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Assessment and feedback Principles, practice and technologies.

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1 Assessment and feedback Principles, practice and technologies

2 Assessment and Feedback Help clarify good performance Encourage interaction and dialogue around learning Provide opportunities to act on feedback Development of self-assessment and reflection Deliver high quality feedback Encourage time and effort on challenging tasks Give choice of topic, method, criteria, weighting or timing of assessments Click on the shapes to navigate

3 Help clarify good performance (goals, criteria, standards) Do your students understand the assessment criteria that you use? Do they understand the standards required to achieve a particular grade for each criterion or overall? Do you discuss these with them before they start the task? If you do, are the students able to state these in their own words?assessment criteria Research has shown that students who engage with assessment criteria and standards are more likely to be able to manage their own learning. For example, Rust et al. (2003) found that by working with students in their first term on assessment, assessment criteria and marking that there was a significant increase in the marks in the final assessment, compared with students who had not taken part in the exercise. LEARN MORELEARN MORE Return to top

4 Help clarify good performance (goals, criteria, standards) Ways to do this....Technologies that can support this … Provide clear definitions of what is required for each task Provide explicit marking criteria and standards Provide opportunities for discussion and reflection about the criteria and standards before students start the task Students put assessment criteria into their own words Students generate own criteria and standards and compare to staff criteria Provide model answers and opportunities for students to compare their own work against these Explain the rationale for the assessment task Marking exercises where students look at examples of work of different standards from a previous year to identify a rank order and why Wiki Discussion forum Blog MS Office – Word, Excel Audio Screen capture (Jing, Camtasia) Screen capture QuestionMark Perception(QMP) or Personal Response System (PRS) QuestionMark Perception(QMP) Personal Response System (PRS) Resources such as Cite-2-Write Return to top

5 Encourage 'time and effort' on challenging learning tasks Are your assessments designed to encourage students to work in and out of class throughout the semester or year? Can the students see the relevance of the assessment task – is it an authentic assessment? Spreading activities either as discrete pieces of work or building up to make a single piece of work throughout the module brings balance to the student workload and can encourage deep learning. This approach also provides opportunities for ongoing feedback. Even if marks are attached to the individual elements (summative assessment) the activities will also be formative assessments, because students should be able to build on the feedback provided for the next or subsequent stages or elements. Although a particularly useful approach to use with first year students, this can be extended to students in other years. LEARN MORE ABOUT HOW TO DO THISLEARN MORE ABOUT HOW TO DO THIS Return to top

6 Encourage 'time and effort' on challenging learning tasks Ways to do this.... Technologies that can support this … Students complete a number of small summative assessments with regular feedback Group work activities or large assessment broken down into smaller tasks. Progress is monitored and feedback provided in a staged way over the course of the module Get students to set their own schedule for completing an assignment task with milestones. Marks could be awarded if the student delivers as planned and on time Portfolio of activities that is taken in regularly – the activities could become progressively more challenging Regular activities to be completed in class Provide opportunities to practise skills before doing the assessed work Mock exams or provide opportunities for students to do past exam questions with feedback in a safe environment Provide feedback on examinations Staged final year projects – literature review delivered first Have students prepare basic material prior to a session and use the time for more in depth activities Explain the rationale for the assessment task QMP Wiki for group work (QOL or SharePoint) Wiki for group work (QOL or SharePoint) Discussion forum Templates MS Office – PowerPoint with or without narration MS Office – PowerPoint with or without narration Electronic sources (scanned off prints on VLE) Video activities as part of preparation - eg for a lab class how to Video activities as part of preparation - eg for a lab class how to Return to top

7 Deliver high quality feedback What kind of feedback do you provide? How does it encourage students to assess and correct themselves? We all learn from feedback and it is important that students have the opportunity to learn from the feedback provided by staff. That learning, however, may be enhanced by high quality feedback. When students receive poor quality feedback they are less likely to act on it. The issues that students have with feedback include the time it takes to receive feedback after submitting the work, understanding the feedback that has been given – this could be the language used, the handwriting, or not understanding the abbreviated shorthand. or the grade. If students only get a summary sheet are the comments explicit enough for the student to act on them intelligently – eg does a student know what your spelling needs some attention or much of this work was irrelevant mean? Feedback should also be about feedforward - what can the student do next time to improve their performance. LEARN MORE ABOUT HOW TO DO THIS LEARN MORE ABOUT HOW TO DO THIS Return to top

8 Deliver high quality feedback Return to top

9 Provide opportunities to act on feedback One of the issues frequently raised by staff is that students do not use the feedback given. There are a number of reasons why this might be including students perception of feedback coming too late, the module is over, and/or the mark achieved is acceptable to them. Students need to use both formative and summative feedback as a means of improving their future performance. Other than via the next piece of assessed work, do you provide students with opportunities to internalise and act on the feedback given? Equally, students will not be able to action the feedback if they do not understand it – this usually comes down to the terminology used by the assessor. LEARN MORE ABOUT HOW TO DO THIS Return to top

10 Provide opportunities to act on feedback Return to top

11 Encourage interaction and dialogue around learning Dialogue between students and between staff and students plays an important role in student success. Students need to engage in dialogue around feedback. Large first year classes make one-to-one interaction between staff and students difficult, but meaningful dialogue can take place between students. LEARN MORE ABOUT HOW TO DO THIS Return to top

12 Encourage interaction and dialogue around learning Ways to do this.... Technologies that can support this … Structure group projects so that students discuss the criteria and standards expected at the start and then review progress against the criteria Minute papers with questions covering the session – results used at the beginning of the next session Use group work or support learning groups and learning communities Students set task for each other Students set MCQ with feedback to correct and incorrect answers Students discuss the written feedback they have been given with their peers and suggest strategies for future improvement Students bring brief pieces of work to tutorials which are then reviewed by a peer – what is good, what is less good and how can it be improved? Students peer mark or peer review a draft which is then modified in response to the feedback provided Use the PRS to promote debate about the right answer when the results are shownPRS Wiki Discussion forum QMP Groupwork around any multimedia product Return to top

13 Development of self-assessment and reflection If students are to acquire the skills of regulating their own learning and development they need to be able to self-assess their work. Providing students with opportunities to engage with self- assessment in a formal manner is likely to develop more autonomous learners and lead to greater engagement with the criteria and standards. LEARN MORE ABOUT HOW TO DO THIS Return to top

14 Development of self-assessment and reflection Ways to do this....Technologies that can support this … Ask students to complete a self-assessment proforma (using the assessment criteria) – this may include an estimate of the mark (your feedback would identify why there are gaps between the students view and yours) Ask students to indicate the parts of their work which they feel are strengths and weaknesses A combination of the two above Students requesting assistance/feedback on particular aspects (this could be included with the above also) Peer assessment provides an opportunity for a student to engage with the criteria and standards on someone elses work and then apply that to their own Confidence-based marking for MCQs– as well as providing an answer students have to rate how confident they are that this is the correct answer on a scale of 1-3. If the answer is incorrect then the penalty is greater the higher the level of confidence. If the answer is correct the mark depends on the confidence level. Students keep a reflective journal or portfolio through the course Online objective tests and quizzes for self-testing Students include how they have responded to earlier feedback A series of on-line formative tests QMP Wiki Discussion forum Reflective blog Template MS Office - Word MS Office Return to top

15 Give choice of topic, method, criteria, weighting or timing of assessments Being able to manage and prioritise their work is a key graduate skill. Providing students with opportunities to make decisions about which topic to do, when to hand work in, the weighting of an assessment or part of it enables them to practise this skill. For example, students often have a choice of topic to, and some online testing allows them to take the test at some point during a specified period. LEARN MORE ABOUT HOW TO DO THIS Return to top

16 Give choice of topic, method, criteria, weighting or timing of assessments Ways to do this.... Technologies that can support this … Choice of essay titles Choice of topic for extended essay or project/dissertation Negotiated submission dates Students generate criteria for assessment Students provide additional criteria for assessment Students choose the weighting for parts of an assessment Students set their own schedule Wiki Discussion forum Return to top

17 Computer Assisted Assessment Requirements:A QuestionMark Perception (QMP) account BenefitsStudentsStaff Formative and summative assessment online The possibility of immediate and detailed feedback. The ability to question the student right across the curriculum, addressing the full range of learning outcomes. Greater efficiency and reliability as a large number of papers can be marked quickly and consistently. The possibility of immediate and detailed feedback to students. More detailed and immediate analysis of student performance on each question enabling a greater fine tuning of assessment for future use. Tips The literature shows that gradual introduction eg a few short formative tests, and building a bank of tested questions over a period of time before moving to summative assessment is lower risk and less stressful for staff Return to top

18 Video Screen capture with or without audio Requirements: JING or Camtasia JING is free to download and use with up to 5 minutes of video BenefitsStudentsStaff Re-usable resource Personal Able to draw attention to key points even if more detail is provided in the annotations Tips CED has a tablet PC which allows you to write comments over a word document or screenshot and this is available on loan from Several short clips are easier to record and plan Return to top

19 Audio Requirements: Digital voice recorder with ability to save as MP3 files Audacity – free to download – headphones and microphone Smart phone with voice recorder BenefitsStudentsStaff Personal Listen in own space in own time No issues with legibility Improved quality of feedback Students report returning to feedback in this format It can benefit students who have a particular learning style or have difficulty reading or for whom English is not their first language. Students themselves can also be encouraged to produce audio content. This can help to improve their knowledge and enhance their understanding of material, develop communication skills or share ideas and collaborate. More feedback can be given in the time than it takes to type Increased student interest Rewarding Increased efficiency With Audacity able to cut out long pauses With Audacity able to copy and paste comments Tips If you are using this to give feedback and a mark, then give the mark at the end. Students have to listen to get the mark. Return to top

20 Annotated text – can be used in conjunction with video screen capture Requirements: MS Word or equivalent using comments, track changes and Quick Parts BenefitsStudentsStaff Legible comments Comments in line with text Quick Parts remove the need to write the same comment on each paper – just paste in the Quick Part Tips If using Quick Parts build up a statement bank before creating the Quick Parts Return to top

21 Electronic Voting System/Personal Response System (EVS/PRS) Requirements:MS PowerPoint TurningPoint software Access to handsets BenefitsStudentsStaff Allow the lecturer to ask students questions and then get instant feedback on their answers. Participation is lower risk as answers are not identified with individuals, but its use has been seen to encourage greater verbal responses from students and initiate peer-to-peer discussion and debate. Engage students in active learning. Can help to meet the needs of different learning styles. Improved attainment Increased interest Facilitates interaction Allow the lecturer to ask students questions and then give instant feedback on their answers. Engage students in active learning. Gives the lecturer an insight to the students' understanding of key concepts. Provide lecturers and students with instant feedback related to learning and understanding. Provide lecturers with the ability to analyse student responses and use as the basis for class discussion. Check students have noted the main points in prior readings. Ensure student have a clear understanding of tasks and assignments. Improved attendance at more interesting lectures Tips Single best answer questions work well – all options may have some validity but a panel of experts would all be able to justify one answer over the others – such questions are hooks that lead to further discussion and explanations Ask only the questions the learners need ie those that address the learning outcomes or that tease out whether students have mastered a difficult concept – two or three questions are adequate in a 1 hour session. Return to top

22 Narrated presentations Requirements: MS PowerPoint Headphones and microphone BenefitsStudentsStaff Re-usable resource that can be revisited for revision purposes Deliver basic material and know that it is available for all students Frees class time for other activities Tips Return to top

23 Video – of practical activities or lecture Requirements: BenefitsStudentsStaff Re-usable objects Revision Preparatory work before practical or fieldwork – saves time in session Tips Several short clips can be more effective than one longer film Storyboard your content in steps Video that is mainly illustrative is more reusable and can be housed in web templates or placed alongside written resources which provide further explanations and activities. Return to top

24 Wiki/discussion forum/blog Requirements: Wiki and discussion forum via module resource in QOL SharePoint for wiki BenefitsStudentsStaff Class or group sharing of ideas Class or group posting of questions Managing group work Peer feedback Monitoring class or group discussions Feedback to class or group or individual Responding to questions Tips Setting up tutorial Groups in QSIS automatically creates separate discussion and wikis for each group Set up alerts to let you know when content has been added to discussion and wiki areas Too many alerts? - A rule in your inbox can group the alerts into a separate folder that you can monitor regularly Return to top

25 e-Learning templates Requirements:Username and password from the CMS team BenefitsStudentsStaff Re-usable resources Ability to access from a distance Self-testing Delivery of material Frees class time for other activities Tips Return to top

26 QOL assignment tool Requirements:Access to module in QOL BenefitsStudentsStaff Upload assignment in any file format Download feedback Anonymous code if required Upload marked work in any file format Upload feedback in any file format See who has accessed feedback Tips Return to top

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