Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 The Behavior Analyst as a Teacher or Supervisor"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 10 The Behavior Analyst as a Teacher or Supervisor Casi M. Healey, MA, BCBACaldwell College
2 Overview Introduction Guidelines : Behavior Analyst as Teacher and/or SupervisorAmerican Psychological Association (APA) GuidelinesNational Association of School Psychologists (NASP): Principles for Professional EthicsSummaryQuestionsReferences
3 Introduction (Bailey & Burch, 2011) After becoming a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA), most become supervisors.Training others is an essential part of the BCBA’s job“Scope of practice”Caution: Do not train behavior change procedures if the procedures may be implemented incorrectlyIndividuals with little training, no advance degrees and/or certificationsOverall, it is the behavior analyst’s responsibility to train and provide follow-up
4 Introduction (Bailey & Burch, 2011) BCBA’s as teachers or instructors:Must outline clear course objectives, requirements, and evaluation proceduresUse behavior analytic principles while teachingRemedial skill training should be recommended if student (or supervisee) does not possess the necessary prerequisite skillsStudy objectives, active responding, frequent testing, and prompt feedback are preferred by students
5 Behavior Analyst as Teacher or Supervisor (Bailey & Burch, 2011) 5.0The behavior analysts delegate to their employees, supervisors, and research assistants only those responsibilities that such persons can reasonably be expected to perform competently.Use judgment when delegating responsibility of particular tasks to assistants or employeesGeneral rule: Observe the individual performing the actual task under close supervision before allowing them to do it on their own
6 Designing Competent Training Programs (5.01) (Bailey & Burch, 2011) Behavior analysts that are responsible for education and training programs need to ensure that supervisory activitiesDesigned competentlyProper experiences are providedThe requirements for certification, licensure, or other program goals are metCourse design is important!Need to provide the necessary experiences to teach behavior analytic skills……Not just lecturing!
7 Limitations on Training (5.02) (Bailey & Burch, 2011) 5.02:Behavior analysts do not teach the use of techniques or procedures that require specialized training, licensure, or expertise in other disciplines to individuals who lack the prerequisite training, legal scope of practice, or expertise, except as these techniques may be used in behavioral evaluation of the effects of various treatments interventions, therapies, or educational methods.Behavior analysts do not train classroom aides or assistants on behavioral procedures without necessary prerequisite skillsData collection is the only exception
8 Providing Course or Supervision Objectives (5 Providing Course or Supervision Objectives (5.03) Describing Course Requirements (5.04) & Describing Evaluation Requirements (5.05) (Bailey & Burch, 2011)5.03The behavior analyst provides a clear description of a course or supervision, preferably in writing, at the beginning of the course or supervisory relationship.5.04The behavior analyst provides a clear description of the demand of the supervisory relationship or course (e.g., papers, exams, projects, reports, intervention plans, graphic displays, and face-to- face meetings) preferably in writing at the beginning of the supervisory relationship or course.5.05The behavior analyst provides a clear description of the requirements for the evaluation of student/supervisee performance at the beginning of the supervisory relationship or course
9 Written objectives should be provided Course (syllabus) Providing Course or Supervision Objectives (5.03) Describing Course Requirements (5.04) & Describing Evaluation Requirements (5.05) (Bailey & Burch, 2011)Written objectives should be providedCourse (syllabus)
11 Providing Feedback to Students and Supervisees (5 Providing Feedback to Students and Supervisees (5.06) (Bailey & Burch, 2011)5.06The behavior analyst provides feedback regarding the performance of a student or supervisee at least once per two weeks or consistent with the BACB requirementsBehavior analyst teachers should provide feedback as often as possible and closely follow performanceBACB requirements should be adhered to during supervision which is once every two weeks
13 Feedback to Student/Supervisees (5.07) (Bailey & Burch, 2011) The behavior analyst provides feedback to the student/supervisee in a way that increases the probability that the student/supervisee will benefit from the feedback.Provide feedback that is:ImmediateIndividualizedPaired with positive reinforcementDescriptivePresented graphically
14 Reinforcing Student/Supervisee Behavior (5.08) (Bailey & Burch, 2011) The behavior analyst uses positive reinforcement as frequently as the behavior of the student/supervisee and the environmental conditions allow.Positive reinforcement can be in the form of:Kind words (“You’re doing a great job”)Behavior specific praise ( “I like how you appropriately faded your manual prompts while teaching tooth brushing”)Choice of work environmentsAssignment to a challenging case
15 Utilizing Behavior Analysis Principles in Teaching (5 Utilizing Behavior Analysis Principles in Teaching (5.09) (Bailey & Burch, 2011)5.09The behavior analyst utilizes as many principles of behavior analysis in teaching a course as the material, conditions, and academic policies allow.Empirically-validated teaching methods should be used throughout the course:Frequent quizzesImmediate feedbackStudy objectivesInteractive teaching strategiesComputer-assisted learning
16 Requirements of Supervisees (5.10) (Bailey & Burch, 2011) The behavior analyst’s behavioral requirements of a supervisee must be in the behavioral repertoire of the supervisee. If the behavior required is not in the supervisee’s repertoire, the behavior analyst attempts to provide the conditions for the acquisition of the required behavior, and refers the supervisee for remedial skill development services, or provides them with such services, permitting them to meet at least minimal behavioral performance requirements.Both parties are aware of the requirements for the supervision experience ahead of timeSupervisor: Explain what will be expectedSupervisee: Describe their current skill setRemediation is required if these don’t matchUnderlying assumption: Supervisee will acquire skills and confidence in behavioral procedures and we DO NOT want them to fail
17 Training, Supervision, and Safety (5.11) (Bailey & Burch, 2011) Behavior analysts provide proper training, supervision, and safety precautions to their employees or supervisees and take reasonable steps to see that such persons perform services responsibly, competently, and ethically. If institutional policies, procedures, or practices prevent fulfillment of this obligation, behavior analysts attempt to modify their role or to correct the situation to the extent feasible.Behavior analyst supervisor is responsible to provide appropriate training opportunities for supervisee to acquire skills in behavioral proceduresEnsure their safetyPossible training in crisis management
18 APA Ethical Principles for Psychologists (APA, 2002) Standard 2: Competence2.01 Boundaries of Competence(a) Psychologists provide services, teach and conduct research with populations and in areas only within the boundaries of their competence, based on their education, training, supervised experience, consultation, study or professional experience.e) In those emerging areas in which generally recognized standards for preparatory training do not yet exist, psychologists nevertheless take reasonable steps to ensure the competence of their work and to protect clients/patients, students, supervisees, research participants, organizational clients and others from harm.
19 APA Ethical Principles for Psychologists (APA, 2002) Standard 2: Competence2.05 Delegation of Work to OthersPsychologists who delegate work to employees, supervisees or research or teaching assistants or who use the services of others, such as interpreters, take reasonable steps to (1) avoid delegating such work to persons who have a multiple relationship with those being served that would likely lead to exploitation or loss of objectivity; (2) authorize only those responsibilities that such persons can be expected to perform competently on the basis of their education, training or experience, either independently or with the level of supervision being provided; and (3) see that such persons perform these services competently
20 APA Ethical Principles for Psychologists (APA, 2002) Standard 7: Education and Training7.01 Design of Education and Training ProgramsPsychologists responsible for education and training programs take reasonable steps to ensure that the programs are designed to provide the appropriate knowledge and proper experiences, and to meet the requirements for licensure, certification or other goals for which claims are made by the program.7.02 Descriptions of Education and Training ProgramsPsychologists responsible for education and training programs take reasonable steps to ensure that there is a current and accurate description of the program content (including participation in required course- or program-related counseling, psychotherapy, experiential groups, consulting projects or community service), training goals and objectives, stipends and benefits and requirements that must be met for satisfactory completion of the program. This information must be made readily available to all interested parties.
21 APA Ethical Principles for Psychologists (APA, 2002) 7.03 Accuracy in Teachinga) Psychologists take reasonable steps to ensure that course syllabi are accurate regarding the subject matter to be covered, bases for evaluating progress and the nature of course experiences. This standard does not preclude an instructor from modifying course content or requirements when the instructor considers it pedagogically necessary or desirable, so long as students are made aware of these modifications in a manner that enables them to fulfill course requirements.(b) When engaged in teaching or training, psychologists present psychological information accurately.
22 APA Ethical Principles for Psychologists (APA, 2002) 7.04 Student Disclosure of Personal InformationPsychologists do not require students or supervisees to disclose personal information in course- or program-related activities, either orally or in writing, regarding sexual history, history of abuse and neglect, psychological treatment and relationships with parents, peers and spouses or significant others except if (1) the program or training facility has clearly identified this requirement in its admissions and program materials or (2) the information is necessary to evaluate or obtain assistance for students whose personal problems could reasonably be judged to be preventing them from performing their training- or professionally related activities in a competent manner or posing a threat to the students or others.
23 APA Ethical Principles for Psychologists (APA, 2002) 7.06 Assessing Student and Supervisee Performance(a) In academic and supervisory relationships, psychologists establish a timely and specific process for providing feedback to students and supervisees. Information regarding the process is provided to the student at the beginning of supervision.(b) Psychologists evaluate students and supervisees on the basis of their actual performance on relevant and established program requirements.**Extra Info**
24 NASP Principles for Professional Ethics (NASP,2000) F. School Psychologist Trainees and Interns1. School psychologists who supervise interns are responsible for all professional practices of the supervisees. They assure children and other clients and the profession that the intern is adequately supervised as designated by the practice guidelines and training standards for school psychologists.2. School psychologists who conduct or administer training programs provide trainees and prospective trainees with accurate information regarding program sponsorships/endorsements/accreditation, goals/objectives, training processes and requirements, and likely outcomes and benefits.
25 NASP Principles for Professional Ethics (NASP,2000) 3. School psychologists who are faculty members in colleges or universities or who supervise clinical or field placements apply these ethical principles in all work with school psychology trainees. In addition, they promote the ethical practice of trainees by providing specific and comprehensive instruction, feedback, and mentoring.4. School psychology faculty members and clinical or field supervisors uphold recognized standards of the profession by providing training related to high quality, responsible, and research- based school psychology services. They provide accurate and objective information in their teaching and training activities; identify any limitations in information; and acknowledge disconfirming data, alternative hypotheses, and explanations.5. School psychology faculty members and clinical or fieldsupervisors develop and use evaluation practices fortrainees that are objective, accurate, and fair.
26 SummaryThe BACB provides specific guidelines for the behavior analyst as a teacher/supervisorReview of APA and NASP guidelines reveal similar ethical standards; however, some appear to be broad and left to interpretationFuture consideration for additional BACB guidelines could include:Failure to be paid for servicesCriteria to become a supervisor
28 ReferencesAmerican Psychological Association. (2002). American Psychological Association ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct.Bailey, J. S., & Burch, M. R. (2011). Ethics for behavior analysts (2nd Expanded Edition). Routledge.Behavior Analyst Certification Board Guidelines for Responsible Conduct (new 4th edition):National Association of School Psychologists Principles for Professional Ethics (2000):YouTube: