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©2002 Learning Zone Express 1 = = Sara Jane Strecker, FACS Educator
©2002 Learning Zone Express 2 Introduction Most cooks use recipes. A recipe is a list of ingredients that gives you directions for preparing a specific food. If you know how to follow recipes, then you will be successful in the kitchen. Who knows! You may become a famous chef!
©2002 Learning Zone Express 3 Introduction Successful cooks know: How to read a recipe Abbreviations Measuring Techniques Equivalents How to Change a Recipe
©2002 Learning Zone Express 4 Whats in a recipe? A formula! Read the recipe before you cook. The parts of the recipe tell you: Name Ingredients Equipment Directions Yield (number of servings) Sometimes - Nutritional Analysis
©2002 Learning Zone Express 5 Quesadillas (Serves per person) 8 flour tortillas 1 cup grated cheese 1. Heat a frying pan over medium heat. 2. Place a tortilla in the pan. 3. Sprinkle 1/4 cup cheese on the tortilla. 4. Cover the cheese with another tortilla. 5. Cook about 1 minute, until brown and crisp. Then turn the quesadilla over. Cook until the cheese melts. 6. Place on a serving plate. Cut into pie shaped wedges. 7. Repeat process with remaining ingredients. Parts of a Recipe A recipe usually includes: Name What the recipe is called. Ingredients Food products you need to make the recipe. Yield Number of servings the recipe makes. Directions Steps you follow to make the recipe. Equipment
©2002 Learning Zone Express 6 Your turn Think up a name for a recipe. What is the yield? How many people will it serve? Name each ingredient. Write the steps in the order that you would prepare them. Number each step. How many steps are there? What special equipment is needed?
©2002 Learning Zone Express 7 Whats an Abbreviation? Understanding the language of recipes takes the guesswork out of cooking. Abbreviation - The shortened form of a word. Abbreviations in measuring units: Save space on the cookbook page. Make recipes easier to read.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 8 Name the Abbreviations The U.S. uses the English system: Teaspoontsp. or t. TablespoonTbsp. or T. Cupc. Pintpt. Quartqt. Gallongal. Ounce/fluid ounce oz./ fl. oz. Poundlb.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 9 Name the Abbreviations Most other countries use the Metric system: Milliliterml LiterL Gramsg Kilogramkg
©2002 Learning Zone Express 10 Name the Abbreviations More abbreviations: Few grains, dash, pinchf.g. Dozendoz. Poundlb. Inchin. Secondsec. Minutemin. Hourhr. Degree Fahrenheit/CelsiusF. / C
©2002 Learning Zone Express 11 Abbreviations Pop Quiz What do these stand for? lb. L tsp. or t. F. qt. fl. oz.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 12 Name That Utensil Serving spoons & cups vary in size. Only use these standard measuring utensils… Can you name them?
©2002 Learning Zone Express 13 The Right Measuring Utensil What are two ingredients that youd measure with when using: measuring spoons? dry/solid measuring cups? a liquid measuring cup? Which measuring utensil would you use to measure each of these ingredients? 1 1/3 cups flour 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder 1/2 cup milk 2 tablespoons cooking oil
©2002 Learning Zone Express 14 Measuring Liquid Ingredients Liquid ingredients can include: Milk, water, oil, juice, vanilla extract, etc. To measure 1/4 cup or more of a liquid ingredient, use a clear, liquid measuring cup. Place the cup on level surface and read measurements at eye level. For smaller amounts use measuring spoons. Fill the spoon until a slight dome is visible.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 15 Measuring Dry Ingredients A standard set of dry/solid measuring cups is made of four cup sizes. What amount does each cup measure?
©2002 Learning Zone Express 16 Measuring Dry Ingredients Dry ingredients can include: Flour, sugar, brown sugar, salt, and baking powder. To measure less than a 1/4 cup use a measuring spoon. Measuring spoons generally come in 1/4, 1/2, & 1 teaspoon & 1 tablespoon sizes. To measure 1/8 tsp. measure 1/4 tsp. & then remove half. To measure 1/4 cup or more of a dry ingredient use a measuring cup. Measuring cups generally come in 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, and 1 cup sizes.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 17 Measuring Dry Ingredients Measuring flour: Do not pack the flour into the measuring cup or spoon because you will end up with more flour. Instead, scoop flour into the cup and level with a spatula or knife. Measuring brown sugar: Pack the brown sugar tightly into the measuring cup or spoon. Once it is packed down, level it with a straight edge or knife. Measuring granulated sugar: Fill the cup with sugar. Level with the back of a spatula or knife so that sugar is even with top of measuring cup or spoon.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 18 Pass the Cup Dry/solid measure check-up: Which of these amounts is greater? Write the amount. 1/2 cup or 3/4 cup 1/4 cup or 1/3 cup 1/4 cup or2 Tbsp. 1/2 cupor 1/4 cup 1/4 cup or 3 tsp. 1 1/3 cupor1 1/4 cup
©2002 Learning Zone Express 19 Measuring Solid Ingredients Sticks of butter and margarine have measurements marked on the wrapper. One stick = 1/2 cup or 8 tablespoons Measure solid fats, such as shortening or peanut butter, in a dry measuring cup. Pack it into the cup and level it with a spatula. Then use a plastic scraper to remove it from the cup.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 20 Measuring Techniques Checklist 3/4 cup sugar 1 cup flour 1 Tbsp. water 1 tsp. salt 1 Tbsp. flour 1 1/3 cups water 1/4 cup brown sugar Ingredients & tools properly cleaned and stored. Demonstrate proper measuring techniques by completing the checklist. Name:___________________ Checked by:______________ Can you do these things?
©2002 Learning Zone Express 21 Measuring Just With Spoons This chart shows some amounts that youll often see in recipes. And it shows how to measure those amounts with measuring spoons. 1 Tbsp. 1 tsp. + 1 tsp. + 1 tsp. 3/4 tsp.1/4 tsp. + 1/4 tsp. + 1/4 tsp. or 1/2 tsp. + 1/4 tsp. 1/8 tsp.half of 1/4 tsp. 1/8 cup1 Tbsp. + 1 Tbsp.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 22 Basic Equivalents Equivalents are amounts that are equal to each other. They are useful when you must alter or change a recipe to serve more or less people than the recipe yields. Dry/Liquid equivalents: Pinch or Dash=less than 1/8 teaspoon 1 Tablespoon=3 teaspoons 1/4 cup=4 Tablespoons 1/3 cup=5 Tablespoons & 1 teaspoon 1/2 cup=8 Tablespoons 3/4 cup=12 Tablespoons 1 cup =16 Tablespoons
©2002 Learning Zone Express 23 Basic Equivalents To help you remember: 1 Tablespoon = 3 t e a spoons There are 3 letters in the word tea and 3 teaspoons in a tablespoon. 1/4 c. = 4 Tbsp.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 24 1 pint = 2 cups 1 quart = 2 pints = 4 cups 1 gallon = 4 quarts = 8 pints = 16 cups Basic Equivalents 1 fluid ounce = 2 Tablespoons 8 ounces = 1 cup 16 ounces = 1 pound
©2002 Learning Zone Express 25 Basic Equivalents To help you remember: A formula 2 c. = 1 pt. 2 pt. = 1 qt. 4 qt. = 1 gal.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 26 Equivalents at the Store At the store, many foods are sold by the pint or by the quart. Many recipes will ask you to measure those foods by the cup. Here is a helpful guide: 1 cup =1/2 pint 2 cups=1 pint 4 cups =2 pints 4 cups=1 quart 4 quarts=1 gallon
©2002 Learning Zone Express 27 Equivalents at the Store Answer the following questions with one of these amounts: 1/2 pint1 pint1 quart 1. A recipe for salad calls for 2 cups of cottage cheese.? 2. A recipe for a fruit dessert calls for 1 cup of whipping cream? 3. You need 4 cups of milk for a pudding? 4. You need 2 cups of sour cream to make a dip? 5. A recipe for fruit salad says to mix 8 ounces of yogurt with fruit? What size container will you buy if...
©2002 Learning Zone Express 28 Equivalents at the Store Now that you know how many cups make up 1/2 pint, 1 pint, and 1 quart, try to figure out how many ounces are in these amounts: 1 cup=___ oz. 1/2 pint=___ oz. 1 pint=___ oz. 1 quart=___ oz. 1 gallon=___ oz.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 29 Basic Equivalents Pop Quiz pint=____ cups gallon = ____ quarts quart =____ cups cup =____ tablespoons tablespoon =____ teaspoons
©2002 Learning Zone Express 30 Putting Cups Together Useful amounts to know: 2/3 cup=1/3 cup + 1/3 cup 3/4 cup=1/2 cup + 1/4 cup 1/8 cup=half of 1/4 cup 1 cup=1/2 cup + 1/2 cup 1 cup=1/3 cup + 1/3 cup + 1/3 cup 1 cup=1/4 cup + 1/4 cup + 1/4 cup + 1/4 cup How would you measure these amounts? 1 1/4 cups 2/3 cup 3/4 cup
©2002 Learning Zone Express 31 How Do You Measure Up? This recipe for Chocolate Chip Cookies yields 3 dozen. You need to make 6 dozen. Write down the measurements you would use to double this recipe. Use correct abbreviations. Yields 3 dozen. 2 1/4 cup flour 3/4 cup brown sugar 1 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 1/4 teaspoon salt 2 eggs 1 cup margarine 2 cup chocolate chips 3/4 cup sugar Chocolate Chip Cookies
©2002 Learning Zone Express 32 How Do You Measure Up? Your Grandmas recipe for Chocolate Cake makes a large cake so you want to make only half of a cake. Write down the new measurements you would need to make half this recipe. Use correct abbreviations. 2 cups sugar2 teaspoons baking soda 1/2 cup butter2 chocolate squares 2 eggs1/2 teaspoon salt 1 cup buttermilk2/3 cup warm water 2 1/2 cups cake flour1 teaspoon vanilla extract Chocolate Cake
©2002 Learning Zone Express 33 How Do You Measure Up? What is half of 2/3 cup? If a recipe calls for one egg and you want to cut the recipe in half, how might you half an egg? Answer: 1 large egg = 1/4 cup. Crack egg into bowl and mix with fork. Pour out approximately 1/2 or 2 tablespoons of egg. BONUS
©2002 Learning Zone Express 34 Youre the Expert Jenny is throwing a surprise birthday party for her best friend Katie. She has decided to make Katies favorite dish, meat loaf. There will be a total of 40 people at the party. Answer the following questions: The recipe says it serves 8 people. By what number should Jenny multiply each ingredient to make enough meat loaf for everyone? The recipe calls for 1 1/2 lbs. of ground beef. How much ground beef will Jenny need to make enough meat loaf for everyone? Jenny will be serving milk with the meal. She plans on using 8 oz. glasses. How many gallons of milk does she need to make sure everyone gets one glass of milk?
©2002 Learning Zone Express 35 Kitchen Math Quiz 1. 1 tablespoon is equivalent to __ teaspoons and 1 fluid ounce is equivalent to __ tablespoons. a.a. 3, 4 b.b. 4, 1 c.c. 3, 2 d.d. 2, 3 2. How would you measure the following amounts? a.a. 2/3 cup b.b. 1/8 cup c.c. 1 2/3 cup d.d. 2 3/4 cups Write down the answers to the following questions.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 36 Kitchen Math Quiz 3. The number of servings a recipe makes is called its ________. a.a. serving size b.b. yield c.c. equivalent d.d. supply 4. Match the term on the left with the appropriate abbreviation on the right poundsa.c cupsb.Tbsp tablespoonsc.lb teaspoonsd.tsp ouncese.oz.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 37 Kitchen Math Quiz 5. True of False? a.a. Liquids should always be measured at eye level. b.b. When measuring flour you should scoop it into a dry measuring cup, pack it, and level it with a straight edge. c.c. One stick of butter is equal to 1 cup. 6. Look at each of the following measurements and determine which amount is larger: a.a. 1/3 cup or 1/4 cup b.b. 1 pound or 18 ounces c.c. 1 tablespoon or 4 teaspoons d.d. 1 pint or 3 cups
©2002 Learning Zone Express 38 Applying What You Know Create a worksheet of math word problems based on kitchen measurements. Be sure to create an answer sheet. Trade worksheets with a classmate and grade each others work. Create new recipe cards that double and cut in half a favorite recipe. For extra credit make the recipe and evaluate the results. Create an easy-to-read poster of common abbreviations and basic equivalents. Be sure to include visuals and display accurate information. Choose one of the following assignments to complete outside of class.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 39 Exploring the Web Here are some suggested sites you and your class may want to investigate for more information on measuring: –Basic kitchen measurements and abbreviations. –Measurements and substitutions. Teachers: Please note that web sites are constantly changing and being updated. You may need to revise this list.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 1 = = Sara Jane Strecker, FACS Educator.
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