Presentation on theme: "Carbohydrate Overview"— Presentation transcript:
1 Carbohydrate Overview What is a carbohydrate?Monosaccharides and DisaccharidesPolysaccharidesHow does eating a carb become a part of you?Why do you need carbohydrates?How much do you need?Gluten Free & Metabolic Syndrome
6 High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) Developed more than 40 years agoMade from glucose & fructose in cornHFCS = 55% fructose and 45% glucoseTable sugar = 50% fructose & 50% glucoseHFCS is inexpensive so widely found in foodAbundant in soda, cookies, candy, bread, granola bars, sports drinks, ketchup and much moreOn average, Americans consume 61 lbs. HFCS per yearFood companies replacing HFCS with sugarSimply Heinz, Gatorade, Wheat Thins, Pepsi Throwback
7 Simply Heinz“Americas Favorite Ketchup made simply from the basics: tomatoes, vinegar, sugar and salt and special blend of spices”Consumers can influence food companies!
8 Pepsi Throwback “made with real sugar” Consumers can influence food companies!
10 Lactose Intolerance75% of the world population. Prevalent among African Americans, Asians & Native Americans.Incomplete digestion of lactose because your body produces low levels of the enzyme lactaseSymptoms: Excess gas, stomach ache, diarrheaMost people can digest some amount of lactoseIntolerant to lactose (sugar in milk). Not an allergic reaction to the protein in milk.
11 Foods with lactoseMilk, milkshakes, frozen yogurt, cottage cheese, processed cheese, sour cream, cream cheese…Food products that may contain lactose include:Bread and mixes for pancakes, cakes, cookies & biscuitsInstant mashed potatoes & creamy salad dressingRead labels for the following: milk, lactose, whey, curds, milk by-products, dry milk solids & powder.NO lactose in aged cheese & regular yogurt
13 Complex Carbohydrates GlycogenNot in foodStored in limited quantities in liver & musclesGlycogen in liver: supplies glucose to bloodGlycogen in muscle: supplies glucose to exercising muscleBroken down to release glucose when fuel is needed
14 How Eating Carbohydrates Become a Part of YOU! Most digestion is in small intestine where enzymes break carbohydrate chains into monosaccharides.Monosaccharides are carried through blood to liver. The liver changes all monosaccharides to glucoseThis glucose supplies your body with energy.
15 Why do you need carbohydrates? Provide EnergyPrimary energy source for the bodyProvide FiberA part of the carbohydrate the body does not break downBeneficial for your health
16 Energy Glucose is your primary energy source First choice for energy Brain, CNS & red blood cells only use glucoseFuel for your body all dayRest and light activity: 15% carbs & 85% fatModerate activity: 50% carbs & fatIntense activity: 70% carbs & 30% fatSprint: 100% carbs
17 Fiber The part of the carbohydrate that is not broken down Not a nutrient but has MANY health benefitsHelps keep blood glucose stableFills you up on fewer caloriesSlightly increases metabolismLowers blood cholesterol (beans and lentils best)Decreases risk of colon cancer (whole grains best)
18 Fiber-Up How much fiber? How do you get fiber? Men: 38 grams/day Women: 26 grams/dayHow do you get fiber?Only in plant foodsBeans, lentils, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nutsNo fiber in meat, diary or oils
21 GLUCOSE: A part of ALL disaccharides and polysaccharides The carbohydrate in your blood“blood sugar”All carbohydrates provides 4 calories per gramYour body obtains glucose from:Carbohydrates consumed in dietGlycogen stored in the body (liver and muscle)Last option-you can make glucose from body protein
22 Celiac DiseaseAn autoimmune disorder where gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley and rye damages the lining of the small intestine.Must consume a gluten-free diet: corn, rice, buckwheat, amaranth, quinoa & milletWheat is not bad if you do not have celiac disease.
23 Regulating Blood Glucose InsulinReleased when blood glucose is high (ex: ate pancakes with syrup for breakfast)Insulin is the “key” to let glucose into cellsPromotes the liver & muscle to store glycogenPromotes glucose to be stored as fatGlucagonReleased when blood glucose is low (ex: did not eat breakfast)Promotes the breakdown of glycogen to glucosePromotes the breakdown of protein to glucose
24 Challenge StatementYour body converts carbohydrates into sugar1, which then turns into fat2
25 How much do you need? Recommendations: >130 grams: based on glucose needs of brain45-65% of the calories you eat come from carbohydrates2,000 calorie diet = grams of carbsLow carb diet (Atkins) recommends 30 grams of carbohydrates per day.Hamburger bun has approximately 22 grams
26 Experimental Studies Brehm 42 overweight women Low carb 20-40g/day vs low fat/high carb “eat 450 fewer calories”Foster60 overweight men & womenLow carb g/day vs “low fat/high carb”1-year study
27 Experimental Studies 130 very overweight (288 lbs) and 85% men 3. Samaha130 very overweight (288 lbs) and 85% menLow carb <30 g/day vs low fat/high carb4. Yancy120 overweight men & women with high risk for heart diseaseBoth groups given a daily vitamin/mineral supplementLow carb < 20 g/day vs “low fat/high carb & low cal”5. Stern1 year follow-up from Samaha study (#3)
34 Results Low Carb vs. High Carb Diet Low carbohydrate diet has greater weight loss during 6 month periodLow carbohydrate diet decreased triglycerides (blood fat) in 1 year periodLow carbohydrate diet produced more favorable results for HDL (good cholesterol) in 1 year period
35 Who benefits from a low carbohydrate diet? People w/ Insulin Resistance (Metabolic Syndrome)The cells don’t respond to the insulin – the “cell doors” remain closed even though insulin is trying to unlock it.An over production of insulin is needed to get the glucose into the cells.The extra insulin in the blood causes the liver to produce more triglycerides. High triglycerides increase your risk for heart disease.
36 Metabolic SyndromeIt is the cells“insulin resistance” that leads to the metabolic changes called Metabolic SyndromeMore than 25% of the population has Metabolic Syndrome
37 Metabolic Syndrome Indicators If you have at least 3 of these 5 risk factors, you may have Metabolic SyndromeFasting triglycerides >150HDL (“good”) cholesterol: women <50; men <40High blood pressure (>130/85)Abdominal weight: waist -women >35”; men > 40”Family history of heart disease, high blood pressure or diabetes
38 Managing Metabolic Syndrome ExerciseBrisk 30 minute walk every dayWeight lossHelps decrease insulin resistanceFood ChoicesNo more than 40% of calories from high fiber carbs (whole grains, beans, fruits, veggies & nuts)30-40% of calories from healthy fats (nuts, avocado)20-30% of calories from protein (fish, chicken, cheese)DO NOT go on Atkins diet if planning pregnancy. Ketosis causes irreversible brain damage to fetus.
39 Clicker Question #1 Fructose and glucose form Maltose Lactose Sucrose Nutrition 10
40 Clicker Question #2The hormone that is secreted when blood glucose is LOW:InsulinGlucagonAmino AcidsGlycogenNutrition 10
41 Clicker Question #3 Metabolic Syndrome occurs when: The body doesn't make enough insulinExcess protein is used to make glucoseCells become resistant to insulin so the body produces large amounts of insulin to get glucose into cells.
42 Clicker Question #4A high carbohydrate, low fat diet puts a person with Metabolic Syndrome at risk for heart disease.TrueFalse
43 Limit Processed Carbs, Don’t Eliminate Carbs Carbohydrates main role is glucose - the preferred fuel for the brainRecommended - largest % of your calories come from carbohydrates45-65% of total caloriesWhat are the BEST carbohydrates?The ones with FIBER!Beans, lentils and split peasWhole grains (whole wheat, oats, brown rice)Fruits and vegetables