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Carbohydrate Overview

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Presentation on theme: "Carbohydrate Overview"— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbohydrate Overview
What is a carbohydrate? Monosaccharides and Disaccharides Polysaccharides How does eating a carb become a part of you? Why do you need carbohydrates? How much do you need? Gluten Free & Metabolic Syndrome

2 What is a Carbohydrate? Mainly from plants
Grains (bread, pasta, rice), beans, lentils fruits, veggies, nuts & seeds Formed during photosynthesis Photo © PhotoDisc

3 2 Types of Carbohydrates
Simple Carbohydrates Monosaccharide (1 molecule of sugar) Disaccharide (2 molecules of sugar) Complex Carbohydrates Polysaccharide (100’s of sugar molecules) Fiber Glycogen

4 Simple Carbs (“Sugars”)
Digestion and absorption are quick Monosaccharides The basic building block of ALL carbohydrates Glucose, Fructose, Galactose What do Simply Heinz & Gatorade have in common?

5 Simple Carbohydrates Digestion and absorption are quick Disaccharides
2 Monosaccharides linked together Maltose = Glucose+Glucose Sucrose = Glucose+Fructose (table sugar, honey, syrup) Lactose = Glucose+Galactose (milk sugar)

6 High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)
Developed more than 40 years ago Made from glucose & fructose in corn HFCS = 55% fructose and 45% glucose Table sugar = 50% fructose & 50% glucose HFCS is inexpensive so widely found in food Abundant in soda, cookies, candy, bread, granola bars, sports drinks, ketchup and much more On average, Americans consume 61 lbs. HFCS per year Food companies replacing HFCS with sugar Simply Heinz, Gatorade, Wheat Thins, Pepsi Throwback

7 Simply Heinz “Americas Favorite Ketchup made simply from the basics: tomatoes, vinegar, sugar and salt and special blend of spices” Consumers can influence food companies!

8 Pepsi Throwback “made with real sugar”
Consumers can influence food companies!

9 Simple Carbohydrates Disaccharides 2 Monosaccharides linked together
Maltose = Glucose+Glucose Sucrose = Glucose+Fructose (table sugar, honey, syrup) Lactose = Glucose+Galactose (milk sugar)

10 Lactose Intolerance 75% of the world population. Prevalent among African Americans, Asians & Native Americans. Incomplete digestion of lactose because your body produces low levels of the enzyme lactase Symptoms: Excess gas, stomach ache, diarrhea Most people can digest some amount of lactose Intolerant to lactose (sugar in milk). Not an allergic reaction to the protein in milk.

11 Foods with lactose Milk, milkshakes, frozen yogurt, cottage cheese, processed cheese, sour cream, cream cheese… Food products that may contain lactose include: Bread and mixes for pancakes, cakes, cookies & biscuits Instant mashed potatoes & creamy salad dressing Read labels for the following: milk, lactose, whey, curds, milk by-products, dry milk solids & powder. NO lactose in aged cheese & regular yogurt

12 Complex Carbohydrates
Polysaccharides: many sugars Starch (glucose+glucose+glucose…) Bread, rice, oatmeal, cereal, crackers, beans, lentils, potatoes… Fiber (not digestible)

13 Complex Carbohydrates
Glycogen Not in food Stored in limited quantities in liver & muscles Glycogen in liver: supplies glucose to blood Glycogen in muscle: supplies glucose to exercising muscle Broken down to release glucose when fuel is needed

14 How Eating Carbohydrates Become a Part of YOU!
Most digestion is in small intestine where enzymes break carbohydrate chains into monosaccharides. Monosaccharides are carried through blood to liver. The liver changes all monosaccharides to glucose This glucose supplies your body with energy.

15 Why do you need carbohydrates?
Provide Energy Primary energy source for the body Provide Fiber A part of the carbohydrate the body does not break down Beneficial for your health

16 Energy Glucose is your primary energy source First choice for energy
Brain, CNS & red blood cells only use glucose Fuel for your body all day Rest and light activity: 15% carbs & 85% fat Moderate activity: 50% carbs & fat Intense activity: 70% carbs & 30% fat Sprint: 100% carbs

17 Fiber The part of the carbohydrate that is not broken down
Not a nutrient but has MANY health benefits Helps keep blood glucose stable Fills you up on fewer calories Slightly increases metabolism Lowers blood cholesterol (beans and lentils best) Decreases risk of colon cancer (whole grains best)

18 Fiber-Up How much fiber? How do you get fiber? Men: 38 grams/day
Women: 26 grams/day How do you get fiber? Only in plant foods Beans, lentils, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts No fiber in meat, diary or oils

19 Rice Choices (½ cup) White Brown Calories: 108 Carbohydrates 22 grams
Fiber: 2 grams Potassium: 42 milligrams Magnesium: 42 milligrams Zinc: 0.6 milligrams Vitamin E: 0.3 milligrams Calories: 98 Carbohydrates 21 grams Fiber: 0.5 grams Potassium: 44 milligrams Magnesium: 7 milligrams Zinc: 0.3 milligrams Vitamin E: 0 milligrams


21 GLUCOSE: A part of ALL disaccharides and polysaccharides
The carbohydrate in your blood “blood sugar” All carbohydrates provides 4 calories per gram Your body obtains glucose from: Carbohydrates consumed in diet Glycogen stored in the body (liver and muscle) Last option-you can make glucose from body protein

22 Celiac Disease An autoimmune disorder where gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley and rye damages the lining of the small intestine. Must consume a gluten-free diet: corn, rice, buckwheat, amaranth, quinoa & millet Wheat is not bad if you do not have celiac disease.

23 Regulating Blood Glucose
Insulin Released when blood glucose is high (ex: ate pancakes with syrup for breakfast) Insulin is the “key” to let glucose into cells Promotes the liver & muscle to store glycogen Promotes glucose to be stored as fat Glucagon Released when blood glucose is low (ex: did not eat breakfast) Promotes the breakdown of glycogen to glucose Promotes the breakdown of protein to glucose

24 Challenge Statement Your body converts carbohydrates into sugar1, which then turns into fat2

25 How much do you need? Recommendations:
>130 grams: based on glucose needs of brain 45-65% of the calories you eat come from carbohydrates 2,000 calorie diet = grams of carbs Low carb diet (Atkins) recommends 30 grams of carbohydrates per day. Hamburger bun has approximately 22 grams

26 Experimental Studies Brehm 42 overweight women
Low carb 20-40g/day vs low fat/high carb “eat 450 fewer calories” Foster 60 overweight men & women Low carb g/day vs “low fat/high carb” 1-year study

27 Experimental Studies 130 very overweight (288 lbs) and 85% men
3. Samaha 130 very overweight (288 lbs) and 85% men Low carb <30 g/day vs low fat/high carb 4. Yancy 120 overweight men & women with high risk for heart disease Both groups given a daily vitamin/mineral supplement Low carb < 20 g/day vs “low fat/high carb & low cal” 5. Stern 1 year follow-up from Samaha study (#3)

28 % Change -Weight Loss, 6 months

29 % Change –Triglycerides 6 months

30 % Change – HDL (good cholesterol) 6 Months

31 % Change – Weight Loss 1 yr - Not statistically significant

32 % Change – Triglycerides 1 Year – statistically significant

33 % Change – HDL (good chol) 1 year – statistically significant

34 Results Low Carb vs. High Carb Diet
Low carbohydrate diet has greater weight loss during 6 month period Low carbohydrate diet decreased triglycerides (blood fat) in 1 year period Low carbohydrate diet produced more favorable results for HDL (good cholesterol) in 1 year period

35 Who benefits from a low carbohydrate diet?
People w/ Insulin Resistance (Metabolic Syndrome) The cells don’t respond to the insulin – the “cell doors” remain closed even though insulin is trying to unlock it. An over production of insulin is needed to get the glucose into the cells. The extra insulin in the blood causes the liver to produce more triglycerides. High triglycerides increase your risk for heart disease.

36 Metabolic Syndrome It is the cells“insulin resistance” that leads to the metabolic changes called Metabolic Syndrome More than 25% of the population has Metabolic Syndrome

37 Metabolic Syndrome Indicators
If you have at least 3 of these 5 risk factors, you may have Metabolic Syndrome Fasting triglycerides >150 HDL (“good”) cholesterol: women <50; men <40 High blood pressure (>130/85) Abdominal weight: waist -women >35”; men > 40” Family history of heart disease, high blood pressure or diabetes

38 Managing Metabolic Syndrome
Exercise Brisk 30 minute walk every day Weight loss Helps decrease insulin resistance Food Choices No more than 40% of calories from high fiber carbs (whole grains, beans, fruits, veggies & nuts) 30-40% of calories from healthy fats (nuts, avocado) 20-30% of calories from protein (fish, chicken, cheese) DO NOT go on Atkins diet if planning pregnancy. Ketosis causes irreversible brain damage to fetus.

39 Clicker Question #1 Fructose and glucose form Maltose Lactose Sucrose
Nutrition 10

40 Clicker Question #2 The hormone that is secreted when blood glucose is LOW: Insulin Glucagon Amino Acids Glycogen Nutrition 10

41 Clicker Question #3 Metabolic Syndrome occurs when:
The body doesn't make enough insulin Excess protein is used to make glucose Cells become resistant to insulin so the body produces large amounts of insulin to get glucose into cells.

42 Clicker Question #4 A high carbohydrate, low fat diet puts a person with Metabolic Syndrome at risk for heart disease. True False

43 Limit Processed Carbs, Don’t Eliminate Carbs
Carbohydrates main role is glucose - the preferred fuel for the brain Recommended - largest % of your calories come from carbohydrates 45-65% of total calories What are the BEST carbohydrates? The ones with FIBER! Beans, lentils and split peas Whole grains (whole wheat, oats, brown rice) Fruits and vegetables

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