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January, 2010 HICE Conference The Community of Inquiry Framework: A Review of Research & Practice D. Randy Garrison Phil Ice Zehra Akyol Hawaii.

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Presentation on theme: "January, 2010 HICE Conference The Community of Inquiry Framework: A Review of Research & Practice D. Randy Garrison Phil Ice Zehra Akyol Hawaii."— Presentation transcript:

1 January, 2010 HICE Conference The Community of Inquiry Framework: A Review of Research & Practice D. Randy Garrison Phil Ice Zehra Akyol Hawaii

2 Overview Background Background Community of Inquiry Framework Community of Inquiry Framework Update on Recent Research Update on Recent Research CoI Dynamics CoI Dynamics CoI Survey Instrument CoI Survey Instrument Discussion Discussion

3 Background Studies have emphasized the importance of community as a key factor in successful online/blended learning (Conrad, 2005; Haythornthwaite & Kazmer, 2004; Rovai, 2002). Studies have emphasized the importance of community as a key factor in successful online/blended learning (Conrad, 2005; Haythornthwaite & Kazmer, 2004; Rovai, 2002). Sense of community is found to be significantly associated with perceived learning (Shea, 2006; Shea, Li, & Pickett, 2006). Sense of community is found to be significantly associated with perceived learning (Shea, 2006; Shea, Li, & Pickett, 2006). Community of Inquiry Framework provides a well structured guideline to create an effective and sustained learning community (Arbaugh, 2008). Community of Inquiry Framework provides a well structured guideline to create an effective and sustained learning community (Arbaugh, 2008).

4 Value of a Framework A theoretical framework takes us beyond craft know how and recipes. A theoretical framework takes us beyond craft know how and recipes. Theoretical frameworks provide order and allow us to understand complex situations in greater depth. Theoretical frameworks provide order and allow us to understand complex situations in greater depth. This increases adaptability to new contexts and environments. This increases adaptability to new contexts and environments.

5 Community Of Inquiry The importance of a community of inquiry is that, while the objective of critical reflection is intellectual autonomy, in reality, critical reflection is thoroughly social and communal. The importance of a community of inquiry is that, while the objective of critical reflection is intellectual autonomy, in reality, critical reflection is thoroughly social and communal. Lipman, 1991

6 Community of Inquiry Framework Social Presence The ability of participants to identify with the community (e.g., course of study), communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop inter-personal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities. Cognitive Presence The extent to which learners are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse in a critical community of inquiry. Teaching Presence The design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes.

7 CoI Categories/Indicators

8 SOCIAL PRESENCE The ability of participants to identify with the community (e.g., course of study), communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop inter-personal relationships. The ability of participants to identify with the community (e.g., course of study), communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop inter-personal relationships. (Garrison, in press)

9 Rogers and Lea (2005) If the intended result of social presence is to confer on the group greater capacity to communicate and collaborate, then the group will work more productively to the extent that group members identify with the group [emphasis added], … [p. 153] If the intended result of social presence is to confer on the group greater capacity to communicate and collaborate, then the group will work more productively to the extent that group members identify with the group [emphasis added], … [p. 153]

10 SP Research Findings When students feel comfortable participating in online asynchronous dialogue they also report higher levels of cognitive presence (Shea, 2008). When students feel comfortable participating in online asynchronous dialogue they also report higher levels of cognitive presence (Shea, 2008).

11 COGNITIVE PRESENCE What are the challenges of observing and assessing what is essentially a latent or hidden process? What are the challenges of observing and assessing what is essentially a latent or hidden process? The following model is how we addressed this enormous challenge. The following model is how we addressed this enormous challenge.

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13 Moving Beyond Exploration Early research revealed an apparent difficulty moving inquiry through to resolution. Early research revealed an apparent difficulty moving inquiry through to resolution. However, there is evidence that this pervasive finding may have more to do with aspects of teaching presence than to the other possible factors. However, there is evidence that this pervasive finding may have more to do with aspects of teaching presence than to the other possible factors. Garrison & Arbaugh, 2007 Garrison & Arbaugh, 2007

14 Nature of Task Where learners specifically were tasked to formulate and resolve a problem, participants engaged more in problem resolution than in problem formulation (Murphy, 2003) Where learners specifically were tasked to formulate and resolve a problem, participants engaged more in problem resolution than in problem formulation (Murphy, 2003) When questions specifically asked students to engage in practical applications, discussions did progress to the synthesis and resolution phase (Arnold & Ducate, 2006) When questions specifically asked students to engage in practical applications, discussions did progress to the synthesis and resolution phase (Arnold & Ducate, 2006)

15 Emerging CP Research In two small samples (n = 18) students reached exploration and integration in discussion postings, then after personal reflection on discussions, used knowledge to reach resolution in personal work products In two small samples (n = 18) students reached exploration and integration in discussion postings, then after personal reflection on discussions, used knowledge to reach resolution in personal work products Interview data indicates that students need time to fully evaluate discussion postings before reaching the resolution stage Interview data indicates that students need time to fully evaluate discussion postings before reaching the resolution stage (Ice, in progress) (Ice, in progress)

16 CP and TP Others have concluded that the reason discussions do not reach the highest levels of inquiry is related to the role of the instructor (Celetin, 2007; Luebeck & Bice, 2005 ). Others have concluded that the reason discussions do not reach the highest levels of inquiry is related to the role of the instructor (Celetin, 2007; Luebeck & Bice, 2005 ).

17 Blended and Online Learning BL course had higher levels of all presences as well as perceived learning and satisfaction compared to fully online course. BL course had higher levels of all presences as well as perceived learning and satisfaction compared to fully online course. "these differences suggest that the blended course format may have provided better conditions for higher-order thinking "these differences suggest that the blended course format may have provided better conditions for higher-order thinking Akjol & Garrison, unpublished

18 TEACHING PRESENCE The body of evidence is growing rapidly attesting to the importance of teaching presence for successful online learning … The body of evidence is growing rapidly attesting to the importance of teaching presence for successful online learning …

19 TP Research The consensus is that teaching presence is a significant determinate of student satisfaction, perceived learning, and sense of community. (Akyol & Garrison, 2008; Arbaugh, 2008; Shea et al. 2004, 2005) The consensus is that teaching presence is a significant determinate of student satisfaction, perceived learning, and sense of community. (Akyol & Garrison, 2008; Arbaugh, 2008; Shea et al. 2004, 2005) TP is needed to establish CP and SP; lowest CP scores were reported by students who rated TP as weak (Shea & Bidjerano, in press) TP is needed to establish CP and SP; lowest CP scores were reported by students who rated TP as weak (Shea & Bidjerano, in press)

20 TP Research Various factor analyses have produced an unexpected 4 factor solution in which instructional design and organization load separately from facilitation of discourse and direct instruction Various factor analyses have produced an unexpected 4 factor solution in which instructional design and organization load separately from facilitation of discourse and direct instruction Mixed methods analysis reveals that students may be able to detect the instructors voice / students can differentiate whether or not an instructor authored the course content Mixed methods analysis reveals that students may be able to detect the instructors voice / students can differentiate whether or not an instructor authored the course content (Ice, in progress) (Ice, in progress)

21 CoI DYNAMICS

22 Role of Time Why time? Why time? Community grows; it is not made or given (Conrad, 2005) Time is an important variable to understand how a community of inquiry develops and progresses (Garrison & Cleveland-Innes, 2004)

23 Dynamics of Presences The dynamics among the three presences have not been explored until recently. The dynamics among the three presences have not been explored until recently.

24 PLOT OF ELEMENTS OF CoI OVER TIME (Akyol & Garrison, in press)

25 CP TP SP

26 Categories of Presences The sub-elements (ie, categories) of the presences also develop differentially over time and have practical implications. The sub-elements (ie, categories) of the presences also develop differentially over time and have practical implications. (Akyol & Garrison, 2008)

27 SOCIAL PRESENCE COGNITIVE PRESENCE TEACHING PRESENCE Supporting Discourse EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE Confirming Meaning Setting Climate Beginning of Course

28 SOCIAL PRESENCE COGNITIVE PRESENCE TEACHING PRESENCE Supporting Discourse EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE Confirming Meaning Setting Climate Middle of Course

29 SOCIAL PRESENCE COGNITIVE PRESENCE TEACHING PRESENCE Supporting Discourse EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE Confirming Meaning Setting Climate End of Course

30 Structural Equation Model Using the CoI survey instrument, two studies have explored causal relationships among the presences in the CoI framework (Garrison, Cleveland-Innes & Fung; Shea & Bidjerano, in press) Using the CoI survey instrument, two studies have explored causal relationships among the presences in the CoI framework (Garrison, Cleveland-Innes & Fung; Shea & Bidjerano, in press) The results confirm the theoretical predictions of the framework. The results confirm the theoretical predictions of the framework.

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32 Summary Much more work needs to be done. Much more work needs to be done. Creating and sustaining a collaborative community of inquiry will require an understanding of the dynamics among and within the presences. Creating and sustaining a collaborative community of inquiry will require an understanding of the dynamics among and within the presences.

33 CoI Survey To investigate disciplinary effects thoroughly and to establish generalizable predictors of on- line course effectiveness, greater emphasis on multi-course, multidisciplinary, and multi- institutional studies must become a priority in on-line course research. Arbaugh, 2005, p. 70

34 CoI Instrument Development Dec 2006 – review of CoI research; agreement upon survey items Dec 2006 – review of CoI research; agreement upon survey items Spring 2007 – beta testing; items revised Spring 2007 – beta testing; items revised Fall 2007 – data collected (n=287) across spectrum of courses at four institutions in USA and Canada; factor analysis conducted Fall 2007 – data collected (n=287) across spectrum of courses at four institutions in USA and Canada; factor analysis conducted Two subsequent studies have confirmed these findings (Garrison, Cleveland-Innes & Fung; unpublished; Shea, in press) Two subsequent studies have confirmed these findings (Garrison, Cleveland-Innes & Fung; unpublished; Shea, in press)

35 TEACHING PRESENCE 123 1. The instructor clearly communicated important course topics.0.8260.0880.067 2. The instructor clearly communicated important course goals.0.877-0.0210.046 3. The instructor provided clear instructions on how to participate in course learning activities.0.5920.246-0.035 4. The instructor clearly communicated important due dates/time frames for learning activities.0.6110.0780.040 5. The instructor was helpful in identifying areas of agreement and disagreement on course topics that helped me to learn.0.5790.162-0.138 6. The instructor was helpful in guiding the class towards understanding course topics in a way that helped me clarify my thinking.0.5750.091-0.281 7. The instructor helped to keep course participants engaged and participating in productive dialogue.0.6330.149-0.160 8. The instructor helped keep the course participants on task in a way that helped me to learn.0.5790.042-0.285 9. The instructor encouraged course participants to explore new concepts in this course.0.5230.099-0.233 10. Instructor actions reinforced the development of a sense of community among course participants.0.5690.174-0.176 11. The instructor helped to focus discussion on relevant issues in a way that helped me to learn.0.4250.146-0.374 12. The instructor provided feedback that helped me understand my strengths and weaknesses relative to the courses goals and objectives.0.649-0.123-0.201 13. The instructor provided feedback in a timely fashion.0.513-0.025-0.103

36 SOCIAL PRESENCE 123 14. Getting to know other course participants gave me a sense of belonging in the course. 0.0500.619-0.233 15. I was able to form distinct impressions of some course participants. 0.1720.4730.013 16. Online or web-based communication is an excellent medium for social interaction. -0.1810.674-0.226 17. I felt comfortable conversing through the online medium. -0.0390.8140.015 18. I felt comfortable participating in the course discussions. 0.1090.7880.005 19. I felt comfortable interacting with other course participants. 0.2860.7010.038 20. I felt comfortable disagreeing with other course participants while still maintaining a sense of trust. 0.1030.620-0.034 21. I felt that my point of view was acknowledged by other course participants. 0.3190.5560.025 22. Online discussions help me to develop a sense of collaboration. 0.0470.561-0.340

37 COGNITIVE PRESENCE 123 23. Problems posed increased my interest in course issues.-0.0990.172-0.785 24. Course activities piqued my curiosity.0.0640.070-0.712 25. I felt motivated to explore content related questions.0.082-0.031-0.770 26. I utilized a variety of information sources to explore problems posed in this course.0.078-0.158-0.759 27. Brainstorming and finding relevant information helped me resolve content related questions.-0.1060.130-0.794 28. Online discussions were valuable in helping me appreciate different perspectives.-0.0960.286-0.699 29. Combining new information helped me answer questions raised in course activities.0.1010.043-0.716 30. Learning activities helped me construct explanations/solutions.0.1280.030-0.732 31. Reflection on course content and discussions helped me understand fundamental concepts in this class.0.0080.237-0.640 32. I can describe ways to test and apply the knowledge created in this course.0.239-0.097-0.619 33. I have developed solutions to course problems that can be applied in practice.0.1470.026-0.653 34. I can apply the knowledge created in this course to my work or other non-class related activities.0.171-0.041-0.687

38 The CoI, Age & Level Recently completed study (n = 4397) revealed that age and program level may have an impact on the loading of teaching and cognitive presence on separate factors Recently completed study (n = 4397) revealed that age and program level may have an impact on the loading of teaching and cognitive presence on separate factors Come to Sea Perl 4 at 1:15 on Tuesday to find out more Come to Sea Perl 4 at 1:15 on Tuesday to find out more

39 Conclusion ???? ???? Website Website http://communitiesofinquiry.com/ http://communitiesofinquiry.com/

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