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Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Chapter 8 Organizational Behavior Nelson & Quick, 6 th edition Communication.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Chapter 8 Organizational Behavior Nelson & Quick, 6 th edition Communication."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Chapter 8 Organizational Behavior Nelson & Quick, 6 th edition Communication

2 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Communication Communication - Communication - the evoking of a shared or common meaning in another person Interpersonal Communication - Interpersonal Communication - communication between two or more people in an organization Communicator - Communicator - the person originating the message Receiver - Receiver - the person receiving a message Perceptual Screen - Perceptual Screen - a window through which we interact with people that influences the quality, accuracy, and clarity of the communication

3 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Communication Message - Message - the thoughts and feelings that the communicator is attempting to elicit in the receiver Feedback Loop - Feedback Loop - the pathway that completes two-way communication Language - Language - the words, their pronunciation, and the methods of combining them used & understood by a group of people

4 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Communication Data - Data - uninterrupted and unanalyzed facts Information - Information - data that have been interpreted, analyzed, & and have meaning to some user Richness - Richness - the ability of a medium or channel to elicit or evoke meaning in the receiver

5 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Basic Interpersonal Communication Model Event X Message Context Affect Influence message quality, accuracy, clarity Include age, gender, values, beliefs, culture, experiences, needs ReceiverCommunicator ////////////////// ////////////////// ////////////////// ////////////////// Perceptual screens Feedback

6 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Communication Media: Information Richness & Data Capacity SOURCE: Created by E. A. Gerloff from Information Richness: A New Approach to Managerial Behavior and Organizational Design by Richard L. Dalt and R. H. Lengel in Research in Organizational Behavior 6 (1984); 191-233. Reprinted by permission of JAI Press Inc.

7 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Reflective Listening Reflective Listening - Reflective Listening - the skill of listening carefully to another person and repeating back to the speaker the heard message to correct any inaccuracies or misunderstandings What I heard you say was we will understand the process better if we break it into steps This complex process must be divided to be understood Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

8 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Reflective Listening Used to understand other people Used to problem solve Emphasizes personal elements of communication process Emphasizes the feelings communicated Emphasizes responding to, not leading, the communicator

9 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Reflective Listening: 4 Levels of Verbal Response Affirm Contact Communicates attentiveness Provides reassurance in expressing thoughts and feelings Paraphrase Reflects back to speaker what has been heard; assures accuracy Builds empathy, openness, acceptance Clarify the Implicit Bring out unspoken (but evident) thoughts and feelings Builds greater awareness Reflect core feelings Restate important thoughts and feelings Exercise caution; danger of overreaching

10 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Reflective Listening: 2 Uses of Nonverbal Response Silence Listener: Sort out thoughts and feelings Identify and isolate personal responses Speaker: Useful for thinking Determine how to express difficult ideas or feelings Eye Contact Useful to open a relationship Improves communication Be aware of cultural differences Use moderate eye contact Use times of no eye contact for privacy and control

11 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Communications: 1-way vs. 2-way Two-Way Communication - Two-Way Communication - the communicator & receiver interact Good for problem solving One-Way Communication - One-Way Communication - a person sends a message to another person and no questions, feedback, or interaction follow Good for giving simple directions Fast but often less accurate than 2-way communication Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

12 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Five Keys to Effective Supervisory Communication Expressive speaking Empathetic listening Persuasive leadership Sensitivity to feelings Informative management

13 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Physical separation Status differences Gender differences Cultural diversity Language Barriers to Communication Communication Barriers - aspects of communication content and context that can impair effective communication

14 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Physical separation gateways –Periodic face-to-face interactions –Regular meetings for interrelated units Status differences gateways –Effective supervisory skills –Feelings of security for employees –Non-hierarchical informational technology communication methods Gateways to Communication Communication Gateways – pathways through barriers to communication and antidotes to communication problems

15 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Gender differences gateways –Awareness of gender-specific differences in communication –Actively seek meaning clarification Cultural diversity gateways –Increased awareness and sensitivity –Develop/acquire a guide, map, beacon for understanding and interacting cross-culturally Gateways to Communication

16 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Language gateways –Simple, direct, declarative language –Use brief sentences and terms/words audience uses –Speak in the language of the listener –Avoid jargon or technical language Gateways to Communication Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

17 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Defensive Communication Defensive Communication - Defensive Communication - communication that can be aggressive, attacking and angry, or passive and withdrawing Leads to –Injured feelings –Communication breakdowns –Workplace alienation –Destructive and retaliatory behaviors –Nonproductive efforts –Problem solving failures

18 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Nondefensive Communication Nondefensive Communication - Nondefensive Communication - communication that is assertive, direct, and powerful Provides –basis for asserting and defending oneself when attached in non-defensive way –restores order, balance, and effectiveness in working relationships

19 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Two Defensiveness Patterns Dominant Defensiveness - Dominant Defensiveness - characterized by active, aggressive, attacking behavior Subordinate Defensiveness - Subordinate Defensiveness - characterized by passive, submissive, withdrawing behavior Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

20 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Defensive Tactics - Boss Defensive TacticExample Power Play Finish this report by months end or lose your promotion. Put-Down A capable manager would already be done with this report. Labeling You must be a slow learner. Your report is still not done? Raising Doubts How can I trust you, Chris, if you cant finish an easy report?

21 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Defensive Tactics - Employee Defensive Tactic Example Misleading Information Morgan has not gone over with me the information I need for the report. [Morgan left Chris with a copy of the report.] Scape-goating Morgan did not give me input until just today. Hostile Jokes You cant be serious! The report isnt that important. Deception I gave it to the secretary. Did she lose it?

22 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Nondefensive Communication: A Powerful Tool Speaker seen as centered, assertive, controlled, informative, realistic, and honest Speaker exhibits self-control & self possession Listener feels accepted rather than rejected Enhances relationship building

23 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Communication - Nonverbal Communication - all elements of communication that do not involve words Proxemics - Proxemics - an individuals perception & use of space Territorial space – Territorial space – bands of space extending outward from the body

24 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved c = social 4-12 c b b = personal 1.5-4 Proxemics: U.S. Territorial Space Territorial space differs from culture to culture d d = public >12 a = intimate <1.5 a

25 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Proxemics: Seating Dynamics Seating Dynamics - Seating Dynamics - seating people in certain positions according to the persons purpose in communication Cooperation X O Non- Communication O X O Competition X O X Communication O

26 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Nonverbal Communication Kinesics - Kinesics - study of body movements, including posture Facial & Eye Behavior Facial & Eye Behavior - movements that add cues for the receiver There are no universal gestures Smiles are the only universal expressions

27 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Variations in speech send messages What message is sent by –High-pitched, breathy voice –Rapid, loud speech –Interruptions –Tongue clicking Nonverbal Communication Paralanguage - Paralanguage - variations in speech, such as pitch, loudness, tempo, tone, duration, laughing, & crying

28 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Examples of Decoding Nonverbal Cues Kinesics and Facial and Eye Behavior Boss breathes heavily & waves arms Hes angry! Ill stay out of his way! Boss fails to acknowledge employees greeting Hes unapproachable! SOURCE: Adapted from Steps to Better Listening by C. Hamilton and B. H. Kleiner. Copyright © February 1987. Reprinted with permission, Personnel Journal, all rights reserved. I wonder what hes hiding? No eye contact while communicating Manager sighs deeply My opinion doesnt count Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

29 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Communicative Disease Communicative disease – Communicative disease – the absence of heartfelt communication in human relationships leading to loneliness and social isolation

30 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Positive, Healthy Communication Positive Emotional Competence Personal Integrity Head-to- Heart Dialogue

31 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Information Communication Technology (ICT) Informational databases Electronic mail systems Voice mail systems Fax machine systems Cellular phone systems ICT – ICT – the new technologies used for interpersonal communication Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

32 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Characteristics of ITC Instant exchange of information across geographic boundaries and time zones Schedules and office hours become irrelevant Normal considerations of time and distance less important Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

33 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved How ITC Affects Behavior Impersonal interaction with a machine Flaming, rude or obscene outbursts Bluntness Intimacy Uninhibited behavior Overload potential 24/7 Accessibility Multi-tasking Interpersonal skills tact and graciousness Nonverbal cues; Emotional element Group productivity Clues to power, organizational position, departmental membership Patience Social interaction

34 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Strive for message completenessBuild in opportunities for feedbackDo not anticipate immediate response Is the communication really necessary? Disconnect yourself from technology Provide work place social interactions Tips for Effective Use of ICT

35 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Chapter 8: Reflect & Discuss Patch Adams Video Clip What to Watch for and Ask Yourself What parts of the communication process appear in this scene? Note each part of the process that you see in the scene. What type of communication does this scene show? Small group, large audience, or persuasive? Is Patch Adams an effective communicator? Why or why not?


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