Apple pancakes Ingredients Way of cooking Comments 2 lb (1 kg) flour
7 sour apples 5 eggs 3 oz (80 gm) yeast 2 cups milk cream Way of cooking Make sourdough in milk. To this end dilute the yeast with a small amount of warm milk, pour half the flour into it and stand in a warm place to let the dough rise. Bake the apples in n oven, rub through a sieve to make apple paste. Mix the apple paste with the sourdough, add the remaining flour and egg-yolks. Mix well and dilute with the cream until as thick as sour cream. Let the dough rise again and bake pancakes. Apple pancakes Comments I dare to advise you to use not baked apples, pancakes will be more fresh and juicy.

70 Fast thick pancakes Ingredients
1 cup flour 1 pint (0.5 liters) kefir 1 tblsp. sugar 0.5 tblsp. salt

71 Fast thick pancakes Way of cooking
Pour 1 cup of flour, salt, sugar, and kefir into a basin. The resulting dough will be light and cream-like, close to thick sour cream in its consistence. Pour the dough with a table-spoon into a greased red-hot frying-pan.

72 Fast thick pancakes Comments
This is very easy to do. I have to confess that this is was the first dish that I made being a little boy (about 10 years). My mother instructed me how to do it and I did these thick pancakes nearly each day while parents were at work. Serve thick pancakes with sour cream, with favorite jam, condensed milk or honey. Good appetite!

73 Fast thick pancakes Ingredients Way of cooking Comments
1 cup flour 1 pint (0.5 liters) kefir 1 tblsp. sugar 0.5 tblsp. salt Way of cooking Pour 1 cup of flour, salt, sugar, and kefir into a basin. The resulting dough will be light and cream-like, close to thick sour cream in its consistence. Pour the dough with a table-spoon into a greased red-hot frying-pan. Fast thick pancakes Comments This is very easy to do. I have to confess that this is was the first dish that I made being a little boy (about 10 years). My mother instructed me how to do it and I did these thick pancakes nearly each day while parents were at work. Serve thick pancakes with sour cream, with favorite jam, condensed milk or honey. Good appetite!

74 Kulebiaka Ingredients
400 g (1 lb) flour grams yeast 50 gm butter 2 eggs 1 tbsp. vegetable oil For meat filling 800 g (2 lb) boiled meat 2 onions 2 1 tbsp. vegetable oil For cabbage filling 1 cabbage (3-4 lb) 100 g butter 

75 Kulebiaka Way of cooking Dissolve grams of yeast in 50 grams of warm water or milk, strain through a small sieve and add liquid to make up 150 grams. Add 400 grams of flour and knead the mixture. When you have nearly finished kneading the dough, add 50 grams of butter, two egg yolks and a little sunflower oil. Put the dough in a warm place to rise. Then roll it out, place the filling in the center, raise the edges or the dough and join them together by pinching. Decorate the kulebyaka with strips of the dough, placing them at intervals across it. Brush the kulebyaka with egg yolk mixed with water, place it carefully on a baking tray and bake in the oven. Kulebyaka is usually made with a meat or cabbage filling, but sometimes there are two or three layers of different fillings; for example, a layer of boiled rice, then a layer of meat filling and on top a layer of hard-boiled eggs, cut into rings. To make a meat filling, mince 800 grams of boiled meat. Salt some finely chopped onions in a frying pan, add the meat and fry for a further 3-5 minutes. Add three chopped hardboiled eggs, 1-2 tablespoonfuls of sunflower oil, salt, pepper and dill to taste. For a cabbage filling, wash and shred a cabbage (1.5-2 kilograms), scald with boiling water, drain and rinse in cold water, put the cabbage in a saucepan with grams of melted butter, and cook for minutes, stirring constantly and pouring off the liquid. Then add some chopped hardboiled eggs and salt.

76 Kulebiaka Comments As it was told this kind of pie can be cooked with multi layer filling. You can try to prepare fish filling or sweet filling with berries and apples.

77 Kulebiaka Ingredients Way of cooking Comments
400 g (1 lb) flour grams yeast 50 gm butter 2 eggs 1 tbsp. vegetable oil For meat filling 800 g (2 lb) boiled meat 2 onions 2 1 tbsp. vegetable oil For cabbage filling 1 cabbage (3-4 lb) 100 g butter  Way of cooking Dissolve grams of yeast in 50 grams of warm water or milk, strain through a small sieve and add liquid to make up 150 grams. Add 400 grams of flour and knead the mixture. When you have nearly finished kneading the dough, add 50 grams of butter, two egg yolks and a little sunflower oil. Put the dough in a warm place to rise. Then roll it out, place the filling in the center, raise the edges or the dough and join them together by pinching. Decorate the kulebyaka with strips of the dough, placing them at intervals across it. Brush the kulebyaka with egg yolk mixed with water, place it carefully on a baking tray and bake in the oven. Kulebyaka is usually made with a meat or cabbage filling, but sometimes there are two or three layers of different fillings; for example, a layer of boiled rice, then a layer of meat filling and on top a layer of hard-boiled eggs, cut into rings. To make a meat filling, mince 800 grams of boiled meat. Salt some finely chopped onions in a frying pan, add the meat and fry for a further 3-5 minutes. Add three chopped hardboiled eggs, 1-2 tablespoonfuls of sunflower oil, salt, pepper and dill to taste. For a cabbage filling, wash and shred a cabbage (1.5-2 kilograms), scald with boiling water, drain and rinse in cold water, put the cabbage in a saucepan with grams of melted butter, and cook for minutes, stirring constantly and pouring off the liquid. Then add some chopped hardboiled eggs and salt. Kulebiaka Comments As it was told this kind of pie can be cooked with multi layer filling. You can try to prepare fish filling or sweet filling with berries and apples.

78 Kulich (Easter bread) Ingredients
4 lb (1 kg) flour 1 1/2 cup of milk 6 eggs 2/3 llb (300 g) butter 1 1/2-2 cups sugar g yeast 3/4 tsp salt 150 g raisins 50 almonds 2 tsp vanila 

79 Kulich (Easter bread) Way of cooking 1. Soak raisins in water at least for 2 hours. 2. Solve yeast in 1 1/2 cup of warm milk, add half of necessary flour (1 lb), mix well and put into warm place. 3. When dough increase in volume in twice add salt and yolks (keep one for decoration) mixed with sugar and vanila, butter. Add beaten up white of eggs and flour. Mix it well. Dough should be not too thick but well mixed. 4. Put the dough into warm place. 5. When dough increase in volume in twice add raisins (dry them before adding) and chopped almond. Mix well. 6. Put dough into baking pans. For more thick kulich fill 1/2 of pan's volume, for lighter - 1/3. 7. Pans should be prepared in the following way. Cover bottom with oiled paper circle. Inner sides wet with oil and sprinkle with flower 8. Filled pans leave in a warm place. When dough increase in volume at 3/4 of pan's volume grease it with beaten yolk and put into baking oven pre-heat to 350° F. Bake for minutes. 9. To avoid burning after minutes cover top of the kulich with moisture paper circle. 10. Let kulich cool. Decorate its top side with icing, chocolate and anything you can use.

80 Kulich (Easter bread) Comments
This process seems to be quite long and complicate but it worth of it. Remember that this is Easter bread and usually is cooked once a year. A couple of words about baking pans. The best results are with plain self made pans made of cans.

81 Ingredients Kulich (Easter bread) Way of cooking Comments
4 lb (1 kg) flour 1 1/2 cup of milk 6 eggs 2/3 llb (300 g) butter 1 1/2-2 cups sugar g yeast 3/4 tsp salt 150 g raisins 50 almonds 2 tsp vanila  Way of cooking 1. Soak raisins in water at least for 2 hours. 2. Solve yeast in 1 1/2 cup of warm milk, add half of necessary flour (1 lb), mix well and put into warm place. 3. When dough increase in volume in twice add salt and yolks (keep one for decoration) mixed with sugar and vanila, butter. Add beaten up white of eggs and flour. Mix it well. Dough should be not too thick but well mixed. 4. Put the dough into warm place. 5. When dough increase in volume in twice add raisins (dry them before adding) and chopped almond. Mix well. 6. Put dough into baking pans. For more thick kulich fill 1/2 of pan's volume, for lighter - 1/3. 7. Pans should be prepared in the following way. Cover bottom with oiled paper circle. Inner sides wet with oil and sprinkle with flower 8. Filled pans leave in a warm place. When dough increase in volume at 3/4 of pan's volume grease it with beaten yolk and put into baking oven pre-heat to 350° F. Bake for minutes. 9. To avoid burning after minutes cover top of the kulich with moisture paper circle. 10. Let kulich cool. Decorate its top side with icing, chocolate and anything you can use. Kulich (Easter bread) Comments This process seems to be quite long and complicate but it worth of it. Remember that this is Easter bread and usually is cooked once a year. A couple of words about baking pans. The best results are with plain self made pans made of cans.

82 Rasstegai (small open pie with filling)
Ingredients 1 pike-perch 5 tbsp. vegetable oil a little bit grated cheese 2-3 potatoes  

83 Rasstegai (small open pie with filling)
Way of cooking Make a yeast dough. When it is ready, divide it into small portions. Roll out these small balls of dough and put some stuffing in the center. If you are using a fish stuffing, you may put small pieces of salmon or other cooked fish on the top. Pinch up the edges of the dough around the filling to make round or oval pies, leaving the center uncovered. Put the rasstegai on a baking tray greased with butter and leave in a warm place. As soon as they are ready, grease with egg yolk and bake in the oven. For the fish filling take 250 grams of freshwater fish fillets and bake in the oven or steam for minutes. Chop the fish. Heat some flour with melted butter, and add the juice from the cooked fish and 100 grams of finely chopped onion, and cook slowly for minutes, until you have a sauce the consistency of thick sour cream. Mix one part of fish and one part of boiled rice, add chopped parsley and dill, pepper and salt. Filling can be made of minced meat, from boiled eggs or from mushrooms.

84 Rasstegai (small open pie with filling)
Comments You can take any other fish. You can get other taste if you add some sour cream in the middle of baking.

85 Ingredients Rasstegai (small open pie with filling) Way of cooking
1 pike-perch 5 tbsp. vegetable oil a little bit grated cheese 2-3 potatoes   Way of cooking Make a yeast dough. When it is ready, divide it into small portions. Roll out these small balls of dough and put some stuffing in the center. If you are using a fish stuffing, you may put small pieces of salmon or other cooked fish on the top. Pinch up the edges of the dough around the filling to make round or oval pies, leaving the center uncovered. Put the rasstegai on a baking tray greased with butter and leave in a warm place. As soon as they are ready, grease with egg yolk and bake in the oven. For the fish filling take 250 grams of freshwater fish fillets and bake in the oven or steam for minutes. Chop the fish. Heat some flour with melted butter, and add the juice from the cooked fish and 100 grams of finely chopped onion, and cook slowly for minutes, until you have a sauce the consistency of thick sour cream. Mix one part of fish and one part of boiled rice, add chopped parsley and dill, pepper and salt. Filling can be made of minced meat, from boiled eggs or from mushrooms. Rasstegai (small open pie with filling) Comments You can take any other fish. You can get other taste if you add some sour cream in the middle of baking.

86 Meat dishes Russian cuisine has always been rich in meat dishes. The following recipes deal with dishes of beef, pork, mutton, poultry, game, and wild animals. As a rule, meat dishes are served with vegetables. noodles and cereal.

87 Meat dishes Beef goulash Boeuf Stroganoff Meat "Hedgehogs"
Macaroni Naval Style Pork chops "Ushnoye" (Russian Stew) Pozharskiye chops Goose with apples Golubtsy Pelmeni

88 Beef goulash Ingredients
1.5 lb (700 gm) meat 2 oz (60 gm) fat 1 tbsp flour 1 big onion 1/2 tsp hot red peppers 2 oz (50 gm) tomato paste salt 

89 Beef goulash Way of cooking
Cut the beef into 6-8 pieces per helping. Salt and sprinkle with the flour. Brown the meat pieces evenly in some of the strongly heated fat and transfer into saucepan. Cut the onion into rings an brown them in the remaining fat. Transfer them (together with the fat) into the sauce-pan with the meat inside Add some water and cook with the lid on. Brown the tomato paste and the red peppers, add the resulting sauce to the meat and continue cooking for several minutes more

90 Beef goulash (variant 2)
Comments To be honest goulash is a Hungarian dish. As a matter of fact this dish is quite popular in Russia. Here is a recipe of a Hungarian goulash. Ingredients the same except hot red peppers, instead of it take 1 tb sp of powder of paprika. You do not need tomato paste but you have to prepare potatoes (1.5 lb / 700 gm Melt fat in a frying pan, add paprika. and chopped onion, brown all a little bit. Then add cut into small cubes (1x1") meat . Fry a couple of minutes the mixture. Then add a little bit (just a half of tsp) of flour and put all into pan, pour there beef broth (or at a pinch just water). Stew meat for depending of quality of meet. Boil potatoes in a separate pan. Cook potatoes until half ready, add to the stewing meat and stew for 5-7 minutes. It is ready! Enjoy.

91 Way of cooking Beef goulash Ingredients Comments
1.5 lb (700 gm) meat 2 oz (60 gm) fat 1 tbsp flour 1 big onion 1/2 tsp hot red peppers 2 oz (50 gm) tomato paste salt  Way of cooking Cut the beef into 6-8 pieces per helping. Salt and sprinkle with the flour. Brown the meat pieces evenly in some of the strongly heated fat and transfer into saucepan. Cut the onion into rings an brown them in the remaining fat. Transfer them (together with the fat) into the sauce-pan with the meat inside Add some water and cook with the lid on. Brown the tomato paste and the red peppers, add the resulting sauce to the meat and continue cooking for several minutes more Beef goulash Comments To be honest goulash is a Hungarian dish. As a matter of fact this dish is quite popular in Russia. Here is a recipe of a Hungarian goulash Ingredients the same except hot red peppers, instead of it take 1 tb sp of powder of paprika. You do not need tomato paste but you have to prepare potatoes (1.5 lb / 700 gm Melt fat in a frying pan, add paprika. and chopped onion, brown all a little bit. Then add cut into small cubes (1x1") meat . Fry a couple of minutes the mixture. Then add a little bit (just a half of tsp) of flour and put all into pan, pour there beef broth (or at a pinch just water). Stew meat for depending of quality of meet. Boil potatoes in a separate pan. Cook potatoes until half ready, add to the stewing meat and stew for 5-7 minutes. It is ready! Enjoy.

92 Boeuf Stroganoff Ingredients
1.5 lb (700 gm) beef 2 oz (60 gm) fat 2 tbsp. flour 1 medium-size onion 1/2 cup sour cream some hot peppers or ground fragrant red pepper (to taste) 1 oz (30 gm) tomato paste 1 tsp. minced parsley salt  

93 Boeuf Stroganoff Way of cooking
Cut the fillet into strips 1/5 " (0.5 cm) thick each. Cut the onion into rings, brown them in the fat until pink and put into a large sauce-pan. Then brown the meat in the strongly hated fat stirring the strips in the process and add the flour at last. After that transfer the browned meat into the sauce-pan with the rings of onion in it, add the tomato paste and pepper, salt to taste, pour in the sour cream and bring to a boil on low heat.

94 Boeuf Stroganoff Comments
The main idea of this dish is that meat should be fried and then only heated, not stewed - this is important. So take good soft meat, before frying meat beat it well, sprinkle it with pepper (I dare to recommend you to use black pepper, not red) and salt. Then fried meat. Prepare sour cream sauce. Heat the sour cream, add flour heated with some oil or butter. Then add heated in a frying pan tomato paste. Fried meat mix with browned onion, pour sauce and heat till boiling but not boil.  

95 Boeuf Stroganoff Ingredients Way of cooking Comments
1.5 lb (700 gm) beef 2 oz (60 gm) fat 2 tbsp. flour 1 medium-size onion 1/2 cup sour cream some hot peppers or ground fragrant red pepper (to taste) 1 oz (30 gm) tomato paste 1 tsp. minced parsley salt   Way of cooking Cut the fillet into strips 1/5 " (0.5 cm) thick each. Cut the onion into rings, brown them in the fat until pink and put into a large sauce-pan. Then brown the meat in the strongly hated fat stirring the strips in the process and add the flour at last. After that transfer the browned meat into the sauce-pan with the rings of onion in it, add the tomato paste and pepper, salt to taste, pour in the sour cream and bring to a boil on low heat. Boeuf Stroganoff Comments The main idea of this dish is that meat should be fried and then only heated, not stewed - this is important. So take good soft meat, before frying meat beat it well, sprinkle it with pepper (I dare to recommend you to use black pepper, not red) and salt. Then fried meat. Prepare sour cream sauce. Heat the sour cream, add flour heated with some oil or butter. Then add heated in a frying pan tomato paste. Fried meat mix with browned onion, pour sauce and heat till boiling but not boil.  

96 Meat "Hedgehogs" Ingredients
1 lb (500 gm) minced meat 1 onion 1 cup boiled rice salt ground black pepper to taste 

97 Meat "Hedgehogs" Way of cooking
Wash the rice well, pour hot water over it, boil until halfdone, transfer into a colander, chill a little, add the minced meat, chopped onion, salt, pepper, mix well, shape into balls, roll in the flower, slightly brown in butter (or oil), put into a sauce-pan, pour a little broth over them, put the lid on and stand in an oven for 20 minutes. Shortly before taking it out from the oven, lift the lid and let the "hedgehogs" brown a little bit. Serve the "hedgehogs" with fried potatoes, pickled cucumbers, cauliflower and canned green peas. Serve the sour cream seperately.

98 Meat "Hedgehogs" Comments
Some words how to improve (or not?) this dish. First thing that you can do (to be correct - not to do) - do not fry formed balls but put them into a souse-pan and pour broth or just water, close with lid and put onto slow fire for minutes. "Hedgehogs" do not need any serving, they contain rice and meat and are good enough for dinner without any additional garnish. Just add sour cream. Second thing that you can do - cook "hedgehogs" in a steam. This is perfect dish for little children and for those who need diet food.

99 Meat "Hedgehogs" Ingredients Way of cooking Comments
1 lb (500 gm) minced meat 1 onion 1 cup boiled rice salt ground black pepper to taste  Way of cooking Wash the rice well, pour hot water over it, boil until halfdone, transfer into a colander, chill a little, add the minced meat, chopped onion, salt, pepper, mix well, shape into balls, roll in the flower, slightly brown in butter (or oil), put into a sauce-pan, pour a little broth over them, put the lid on and stand in an oven for 20 minutes. Shortly before taking it out from the oven, lift the lid and let the "hedgehogs" brown a little bit. Serve the "hedgehogs" with fried potatoes, pickled cucumbers, cauliflower and canned green peas. Serve the sour cream seperately. Meat "Hedgehogs" Comments Some words how to improve (or not?) this dish. First thing that you can do (to be correct - not to do) - do not fry formed balls but put them into a souse-pan and pour broth or just water, close with lid and put onto slow fire for minutes. "Hedgehogs" do not need any serving, they contain rice and meat and are good enough for dinner without any additional garnish. Just add sour cream. Second thing that you can do - cook "hedgehogs" in a steam. This is perfect dish for little children and for those who need diet food.

100 Macaroni Naval Style Ingredients
9 oz (250 gm) macaroni 1 lb (500 gm) boneless meat 2 onions 4 oz (100 gm) butter salt, pepper to taste 

101 Macaroni Naval Style Way of cooking
Boil the macaroni in salted boiling water until done and then transfer into a colander. Put the meat through a meat-grinder, salt and brown the minced onion. Mix the meat and onions and again put through the meat-grinder, mix it with macaroni on a frying-pan and heat well.

102 Macaroni Naval Style Comments
You can use any pasta, not only macaroni. You can try to add some tomato paste into mixture of macaroni and meat or chopped tomatoes. Some garnlic can change taste of the dish.

103 Macaroni Naval Style Ingredients Way of cooking Comments
9 oz (250 gm) macaroni 1 lb (500 gm) boneless meat 2 onions 4 oz (100 gm) butter salt, pepper to taste  Way of cooking Boil the macaroni in salted boiling water until done and then transfer into a colander. Put the meat through a meat-grinder, salt and brown the minced onion. Mix the meat and onions and again put through the meat-grinder, mix it with macaroni on a frying-pan and heat well. Macaroni Naval Style Comments You can use any pasta, not only macaroni. You can try to add some tomato paste into mixture of macaroni and meat or chopped tomatoes. Some garnlic can change taste of the dish.

104 Pork chops Ingredients
1 lb (500 gm) pork 2 tbsp. fat salt and ground black pepper to taste 

105 Pork chops Way of cooking
Cut the pork into chops with bones. Remove the film and meat from the bones and sharp their ends. Pound the chops well, salt, pepper, brown in a heated greased frying-pan until covered with light-brown crust. Serve with lettuce, cauliflower, canned plums, cucumbers, tomatoes, olives, slice of lemon.

106 Pork chops Comments In the end of frying add chopped into rings onion, do not fry it, just let it soften.

107 Pork chops Ingredients Way of cooking Comments
1 lb (500 gm) pork 2 tbsp. fat salt and ground black pepper to taste  Way of cooking Cut the pork into chops with bones. Remove the film and meat from the bones and sharp their ends. Pound the chops well, salt, pepper, brown in a heated greased frying-pan until covered with light-brown crust. Serve with lettuce, cauliflower, canned plums, cucumbers, tomatoes, olives, slice of lemon. Pork chops Comments In the end of frying add chopped into rings onion, do not fry it, just let it soften.

108 "Ushnoye" (Russian Stew)
Ingredients 7 oz (200 gm) mutton 1 onion 2 carrots 1 turnip 1 swede 3 tbsp. butter 2 tbsp. flour 5 cloves garlic pepper and salt to taste 

109 "Ushnoye" (Russian Stew)
Way of cooking It is old Russian dish which is mostly made with mutton. Cut the mutton into small pieces, sprinkle with salt and pepper, roast. Then put the mutton, the sliced carrots, onion, turnip and swede in a clay pot, salt, put the lid on and cook until done. At last add the garlic. Pour off part of the broth, dilute the browned flour with it and pour the sauce in the clay pot.

110 "Ushnoye" (Russian Stew)
Ingredients 7 oz (200 gm) mutton 1 onion 2 carrots 1 turnip 1 swede 3 tbsp. butter 2 tbsp. flour 5 cloves garlic pepper and salt to taste  Way of cooking It is old Russian dish which is mostly made with mutton. Cut the mutton into small pieces, sprinkle with salt and pepper, roast. Then put the mutton, the sliced carrots, onion, turnip and swede in a clay pot, salt, put the lid on and cook until done. At last add the garlic. Pour off part of the broth, dilute the browned flour with it and pour the sauce in the clay pot.

111 Pozharskiye chops Ingredients
2 pieces of chicken fillet 2 raw eggs 2 tbsp. milk 3 tbsp. finely ground dreid bread-crumbs 4 oz (100 gm) butter salt and pepper to taste 

112 Pozharskiye chops Way of cooking
Take the two pieces of chicken fillet with a bone, pound them slightly, salt, pepper and soak in the raw eggs beaten with milk, roll in the dried bread-crumbs and brown on both sides for about 15 minutes until done. Serve with the rice or vegetables.

113 Pozharskiye chops Comments
Classical Pozharskiye chops are made of minced chicken meat. Chops are formed in shape of ovals and further are cooked are indicated above. It is not recommended to add pepper.

114 Pozharskiye chops Ingredients Way of cooking Comments
2 pieces of chicken fillet 2 raw eggs 2 tbsp. milk 3 tbsp. finely ground dreid bread-crumbs 4 oz (100 gm) butter salt and pepper to taste  Way of cooking Take the two pieces of chicken fillet with a bone, pound them slightly, salt, pepper and soak in the raw eggs beaten with milk, roll in the dried bread-crumbs and brown on both sides for about 15 minutes until done. Serve with the rice or vegetables. Pozharskiye chops Comments Classical Pozharskiye chops are made of minced chicken meat. Chops are formed in shape of ovals and further are cooked are indicated above. It is not recommended to add pepper.

115 Goose with apples Ingredients
3 lb (1.5 kg) apples 2 tbsp. soft butter 1 goose 

116 Goose with apples Way of cooking
Salt and stuff the prepared goose with the sliced apples (with the cores removed). Sow up the hole in the goose stomach. Lay the goose on a frying-pan with its back down, add half a cup of water and salt in an oven. While frying, pour the goose fat and juice several times over the meat. Keep frying for hours. Remove the thread, take out the apples with a spoon and lay them on a dish. Chop the goose into slices and lay on the apples. Serve with the baked apples, minced boiled cabbage or boiled potatoes.

117 Goose with apples Comments
Not much to add. Just a recommendation to take sour kind of apples like Granny Smith

118 Goose with apples Ingredients Way of cooking Comments
3 lb (1.5 kg) apples 2 tbsp. soft butter 1 goose  Goose with apples Way of cooking Salt and stuff the prepared goose with the sliced apples (with the cores removed). Sow up the hole in the goose stomach. Lay the goose on a frying-pan with its back down, add half a cup of water and salt in an oven. While frying, pour the goose fat and juice several times over the meat. Keep frying for hours. Remove the thread, take out the apples with a spoon and lay them on a dish. Chop the goose into slices and lay on the apples. Serve with the baked apples, minced boiled cabbage or boiled potatoes. Comments Not much to add. Just a recommendation to take sour kind of apples like Granny Smith

119 Golubtsy Ingredients 1 big head of cabbage 500 g minced meat 300 g rice 2 carrots 3 tomatoes salt and pepper on your taste. 

120 Golubtsy Way of cooking
Boil the whole head of cabbage in a salt water during 20 minutes. Then peel off the leaves accurately. Boil rice in a salt water until it is almost ready. Grate carrots and chop tomatoes. Mix rice with minced meat and carrots and tomatoes. Add salt and pepper. Put each leaf the inner side up. Place one table spoon of prepared meat stuffing in the centre of each leaf. Roll leaves, covering stuffing from sides like an envelope. Put stuffed cabbage leaves with seam down close to each other on a frying pan. Add two table spoons of tomato sauce or ketchup to 0,5 liter of water or broth. Add it, covering the bottom of the pan. Spread butter on top of each piece. Heat oven to 140 degrees Celsius (250 degrees Fahrenheit). Bake golubtsy for an hour. Served with seam down, in a deep plate. Garnished with sour cream or sauce in which golubtsy were cooked.

121 Golubtsy Comments It my humble opinion golubtsi should be stewed in a tall pan with well closed cover. In the end of stewing it would be good to add a couple of chopped chives garlic

122 Golubtsy Ingredients Way of cooking Comments
1 big head of cabbage 500 g minced meat 300 g rice 2 carrots 3 tomatoes salt and pepper on your taste.  Way of cooking Boil the whole head of cabbage in a salt water during 20 minutes. Then peel off the leaves accurately. Boil rice in a salt water until it is almost ready. Grate carrots and chop tomatoes. Mix rice with minced meat and carrots and tomatoes. Add salt and pepper. Put each leaf the inner side up. Place one table spoon of prepared meat stuffing in the centre of each leaf. Roll leaves, covering stuffing from sides like an envelope. Put stuffed cabbage leaves with seam down close to each other on a frying pan. Add two table spoons of tomato sauce or ketchup to 0,5 liter of water or broth. Add it, covering the bottom of the pan. Spread butter on top of each piece. Heat oven to 140 degrees Celsius (250 degrees Fahrenheit). Bake golubtsy for an hour. Served with seam down, in a deep plate. Garnished with sour cream or sauce in which golubtsy were cooked. Golubtsy Comments It my humble opinion golubtsi should be stewed in a tall pan with well closed cover. In the end of stewing it would be good to add a couple of chopped chives garlic

123 Pelmeni Ingredients cup of flour 1 cup of milk or water 1/2 tbsp salt 1 tbsp vegetable oil 3 eggs 250 g beef 250 g pork 1 onion salt, pepper.  

124 Pelmeni Way of cooking Grind beef and pork twice in meat chopper. Then add chopped onion, salt and ,pepper. To make mince meat more tender and juicy, add a bit of milk. Leave it in a cold place.. Mix flour with eggs and milk, salt and oil until a soft dough forms. Knead on floured surface until dough is elastic. Take some dough and make a "sausage" (1 inch in diameter). Divide into pieces (1 inch thick). Roll each piece so that they are 1/16 inch thick. Take a glass or a cup and make rounds with it on the dough. Fill each round with 1 teaspoon of the mince meat, fold into half-moons. Pinch edges together and connect the opposite sides. Pelmeni can be frozen to be cooked later ( you can keep them in the freezer for a long time), or cooked immediately. To cook pelmeni, boil much water, so that they cannot stick to each other. Salt water. Carefully drop pelmeni into boiling water. Don't forget to stir them from time to time. Boil for 20 minutes. Pelmeni are served with butter, sour cream or vinegar.

125 Pelmeni Comments Nothing to add... Very delisious dish although takes much time to cook. Usually pelmeni are made in large amount and frozen, all family take part in this process.

126 Pelmeni Ingredients Way of cooking Comments
cup of flour 1 cup of milk or water 1/2 tbsp salt 1 tbsp vegetable oil 3 eggs 250 g beef 250 g pork 1 onion salt, pepper.   Way of cooking Grind beef and pork twice in meat chopper. Then add chopped onion, salt and ,pepper. To make mince meat more tender and juicy, add a bit of milk. Leave it in a cold place.. Mix flour with eggs and milk, salt and oil until a soft dough forms. Knead on floured surface until dough is elastic. Take some dough and make a "sausage" (1 inch in diameter). Divide into pieces (1 inch thick). Roll each piece so that they are 1/16 inch thick. Take a glass or a cup and make rounds with it on the dough. Fill each round with 1 teaspoon of the mince meat, fold into half-moons. Pinch edges together and connect the opposite sides. Pelmeni can be frozen to be cooked later ( you can keep them in the freezer for a long time), or cooked immediately. To cook pelmeni, boil much water, so that they cannot stick to each other. Salt water. Carefully drop pelmeni into boiling water. Don't forget to stir them from time to time. Boil for 20 minutes. Pelmeni are served with butter, sour cream or vinegar. Pelmeni Comments Nothing to add... Very delisious dish although takes much time to cook. Usually pelmeni are made in large amount and frozen, all family take part in this process.

127 Hot fish dishes In Russian cuisine fish dishes are some of the most favorite ones. The rivers, lakes and seas by which Russian people settled always gave them this tasty and accessible food. Apart from fresh-water fish our ancestors also ate sea fish like cod, navaga. However, especially valued were sturgeon, salmon and other fishes of this kind. Most often fish dished are served with potatoes and boiled buckwheat. There is one explanation why in past Russians used to cook fish dishes. It was not allowed to eat any kind of meat and any kind of milk food in duration of long fasts but fish dishes were permitted (except time of the Lent).

128 Sturgeon fried in portions
Hot fish dishes Baked pike-perch Fish, monastery style Sturgeon fried in portions

129 Baked pike-perch Ingredients
1 pike-perch 5 tbsp. vegetable oil a little bit grated cheese 2-3 potatoes  

130 Baked pike-perch Way of cooking
Scale, gut and wash the fish. Remove the gills and eyes. Cut into portions. Soak in pickle for 15 minutes, transfer into a frying-pan with the fish in the the middle and think rings of potatoes around it. Pour the vegetable oil over it, sprinkle with the grated cheese and put into oven. Bake for 30 minutes.

131 Baked pike-perch Comments
Important note - use not black but white pepper, this is not only for this dish, this is general recommendation for all fish dishes.

132 Baked pike-perch Ingredients
1 pike-perch 5 tbsp. vegetable oil a little bit grated cheese 2-3 potatoes   Way of cooking Scale, gut and wash the fish. Remove the gills and eyes. Cut into portions. Soak in pickle for 15 minutes, transfer into a frying-pan with the fish in the the middle and think rings of potatoes around it. Pour the vegetable oil over it, sprinkle with the grated cheese and put into oven. Bake for 30 minutes. Baked pike-perch Comments Important note - use not black but white pepper, this is not only for this dish, this is general recommendation for all fish dishes.

133 Fish, monastery style Ingredients
10 oz (400) fish 2 onions fried potatoes 1 egg 1 cup boiled mushrooms 3 tbsp. grated cheese salt and pepper to taste 

134 Fish, monastery style Way of cooking
Roll some fish (better fresh-water ones) in flour, edge with fried potatoes, slightly browned onions, sliced hard-cooked egg and browned or boiled mushrooms. Add some mushroom liquid and pepper. top with sour cream. stew with the grated cheese and bake for minutes.

135 Fish, monastery style Comments
Important note - use not black but white pepper, this is not only for this dish, this is general recommendation for all fish dishes.

136 Fish, monastery style Ingredients Way of cooking Comments
10 oz (400) fish 2 onions fried potatoes 1 egg 1 cup boiled mushrooms 3 tbsp. grated cheese salt and pepper to taste  Way of cooking Roll some fish (better fresh-water ones) in flour, edge with fried potatoes, slightly browned onions, sliced hard-cooked egg and browned or boiled mushrooms. Add some mushroom liquid and pepper. top with sour cream. stew with the grated cheese and bake for minutes. Fish, monastery style Comments Important note - use not black but white pepper, this is not only for this dish, this is general recommendation for all fish dishes.

137 Sturgeon fried in portions
Ingredients 1.5 lb (750 gm) sturgeon 2 tbsp. flour 3 tbsp. butter 1/3 lemon salt and pepper (white!) to taste  

138 Sturgeon fried in portions
Way of cooking Cut the prepared fish into portions (helpings), scale, wash well, dry, then salt, pepper and roll in the flour. Heat the butter properly in a frying-pan and brown both sides of the fish until golden crust forms. Lay on a dish, pour the butter from the frying-pan over it, decorate with slices of the lemon and spring of parsley. Serve with fried potatoes.

139 Sturgeon fried in portions
Comments If you do not manage to get sturgeon you can take pike-perch. One more advise - if you sprinkle before frying prepared fish with lemon juice it will rather improve taste.

140 Sturgeon fried in portions Comments
Ingredients 1.5 lb (750 gm) sturgeon 2 tbsp. flour 3 tbsp. butter 1/3 lemon salt and pepper (white!) to taste   Way of cooking Cut the prepared fish into portions (helpings), scale, wash well, dry, then salt, pepper and roll in the flour. Heat the butter properly in a frying-pan and brown both sides of the fish until golden crust forms. Lay on a dish, pour the butter from the frying-pan over it, decorate with slices of the lemon and spring of parsley. Serve with fried potatoes. Sturgeon fried in portions Comments If you do not manage to get sturgeon you can take pike-perch. One more advise - if you sprinkle before frying prepared fish with lemon juice it will rather improve taste.

141 Beverages Kvas

142 Kvas Ingredients For 1 litre of kvas:
30-40 g sugar 50 rye rusks 2 g yeast some raisins  

143 Kvas Way of cooking To get real kvas and make okroshka, you need rye bread or rye rusks, yeast and sugar. To 1 liter of water take grams of rusks, grams of sugar and 2 grams of yeast. Crush the rye rusks or rye bread dried in the oven, put the crumbs in an enameled pan, pour on boiled hot water, mix, cover and leave for 1-2 hours in a warm place, stirring from time to time. Pour off the liquid, add the sugar and yeast, dissolved in a small amount of cold boiled water, mix and leave for hours. When the kvas begins to foam violently, strain it through cheesecloth, pour into sturdy bottles containing 3-4 raisins, cork tightly, and after 2-3 hours at room temperature, put them in the fridge. After 2-3 days the kvas will be ready to drink.

144 Kvas Comments You can not substitute rye bread (rusks) with something else so you should find it. You can drink kvas as a cold beverage, you can add a leaf of pepper mint, it will make taste more freshy.

145 Kvas Ingredients For 1 liter of kvas:
30-40 g sugar 50 rye rusks 2 g yeast some raisins   Way of cooking To get real kvas and make okroshka, you need rye bread or rye rusks, yeast and sugar. To 1 liter of water take grams of rusks, grams of sugar and 2 grams of yeast. Crush the rye rusks or rye bread dried in the oven, put the crumbs in an enameled pan, pour on boiled hot water, mix, cover and leave for 1-2 hours in a warm place, stirring from time to time. Pour off the liquid, add the sugar and yeast, dissolved in a small amount of cold boiled water, mix and leave for hours. When the kvas begins to foam violently, strain it through cheesecloth, pour into sturdy bottles containing 3-4 raisins, cork tightly, and after 2-3 hours at room temperature, put them in the fridge. After 2-3 days the kvas will be ready to drink. Kvas Comments You can not substitute rye bread (rusks) with something else so you should find it. You can drink kvas as a cold beverage, you can add a leaf of pepper mint, it will make taste more freshy.

146 Bonne Appetite!


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