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©Learning ZoneXpress 1 by Jane Norman, CFCS
©Learning ZoneXpress 2 Learning the Basics What you need to know before you cook! Know Your Kitchen –Work Centers –Appliances, Tools & Equipment How to Follow a Recipe –Cooking & Mixing Terms –Measuring & Abbreviations Personal & Food Safety Clean Up!
©Learning ZoneXpress 3 Know Your Kitchen Knowing your kitchen & tools helps you work efficiently. Work Centers for kitchen activities: –Food Preparation & Storage Counter for preparing food. Refrigerator and cabinets for storing utensils and food. –Cooking & Serving Stovetop and oven for cooking and baking. Cabinets and counter for tools and utensils. –Clean Up Sink and dishwasher. Cabinets for storing dishes, tools, and utensils. –Today kitchens may also have a planning work center with a computer, bookshelves and desk.
©Learning ZoneXpress 4 Kitchen Work Centers What do we do in the kitchen? Food uses of the kitchen: Storage Preparation Cooking Serving Clean up Planning
©Learning ZoneXpress 5 Kitchen Designs Goal: to save human energy and be more efficient. Learn the centers in your kitchen. Keep tools in the center where they are first used. Can you identify the shapes of the kitchens below? Where would each center be located? Centers: Storage Preparation Cooking Serving Clean up Planning L-ShapeU-Shape or One Wall or Two Walls (popular in apartments)
©Learning ZoneXpress 6 Cooking Appliances Cooking methods are similar, however gas and electric appliances cook differently. Everyone has their favorite! Cooking Method GasElectric CooktopHeats up instantly.Takes a few minutes. Cooking surface.High is very hot.Temperature settings. BakeNeeds to preheat.Needs to preheat. In the oven by dry heat.2-3 minutes/100 degrees F.Timer goes off when ready. BroilVery hot - open flame.Hot top coils. Cooking by direct heat.Adjust broiler pan accordingly. Adjust racks accordingly. Close door/watch carefully.Keep door ajar. Convection BakeAdjust time accordingly.Adjust time accordingly. Circulates air/fast baking. photo
©Learning ZoneXpress 7 Microwave Ovens Read the manual and know how to operate your microwave properly. Using & Caring for Microwave Ovens: –Do not turn on a microwave when empty. –Use only microwave safe cookware, like glass, ceramic, plastic and paper. Do not use metal cookware or wires or metallic-edged dishes. –Clean the interior and exterior after use, including door seal. Safety Tips: –Always use a hot pad, dishes become hot in the microwave from the food. –Pierce certain foods before cooking (i.e. potatoes, hotdogs). –Remove cover so steam flows away from your face.
©Learning ZoneXpress 8 Microwave Ovens Use your microwave to thaw, cook, reheat and save preparation time. Microwave Cooking Tips: –The higher the wattage the shorter the cooking time. –Vent one side of plastic wrap cover to allow moisture to escape. –Standing time allows food to continue cooking. –Use paper towels to prevent spattering. –Stir during cooking time. –Foods that need to boil, such as pasta, rice, lentils and dry beans, will not cook faster in a microwave.
©Learning ZoneXpress 9 Time-Saving Small Appliances Have you used the following? Waffle IronRice CookerBread Maker BlenderGriddleSlow Cooker ToasterDeep FryerPressure Cooker Electric MixerFood Processor How many more can you name?
©Learning ZoneXpress 10 Kitchen Equipment Cooking and baking tools and utensils save time and energy. Make sure all utensils are durable and are easy to clean. Learn how to use these tools for best results: Cutting & Serving Mixing Baking - in the oven Cooking - on the stovetop
©Learning ZoneXpress 11 Cutting & Serving Tools knives grater tongs serving can opener ladle vegetable peeler
©Learning ZoneXpress 12 Mixing Tools Pancake Turner/Spatula Wooden Spoon Wire Whisk Rubber Scraper Rotary Beater Pastry Blender Rolling Pin Mixing Bowls Strainer/Colander Measuring Tools: Dry Measuring Cups Liquid Measuring Cups Measuring Spoons
©Learning ZoneXpress 13 Baking Tools muffin pan 9 X 13 rectangular 10 X 15 baking pan bread/loaf pan cake pan cookie sheet pie pan
©Learning ZoneXpress 14 Cooking Tools saucepan stock pot small fry pan stir fry pan (wok) large fry pan casserole dishes roaster 3-4 qt saucepan
©Learning ZoneXpress 15 Know How To Follow A Recipe It is important to know some basic cooking terms and how to measure ingredients accurately when preparing foods. Most recipes list ingredients and directions in the order that they occur. Follow the recipe step-by-step. To Get Good Results From a Recipe: Read the recipe carefully. Get all utensils, tools and ingredients ready. Measure accurately. Mix as directed. Bake or cook the required time.
©Learning ZoneXpress 16 Measuring Dry Ingredients For dry ingredients including flour, sugar, and salt, use dry measuring cups & spoons. Heap Level Empty dry measuring cups measuring spoons
©Learning ZoneXpress 17 Measuring Solid Ingredients For solid ingredients including peanut butter, shortening and brown sugar use dry measuring cups. Pack Level Empty
©Learning ZoneXpress 18 Measuring Liquids For liquid ingredients including milk, water, oil, and juice, use liquid measuring cups. Set cup on a flat surface. Bend down to eye level and pour until the desired mark is reached. liquid measuring cup
©Learning ZoneXpress 19 Using Measuring Spoons Use measuring spoons to measure small amounts of dry and liquid ingredients. Do not use kitchen spoons, they are not accurate. How to measure the following: 3/4 tsp. Salt 3 tsp. Vanilla
©Learning ZoneXpress 20 Abbreviations Do you understand these abbreviations? teaspoontsp. or t. TablespoonTbsp.or T. cup c. pintpt. quartqt. ounceoz. poundlb. or # few grains f.g. FahrenheitF Why do you think many recipes use abbreviations?
©Learning ZoneXpress 21 Equivalents From small to large measurements: 1 Tbsp.=3 tsp. 1 c.=16 Tbsp. 2 c.=1 pt. 4 c.=1 qt. 16 c.=1 gal. 2 pt.=1 qt. 4 qt.=1 gal.
©Learning ZoneXpress 22 Cooking Terms Recipes use a variety of terms to describe exactly how to handle ingredients. If a recipe states, pare an apple, then slice and dice it. What do you do? Review the following cooking terms and see how many you know.
©Learning ZoneXpress 23 Cooking Terms Just a few of hundreds of terms: Cutting & Peeling: Core Cube Chop Pare Dice Slice Peel Mince Mixing: Beat Fold Combine Blend Stir Strain Cream Whip Cut in
©Learning ZoneXpress 24 Cooking Terms Using the Stovetop: Baste Fry Brown Boil Simmer Stir-Fry Braise Sauté Preheat Using The Oven: BakeRoast Preheat BroilGrill Using The Microwave: Cooking Time Rotate Standing Time
©Learning ZoneXpress 25 Safety in the Kitchen A Must When Cooking! Did you know that more accidents happen in the kitchen than any other room in the house? Safety can be divided into two very important areas: Personal Safety in the kitchen. Food Safety - preventing food-borne illnesses.
©Learning ZoneXpress 26 Personal Safety Many kitchen accidents are due to lack of information or carelessness. Chemical poisoning, cuts, burns, fires and falls are the most common of these accidents. Electric shock and choking follow close behind. You can prevent many accidents by: Properly using and caring for equipment. Noticing and correcting potential dangers. Being organized and following directions. Keeping your kitchen clean.
©Learning ZoneXpress 27 Food Safety Preventing Food-Borne Illnesses: A food-borne illness is an illness transmitted by food. Millions of cases of food-borne illnesses occur in the U.S. each year. Many go unreported because people mistake their symptoms for the flu. A food borne illness can result in one of two ways: Contaminants – substances that have accidentally gotten into food. Bacteria – micro-organisms that multiply and under certain conditions can cause people to get sick.
©Learning ZoneXpress 28 Wash hands with hot, soapy water. Scrub hands, wrist and fingernails for at least 20 seconds. Rinse with hot water. Dry with a paper towel. Ways To Prevent Food-borne Illness Sanitation – Keep yourself and your kitchen clean. What are things you should be doing before you cook for personal and kitchen cleanliness?
©Learning ZoneXpress 29 Handle Food Properly Prepare foods as directed and properly clean them. What are things you should remember when preparing foods? i.e., fruits, vegetables, meats such as chicken, beef, dairy products? Store food at correct temperatures. Know the Danger Zone for certain foods! –The Danger Zone is the temperature range of 40° - 140° F. where certain foods could begin to develop harmful bacteria. –Dont keep these foods longer than 2 hours at room temperature. –What foods should not be kept in the Danger Zone for too long?
©Learning ZoneXpress 30 What About The Dishes? How to Wash Dishes Properly: Scrape extra food into the garbage. Prepare your water, make sure its very warm, and has enough soap to clean your dishes. Wash glasses first, then silverware, plates, and cups. Wash pots and pan last, they will make the water greasy. Dry dishes and put away.
©Learning ZoneXpress 31 Now Youre Ready To Cook Plan ahead… know your recipe(s) and what ingredients and tools you need. –You may want to develop a time plan. Get everything youll need out ahead of time and be organized. Measure ingredients carefully and follow the recipe directions step-by-step. Wash your hands before and after handling foods and clean up as you go. When finished, wash, dry and put away the tools and utensils.
©Learning ZoneXpress 32 Youre the Expert! Select one of the following to practice what you have learned: Make a personal safety check list. Make a chart explaining how the following foods should be handled/stored. –Fresh Fruits & Vegetables –Dairy Products/Eggs –Chicken/Beef Select a cooking term and explain or demonstrate its definition. Choose a kitchen tool or utensil and explain what it is used for and demonstrate its use. Demonstrate the proper way to measure dry, solid and liquid ingredients.
©Learning ZoneXpress 33 Kitchen Basics Review 1. Name three work centers in a kitchen. 2. Label the following tools. (Show examples.) 3. Name the two main types of cooking that are done with the stove. 4. How would you measure the following ingredients? FlourBrown Sugar1 tsp. Vanilla Answer the following questions:
©Learning ZoneXpress 34 Kitchen Basics Review 5. What are the abbreviations for the following? Teaspoon Ounces Tablespoon Quart 6. Define the following cooking terms: Pare Blend Simmer Combine Boil Whip Bake
©Learning ZoneXpress 35 Kitchen Basics Review 7. Give two examples of how you can prevent accidents in the kitchen? 8. What are food-borne illnesses? 9. What happens when perishable foods are kept too long in the Danger Zone? 10. How do you wash dishes by hand?
©Learning ZoneXpress 36 Please note that web sites are constantly changing and being updated. Online Resources Suggested web sites appropriate for the Kitchen Basics: –Detailed information and comparisons on appliances. –Recipes. –Details on equipment, terms, reading a recipe, food safety as well as many other kitchen aids. –Recipes. –Information for kids on food safety, games to play, on line quizzes and links to nutrition web sites.
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