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Cognitive Development Theory

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Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Development Theory"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cognitive Development Theory
Compiled by Julie Rummings for IDE 621 Knowledge Base Question Index Observation Checklist Learning Sceanrio Reflection References

2 Question Index What is Cognitive Development Theory?
Who was Edward Tolman? Who were the Gestalt Psychologists ? What is Verbal Learning Research? What is the Informational Processing Theory? What are the Contextual Theories? What are the models of human memory? What types of instruction are inspired by this theory? ANSWER ANSWER ANSWER ANSWER ANSWER ANSWER ANSWER

3 What is Cognitive Development Theory?
A learning theory inspired by rationalism that focuses on the internal aspects of learning, such as how people receive, interpret and organize information in memory. (Smith and Ragan, 2005, p.26; Ormrod, 2012, p ) Click Me! Menu

4 Major Theorists Key and Links
Assumptions of… Assumptions of … How a person perceives something is often different than reality Learning is internal, not external Behavior is purposive, and Tolman’s work is often called Purposive Behaviorism You cannot fully understand human experiences when you try to examine each moment separately, aka, “The whole is more than the sum of its parts” Expectations affect behavior Organisms impose structure on experiences Learning results in an organized body of information. Organisms often develop cognitive maps of their environment Gestalt Principles Law of Proximity Law of Similarity Law of Closure Law of Pragnanz Learning involves the creation of memory traces. Major Theorists Key and Links Edward Tolman (Ormrod, p ) LINK Gestalt Psychologists (Ormrod, 2012, p ) LINK Menu

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11 Early Verbal Learning Research
Ideas for… Learning a series of items in a set sequence (i.e. ABC’s, days of the week) Learning pairs of items (i.e. capitals of states) Previous learning can effect learning in other situations (retroactive and proactive inhibition, retroactive and proactive facilitation). Serial Learning Curve – first few items (primacy effect) and last few items (recency effect) are easier to remember Click me! Continued on page 2 Serial Learning * Paired-Associate Learning * Then and Now

12 Verbal Learning Research
Other Major Ideas (Ormrod, 2012, p ) Overlearning Distributed practice vs. massed practice Meaningful, pronounceable, concrete information that can be mentally visualized Humans tend to organize information. Verbatim vs. general idea Click me! Menu

13 Models of Human Memory Dual Store Model Levels of Processing
A model devised by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin that incorporates three structures: sensory register, working memory, and long-term memory. This model is called the “dual store” model because of the assumption that working memory and long-term memory are two separate entities (Ormrod, 2012, p ) Levels of Processing Learning involves a stubborn structure called the central processor, which processes new information in the brain (Ormrod, 2012, p.177). It is responsible for making sure information is retained, but it doesn’t always do its job correctly if the learner does not want to learn. So, some information never makes it to long-term storage (Ormrod, 2012, p.178). Menu

14 Information Processing Theory
Long Term Memory ->

15 Long Term Memory Crossword
Information taken from Ormrod, 2012, p Visual Imagery Internal Organization Elaboration Selection Rehearsal Meaningful Learning Declarative Procedural Conceptual Concept Schema Script Menu

16 Contextual Theories Some theorists believe it is extremely important in studying learning to take into account the learner’s “immediate physical and social environment” (Ormrod, 2012, p.155). The learners environment or context could include physical tools such as calculators and pencils, mental organizational tools such as equations and diagram, or even abstract concepts (Ormrod, 2012, p.155). Menu

17 Types of Instruction Links
Gain attention Reception Inform learners of objectives Expectancy Stimulate recall of prior knowledge Retrieval Present the stimulus Selective Perception Provide learning guidance Semantic Encoding Elicit performance Responding Provide feedback Reinforcement Assess performance Enhance retention and transfer Generalization Menu

18 Learning Scenario Link
Description and Recommendations Learning Scenario Link Menu

19 Observation Checklist
Yes No Not Sure Does the lesson have activities that are designed to attract and keep the students’ attention? Is the content of the lesson organized using concept maps, advanced organizers, tables, or other such tools? Does the instruction incorporate symbols to help learners retrieve the required information at a later date? Are the learners given the opportunity to practice or review the information? Does the lesson incorporate activities that facilitate the recall of prior knowledge? Menu

20 Reflection Menu

21 References Menu

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