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COMPILED BY JULIE RUMMINGS FOR IDE 621 KNOWLEDGE BASE Learning Sceanrio ReflectionReferences Question Index Observation Checklist.

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Presentation on theme: "COMPILED BY JULIE RUMMINGS FOR IDE 621 KNOWLEDGE BASE Learning Sceanrio ReflectionReferences Question Index Observation Checklist."— Presentation transcript:


2 COMPILED BY JULIE RUMMINGS FOR IDE 621 KNOWLEDGE BASE Learning Sceanrio ReflectionReferences Question Index Observation Checklist

3 Question Index What is Cognitive Development Theory? Who was Edward Tolman? Who were the Gestalt Psychologists ? What is Verbal Learning Research? What is the Informational Processing Theory? What are the Contextual Theories? What are the models of human memory? What types of instruction are inspired by this theory? ANSWER

4 What is Cognitive Development Theory? A learning theory inspired by rationalism that focuses on the internal aspects of learning, such as how people receive, interpret and organize information in memory. (Smith and Ragan, 2005, p.26; Ormrod, 2012, p ) Click Me! Menu

5 Major Theorists Key and Links o Edward Tolman (Ormrod, p ) LINK o Gestalt Psychologists (Ormrod, 2012, p ) LINK Assumptions of… Learning is internal, not external Behavior is purposive, and Tolmans work is often called Purposive Behaviorism Expectations affect behavior Learning results in an organized body of information. Organisms often develop cognitive maps of their environment Assumptions of … How a person perceives something is often different than reality You cannot fully understand human experiences when you try to examine each moment separately, aka, The whole is more than the sum of its parts Organisms impose structure on experiences Gestalt Principles Law of Proximity Law of Similarity Law of Closure Law of Pragnanz Learning involves the creation of memory traces. Menu

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12 Early Verbal Learning Research Ideas for… Learning a series of items in a set sequence (i.e. ABCs, days of the week) Serial Learning Curve – first few items (primacy effect) and last few items (recency effect) are easier to remember Ideas for… Learning pairs of items (i.e. capitals of states) Previous learning can effect learning in other situations (retroactive and proactive inhibition, retroactive and proactive facilitation). Serial Learning * Paired-Associate Learning * Then and Now Click me! Continued on page 2

13 Verbal Learning Research Other Major Ideas (Ormrod, 2012, p ) Overlearning Distributed practice vs. massed practice Meaningful, pronounceable, concrete information that can be mentally visualized Humans tend to organize information. Verbatim vs. general idea Click me! Menu

14 Models of Human Memory Dual Store Model A model devised by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin that incorporates three structures: sensory register, working memory, and long-term memory. This model is called the dual store model because of the assumption that working memory and long-term memory are two separate entities (Ormrod, 2012, p ) Levels of Processing Learning involves a stubborn structure called the central processor, which processes new information in the brain (Ormrod, 2012, p.177). It is responsible for making sure information is retained, but it doesnt always do its job correctly if the learner does not want to learn. So, some information never makes it to long-term storage (Ormrod, 2012, p.178). Menu

15 Information Processing Theory Long Term Memory ->

16 Long Term Memory Crossword Visual Imagery Internal Organization Elaboration Selection Rehearsal Meaningful Learning Declarative Procedural Conceptual Concept Schema Script Menu Information taken from Ormrod, 2012, p

17 Contextual Theories Some theorists believe it is extremely important in studying learning to take into account the learners immediate physical and social environment (Ormrod, 2012, p.155). The learners environment or context could include physical tools such as calculators and pencils, mental organizational tools such as equations and diagram, or even abstract concepts (Ormrod, 2012, p.155). Menu

18 Types of Instruction Links Menu Gain attention Reception Inform learners of objectives Expectancy Stimulate recall of prior knowledge Retrieval Present the stimulus Selective Perception Provide learning guidance Semantic Encoding Elicit performance Responding Provide feedback Reinforcement Assess performance Retrieval Enhance retention and transfer Generalization

19 Learning Scenario Link Menu Description and Recommendations

20 Observation Checklist YesNoNot Sure Does the lesson have activities that are designed to attract and keep the students attention? Is the content of the lesson organized using concept maps, advanced organizers, tables, or other such tools? Does the instruction incorporate symbols to help learners retrieve the required information at a later date? Are the learners given the opportunity to practice or review the information? Does the lesson incorporate activities that facilitate the recall of prior knowledge? Menu

21 Reflection Menu

22 References Menu

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