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Section III: Introduction Lesson Delivery that Enhances Learning.

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1 Section III: Introduction Lesson Delivery that Enhances Learning

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3 NCLB pressure: NCLB pressure: resulted in non-strategic instruction

4 5% 10% 20% 30% 50% 75% 90% Pretest-insert rank order from list below: Discussion Auditory/Visual Demonstration Reading to Them Teaching Others Practice by Doing Lecture Triangle of Learning Retention of Learning Rates

5 Triangle Lecture Reading to Them Auditory/Visual Demonstration Discussion Practice by Doing Teaching Others 5% 10% 20% 30% 50% 75% 90% Answers

6 How We Teach Makes A Difference!

7 What This All Means The Most-Effective Teacher Teaches Well-Structured Tasks Adequate Yearly Progress Occurs When There is focus on improving, monitoring, and providing corrective feedback on instruction Build It and They Will Come Achievement will follow

8 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities. Most-Effective Teachers Present smaller amounts of material at any time Guide student practice as students worked problems Provide for student processing of the new material Check the understanding of all students Attempt to prevent students from developing misconceptions

9 Review First Review homework and any relevant previous learning Review prerequisite skills and knowledge for the lesson What Does The Well-Structured Lesson Look Like? J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

10 Beginning: The Presentation State lesson goals or provide outline Present new material in small steps Model procedures Provide examples and non-examples Use clear language Avoid digressions Check for student understanding Teaching Well-Structured Tasks J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

11 Middle: Focus on Guided Practice Spend more time on guided practice High frequency of questions All students respond (to you, to each other) and receive feedback High success rate Continue practice until students are fluent Teaching Well-Structured Tasks J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

12 Teaching Well-Structured Tasks Middle: Corrections and Feedback Provide process feedback when answers are correct but hesitant Provide sustaining feedback, clues, or reteaching when answers are incorrect Reteach material when necessary J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

13 End: Independent Practice Students receive overview and/or help during initial steps Practice continues until students are automatic (where relevant) Teacher provides active supervision (where possible) Routines are used to provide help for slower students Daily, weekly and monthly reviews Teaching Well-Structured Tasks J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

14 More Time: preview, review, elaborate, another way, etc. More Intensity: smaller group allows more focus, more student responding/engagement More Feedback: teacher is able to target instruction, dial in specific needs, prompt elaboration, provide alternate examples, etc. ** this can only be done 1-1 or in small homogenous groups** What works with struggling students? Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice

15 What We Thought: Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice Effective Reading Instruction for Struggling Kids Student with reading difficulties require qualitatively different reading instruction (e.g. reading styles, perceptual training, colored lens, etc.)

16 What We Now Know: National Reading Council Effective Reading Instruction for Struggling Kids Struggling readers are far more successful when carefully taught the same fundamental reading skills all readers must learn BUT with: more instructional time more precisely sequenced instruction more coaching & practice more explicit/direct instruction more careful progress monitoring/program adjustment

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18 Section III. Lesson Delivery that Enhances Learning Topic A: The Lesson Organizer Routine Topic B: Lessons that Work Topic C: Small Group Management Topic D: Simple Teaching and Structuring Techniques Topic E: Co-Teaching and Collaborating

19 Section III: Lesson Delivery that Enhances Learning Topic A: The Lesson Organizer Routine

20 The Lesson Organizer Routine Part of: The Content Enhancement Series Presented with permission from: The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning Lawrence, Kansas For training in this process by California staff, contact

21 Content Enhancement A way of teaching an academically diverse group of students in which: Both group and individual needs are valued and met; The integrity of the content is maintained; For training in this process by California staff, contact

22 Content Enhancement A way of teaching an academically diverse group of students in which: Critical features of the content are selected and transformed in a manner that promotes student learning; and Instruction is carried out in a partnership with students. For training in this process by California staff, contact

23 Some Guidebooks in the Content Enhancement Series Routines for planning and leading learning Course Organizer Routine Unit Organizer Routine Lesson Organizer Routine For training in this process by California staff, contact

24 Other Guidebooks in the Content Enhancement Series Routines for explaining text, topics, and details Clarifying Routine Framing Routine Survey Routine For training in this process by California staff, contact

25 Other Guidebooks in the Content Enhancement Series Routines for teaching concepts Concept Anchoring Routine Concept Comparison Routine Concept Mastery Routine For training in this process by California staff, contact

26 Other Guidebooks in the Content Enhancement Series Routines for increasing performance Quality Assignment Routine Question Exploration Routine Recall Enhancement Routine Vocabulary LINCing Routine For training in this process by California staff, contact

27 Purpose The Lesson Organizer Routine helps students to: Consolidate the main idea of the content into a paraphrase. See how the various parts of the content fit together. Relate the content to their background knowledge. For training in this process by California staff, contact

28 Purpose The Lesson Organizer Routine helps students to: Focus attention on important relationships in the content. Remember important strategies needed for learning. Record a way to organize information for later studying and use. Approach the lesson with a purpose. For training in this process by California staff, contact

29 Supporting Research The Lesson Organizer Routine was studied in secondary content-area classes (grades 7-12) characterized by diversity. In each study, teachers learned the Lesson Organizer Routine easily and student learning gains were observed by both teachers and researchers. For training in this process by California staff, contact

30 Supporting Research In each study, students gained an average of at least 10 to 20 percentage points on tests or tasks that required students to demonstrate learning. Teachers continued using the routine after the studies were completed. For training in this process by California staff, contact

31 Supporting Research These results were achieved when teachers: received 2-3 hours of instruction in the routine had opportunities to discuss the routine with colleagues spent the necessary time to plan and use the routine for more inclusive teaching taught students how to participate in and use the routine used the routine regularly over time For training in this process by California staff, contact

32 Supporting Research In general, the greatest gains were seen in classes where teachers had the highest expectations for student learning and were consistent in their use of the routine over time. For training in this process by California staff, contact

33 Components of The Lesson Organizer Routine The Lesson Organizer Teaching Device TheCRADLE Linking Steps TheCue-Do-ReviewSequence For training in this process by California staff, contact

34 The Lesson Organizer Teaching Device Is a visual device that: is used under teacher guidance focuses attention on critical outcomes identifies critical content features prompts elaboration on critical points helps make relationships concrete For training in this process by California staff, contact

35 The Lesson Organizer Teaching Device Is a visual device that: is designed to enhance student…...organization...understanding...remembering...responses...belief in the value of the content For training in this process by California staff, contact

36 NAME: DATE: Self-test Questions Tasks Lesson Organizer UNIT or BACKGROUND Relationships Task-Related StrategiesLESSON TOPIC is about The Teaching Device: The Lesson Organizer Challenge Question Lesson Map

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38 Ms. Mendez 11/21 The Teaching Device: The Lesson Organizer NAME: DATE: Self-test Questions Tasks Lesson Organizer UNIT or BACKGROUND Relationships Task-Related StrategiesLESSON TOPIC is about Areas of the U.S.Leaders across the U.S. Political Differences Social Differences and included Economic Differences conflicting interests in the way people made a living..... between.... the and the North South West What are the types of economic differences that appear between groups of people in a community? Can tension exist? 1. What were the economic characteristics of the three sections? 2. How did the economic similarities and differences fuel the fires of war? 1.First half of class, discuss as group the economic differences. 2. Second half of class, work in groups to answer the challenge question on page 213 of the text. compare / contrastself-questioning Economic Differences Challenge Question was influenced by emerged because of Differences between the areasEvents in the U.S. was based on became greater with Lesson Map Causes of the Civil War (sectionalism) The Lesson Topic This information helps students focus on the main idea of the lesson. It is usually one or two words long.

39 Relationships This information identifies the most important relationships to look for in the content of the lesson.

40 Task-Related Strategies This information identifies the strategies that students might use to gain, store, or express information and work efficiently to achieve the goals of the lesson.

41 The Unit or Background This information shows graphically how the lesson is related to the unit in which it is embedded.

42 The Lesson Map includes a paraphrase of the topic and shows the lesson content is to be organized. Key words and relationships are included. The Lesson Map

43 The Challenge Question This area presents a question to spark discussion and help students relate to the lesson's content.

44 Self-Test Questions This information provides students with questions they can ask themselves to review the content of the lesson. The questions require the student to think about important relationships in the content.

45 Tasks This information summarizes the required tasks, expectations, or assignments associated with the lessons.

46 The Cue-Do-Review Sequence The overall instructional process that guides use of the Lesson Organizer and CRADLE Linking Steps. This instructional process involves: CUE The teacher announces the Lesson Organizer and explains its use. For training in this process by California staff, contact

47 The Cue-Do-Review Sequence The overall instructional process that guides use of the Lesson Organizer and CRADLE Linking Steps. This instructional process involves: DO The teacher and class collaboratively construct the device using the CRADLE Linking Steps that connect the content to the needs and goals of students. For training in this process by California staff, contact

48 The Cue-Do-Review Sequence The overall instructional process that guides use of the Lesson Organizer and CRADLE Linking Steps. This instructional process involves: REVIEW Information presented in the Lesson Organizer is reviewed and confirmed. For training in this process by California staff, contact

49 "Get Ready?" Decide when to use the routine. Collect needed materials. Construct a draft. A. Specify and name the lesson topic. B. Identify and map unit or background knowledge. For training in this process by California staff, contact

50 "Get Ready?" C.Identify and map critical lesson content and relationships. keep it simple place line labels place relationship labels D. Specify important relationships. E. Generate critical self-test questions. F. Generate learning tasks and assignments. G. Specify task-related strategies. For training in this process by California staff, contact

51 "Get Ready?" Decide when to use the routine. Collect needed materials. Construct a draft. Construct verbal components Select implementation option For training in this process by California staff, contact

52 Lesson Organizer Implementation Options Option 1 Blank forms displayed on an overhead or chalkboard Lesson framework is built from scratch Students construct their own organizer on blank paper Option 2 Blank forms distributed to students Teacher guides the class using a Lesson Organizer form on an overhead or chalkboard For training in this process by California staff, contact

53 Lesson Organizer Implementation Options Option 3 Partially completed forms distributed to students Teacher and students add information Option 4 For a larger amount or complex information: Fully constructed form distributed to students Notes added Questions discussed For training in this process by California staff, contact

54 "Get Set!" Choose lesson material. Introduce the Lesson Organizers. Describe how you will Cue the Lesson Organizer. Describe how you will Do the routine. Explain how you will Review the information. Debrief. For training in this process by California staff, contact

55 NAME: DATE: Self-test Questions Tasks Lesson Organizer UNIT or BACKGROUND Relationships Task-Related StrategiesLESSON TOPIC is about The Teaching Device: The Lesson Organizer Challenge Question Lesson Map Cooperative Learning Group Work Share IdeasExercise Self-Control keeping your cool when you are told that you have done something wrong There are Rules for Do you ever get angry with others when you are working in your cooperative learning group? 1.How do your nonverbal signals affect how others react to you? 2.What are the rules to remember when exercising self-control 3. What are the steps to the Exercise Self-Control Skill?? 1.Demonstrate how to exercise self-control as you work in Cooperative Learning Groups.. 2.Audiotape your group work and turn it in before you leave. sequencing/cause and effect visual imagery Mr. Darters 3/10/93 Offer Help Recommend Changes requires that you... Compliment Others There are Conditions for when to Nonverbal skills for Exercising Self-Control Skill Steps for Exercising Self-Control

56 "Go!" Use the routine explicitly. Use the routine explicitly. Build lessons around organizers. Build lessons around organizers. Close lessons with organizers Close lessons with organizers Evaluate your use of the routine. Evaluate your use of the routine. Be creative. Be creative. Beware of the pitfalls. Beware of the pitfalls.

57 NAME: DATE: Self-test Questions Tasks Lesson Organizer UNIT or BACKGROUND Relationships Task-Related StrategiesLESSON TOPIC is about The Teaching Device: The Lesson Organizer Challenge Question Lesson Map

58 NAME: DATE: Self-test Questions Tasks Lesson Organizer UNIT or BACKGROUND Relationships Task-Related StrategiesLESSON TOPIC is about The Teaching Device: The Lesson Organizer Challenge Question Lesson Map Indirect democracy - USA National government Legislative Branch Congress - the part of government that makes the laws and includes The House of Representatives Getting laws passed in Congress is like having to ask both your science teacher and the history teacher if you can go on the pep club field trip. 1.How are the House and the Senate alike and how are they different? 1.Take notes on the characteristics and responsibilities. 2.Read pages in the textbook. 3. Turn in Lesson Organizer for grading. compare and contrast self-questioning Mr. Stamp 9/29 The Senate Characteristics Responsibilities Characteristics includes Responsibilities State government an Executive Branch a Judicial Branch a Legislative Branch where political power is entrusted to representatives and responsibility is shared (called FEDERALISM) by the made of

59 NAME: DATE: Self-test Questions Tasks Lesson Organizer UNIT or BACKGROUND Relationships Task-Related StrategiesLESSON TOPIC is about The Teaching Device: The Lesson Organizer Challenge Question Lesson Map birds the vertebrate that is built for flight and how it In what ways are birds like airplanes? 1.How have birds adapted for flight? 2. How are birds important to the environment? 1.Read pages for tomorrow. 2. Complete model of a fertilized bird's egg. 3. Each person needs to turn in the answer to questions number 5 on page 218 after Cooperative Study Group work. analogical self-questioning Ms. Chavez 3/10 evolved flight structures life activities its importance Vertebrates Include fishesamphibiansreptilesbirds mammals orders and origins its

60 NAME: DATE: Self-test Questions Tasks Lesson Organizer UNIT or BACKGROUND Relationships Task-Related StrategiesLESSON TOPIC is about The Teaching Device: The Lesson Organizer Challenge Question Lesson Map decimals and Percents how to describe parts of something in different ways by How can a father, a brother, an uncle, and a grandfather be described as one person? 1.How do you change a percent to a decimal? 2. How do you change a decimal to a percent? 3. How do you change a fraction to a percent? 4. How do you change a decimal to a fraction? 5. How do you change a a percent to a fraction? 1. Complete the problems on page 169 in the text. 2. In your math notebook, explain each step of the process that you used in order to complete problem 8 on page 169. sequence dividing and paraphrasing Mr. Washington 11/15 Working with Decimals and word names rounding fractions percents changing percents to decimals changing decimals to percents changing percents to fractions to decimals and visa versa

61 NAME: DATE: Self-test Questions Tasks Lesson Organizer UNIT or BACKGROUND Relationships Task-Related StrategiesLESSON TOPIC is about The Teaching Device: The Lesson Organizer Challenge Question Lesson Map plot the major set of actions in a story such as How are events in your life like a short story? 1. What types of events in a story can lead to conflict? 2. How are rising action and falling action related to the climax of a story? 1. List the components of the plot for the short story on pages Read the story on pages for tomorrow. sequencing/cause and effect paraphrasing Ms. Gaston 11/15 short story setting character point of view plot theme such as exposition (set up) conflictclimaxresolution

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63 Blooms Taxonomy

64 The Feds have authorized me to leave your child behind.

65 Individual Learning Plan

66 Next Steps Section III – Topic A Set the goals for each lesson. Know your material and graphically organize it. Involve students in previewing the structure. Frequently reference your charts before, during, and after the lesson.

67 Next Steps?

68 Section III: Lesson Delivery that Enhances Learning Topic B: Lessons that Work

69 What Does Explicit Engaging Instruction Look Like? I DO IT [gain attention & clearly model [cue students to notice critical aspects of the model [model your thinking step by step as you solve problems - mental modeling/direct explanation Struggling learners need: Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice

70 I DO IT Exposing the non-example Exposing minimal difference Interspersed VS massed practice Struggling learners need: Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice What Does Explicit Engaging Instruction Look Like?

71 Provide Thinking Time; Think Pair (Write) Share Structure/prompt engagement: choral responses if answer/response is short/same partner responses if answer/response is long/different correction/feedback - remodeling, more examples, etc. WE DO IT Struggling learners need: What Does Explicit Engaging Instruction Look Like?

72 YOU DO IT individual responses; oral, written, point/touch/demo coaching students to apply the strategy previously taught Struggling learners need: Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice What Does Explicit Engaging Instruction Look Like?

73 Most-Effective Teachers Know Each Learners Need for Differentiated Instruction Who Knows the Material ? Who Needs More Input ? Who Needs More Background ? Who Needs Elaborated Scaffolds ? Throughout Instruction: Monitor and Assess J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

74 Least-Effective Teachers Test mastery after initial instruction--- in lieu of guided practice Test learning outcomes--- in lieu of independent practice Allow practice of errors through these practices Assessment is Not Instruction

75 Evaluation vs. Grading Comparison to grade level standards (norm referenced; criterion referenced) Comparison to students personal needs, (often criterion referenced or standards from other grade levels) Comparison to teacher expectations for this child, rating attitude, progress, work completion, motivation, etc.

76 But thats not FAIR ! All are entitled to differentiated instruction Never tolerate the teasing of a student who is receiving differentiated instruction or accommodations Fair isnt everyone getting the same thing Fair is everyone getting what they need! Everyone is entitled to a special program for an area in need of improvement, to help improve a skill.

77 Next Steps Section III – Topic B Spend less time on seatwork You do. More time on guided practice We do. Be sure students are ready for You Do Teach students differences between Skill fluency practice Skill mastery assessment

78 Next Steps?

79 Section III: Lesson Delivery that Enhances Learning Topic C: Small Group Management

80 Homogeneous Grouping: Skills-Based Lessons - usually best to group by need e.g.- Word study/Spelling by level - Decoding/guided reading instruction & practice ** Groups need to be flexible/change in a day – fluid as student needs change Grouping: Issues & Options Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice

81 Heterogeneous Grouping: Conceptual/Content-based lessons usually best taught in heterogeneous groups: diverse experience/views etc. enrich the activity e.g. - Science, Social Studies, Core Literature WITH plenty of scaffolded instruction (e.g. Graphics, partners) Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice Grouping: Issues & Options

82 We need BOTH homogeneous AND heterogeneous options -depends on: -the purpose -the subject -the range of prior knowledge Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice Grouping: Issues & Options

83 Elementary Center Management

84 Example: Elementary Center Management 1 - Center Activity: Phonics Game Back-up: fact card review 2 - Center Activity: Finish Art Activity Back-up: Tangrams or List A 3 - Center Activity: Science Projects Back-up: Card Game or Building or Blocks 4 - Seatwork Back-up: Independent Work file or Independent Reading

85 Work Groups

86 Example: Secondary Student Work Groups 1 – Team Activity: Finish Civil War Charts with Partner Back-up: Quiz each other 2 – Individual Activity: Finish President Reports – Individually Back-up: Illustrations 3 – Instruction Activity: Direct Instruction with Teacher Back-up: none 4 – Individual Activity: Do assignment from Direct Instruction Backup: Independent Reading

87 Next Steps Section III – Topic C Consider when to use homogeneous versus heterogeneous groups Make graphic management guides Teach movement in and out of groups Reinforce, reinforce!

88 Next Steps?

89 Section III: Lesson Delivery that Enhances Learning Topic D: Simple Teaching and Structuring Techniques

90 Use Cues to Establish Instructional Control I give an instruction, they do it. Maintain Behavioral Momentum They comply, comply, comply in sequence.

91 Simple Teacher Techniques for Students Participation in Large & Small Groups Choral Responding Every Pupil Active Responding Cross Your Finger Technique

92 Example of Choral Responding: Give Me 5 Eyes – Response: on speaker Ears – Response: listening Body – Response: quiet Hands – Response: still Mind – Response: thinking

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94 Example of Group Re-Orienting without Verbal Cues 3 Claps – 3 Snaps 5 – 4 – 3 – 2 – 1

95 Every Pupil Active Responding YES NO

96 Cross your finger

97 PALS Teams for Reading Comprehension instruction: PALS - Stronger reader reads a paragraph. - Weaker reader prompts.

98 PALS Teams for Reading Weaker reader prompts stronger reader to: 1. Name the Who or What. * identification 2. Tell the most important thing(s) about the Who or What. * elaboration 3. Paraphrase in 10 words or less (paraphrasing straight jacket) * consolidation * continues for 5 minutes then switch roles (new text)

99 Refocusing Off-task Behavior with Positive Verbal Cueing Turtle Technique (for younger students) Radio Station Tuning (for older students) Simple Teacher Techniques for Students

100 Refocus with Verbal Cueing and Icons/Symbols Point to the Rules You Are Following Seatwork Time: Self-Recorded Surprise Points Green/Yellow/Red Behavior Simple Teacher Techniques for Students

101 Point to rules you are following Safe ? Respectful ? Responsible ?

102 Green Talk about anything with anybody Use comfortable voice level Work on anything Choose any activity Sit anywhere

103 Yellow Be productive Talk only with person(s) next to you Talk only about assignment Your talk should help you Your talk should not interfere with your classmates work

104 Red No talking at all Raise your hand, and wait for permission to speak Be patient Yellow and green are coming!

105 The 20-Minute Rule Stand Stretch Move (Teacher specific instruction given) Simple Teacher Techniques for Students

106 Refocusing Physically Active Learners Having Difficulty With Body Motions Occasionally Allow Full-Body or Partial Body Support Recognize that body movement may actually HELP the student maintain focus. Simple Teacher Techniques for Students

107 Next Steps Section III – Topic D Do I use my voice to gain attention too much? Do I need rule teaching for You Do? Example: green/yellow/red Do I follow the 20-Minute Rule?

108 Next Steps?

109 Section III: Lesson Delivery that Enhances Learning Topic E: Co-Teaching and Collaborating

110 Collaborating? Co-Teaching?

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112 Co-teaching/Collaboration When it Works Finding : Outstanding working relationships Finding : Outstanding working relationships Upbeat Upbeat Enjoy each others company Enjoy each others company Respect Respect Ease Ease Trust Trust Carl and Fred! Carl and Fred! Mastropieri, M.A., Scruggs, et al in Intervention in school and clinic volume 40, #5 May 2005

113 Co-teaching/Collaboration Requirements for Success Finding Finding : Both have strengths as motivators Ownership of all claimed by both Enthusiastic Teaching Mastropieri, M.A., Scruggs, et al in Intervention in school and clinic volume 40, #5 May 2005

114 Co-teaching/Collaboration When it Works Finding: Time Allocated for Co-Planning before or after school at lunch formal prep period The lack of scheduled co-planning time did not appear to be a barrier to effective instruction Mastropieri, M.A., Scruggs, et al in Intervention in school and clinic volume 40, #5 May 2005

115 Co-teaching/Collaboration When it Works Finding Finding : Appropriate Curriculum selected Hands-on & Activity based=content becomes more concrete for students Language and literacy demands of tasks thus reduced Mastropieri, M.A., Scruggs, et al in Intervention in school and clinic volume 40, #5 May 2005

116 Co-teaching/Collaboration When it Works Finding Finding : Effective Instructional Skills Lesson framework within lessons Daily review Presentation of new information Guided and independent practice activities Formative review Finding Finding : Effective Behavior Support in place Reinforcement for good behavior and class performance

117 Co-teaching/Collaboration When it Works Finding Finding : For students with Disability-Specific Teaching Adaptations Used Continued collaboration to plan success for students with disabilities in upcoming lessonsevaluation, evaluation e.g., Power-point supplementary reviews Provides oral and pictorial e.g., Reduced written language in test questions

118 Co-teaching/Collaboration When it Works Finding Finding : Expertise in the Content Area general ed= content expert special ed= adaptation expert Teachers deferred to each other during instruction Teachers exchanged roles as presenters of content

119 Co-teaching/Collaboration When it Works---The AHAA! Finding Finding : Co-teaching appeared to be most successful where both co-teachers practiced effective teaching behaviors, e.g., Structure Clarity Enthusiasm Maximizing student engagement Motivational strategies Effective teaching behaviors lead to increased academic achievement AND a greater degree of effective collaboration between the two co teachers Mastropieri, M.A., Scruggs, et al in Intervention in school and clinic volume 40, #5 May 2005

120 Co-teaching/Collaboration When it DOESNT Work Finding Finding : Weak collaboration Finding Finding : Weak working relationships Finding Finding : Teaching styles at opposite ends of a continuum, e.g., structured vs. loose; students adapted, but contributed to deterioration of a working relationship

121 Co-teaching/Collaboration When it DOESNT Work Finding Finding : Belief system differences: disagreements on how to interact with students, deal with behavior Finding Finding : Over emphasis on high stakes testing to the detriment of effective pedagogy i.e., moving on without effective pacing, extra practice, review, hands on practice, etc.

122 Next Steps Section III – Topic E Do I co-teach? Could it happen soon? Can I better articulate our roles?

123 Next Steps?


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