2 What is a report?A report is a text written to communicate information Some reports only communicate information, while other reports not only communicate information, but also analyse and evaluate that information.
3 Classification of Reports Information ReportsAnalytical ReportsRecommendation Reports
4 How do reports differ from essays? Reports differ from essays in organisationIn an essay you are required to develop a logical argument in response to a particular question. The intended reader of your essay is your lecturer or tutor. Your lecturer or tutor is interested to see how well you can construct a convincing argument based on sound reasoning and appropriate use of evidence. Usually there are no sub-headings to indicate the structure of an essay. The connection between stages of your argument must be marked very clearly by transition sentences that summarise what came before in order to introduce the next stage of the argument.A reader cannot read some parts of your essay to learn what they want to know. A reader must read your entire essay to understand how well you can argue.
5 In a report you can indicate the structure clearly by using sub-headings for each section. Each section has a distinct purpose. Sometimes the reader may want to read one section of your report only so each section must contain the type of information the reader expects to find in that section. In spite of these differences reports and essays are similar in that the writing must be based on analysis and critical thinking. The expression must be clear and precise and without grammatical error.
6 5 Steps to Report Writing1 Define the problemGather the necessary informationAnalyze the informationOrganize the informationWrite the report
7 Writing Style Brief writing style Use Passive Voice Omit needless wordsCombine sentencesUse appropriate linking phrasesAvoid personalising the language;Express opinions only in the last Recommendations part
8 Report Body Introduction Background/History of the Problem Body Purpose and Scope, Limitations, Assumptions, and MethodsBackground/History of the ProblemBodyPresents and interprets dataConclusions and Recommendations
9 Useful Language for Reports and Proposals Introduction The purpose/intention/aim of this report is to outline / present / discuss / give a brief comment / suggest / sum up the last survey… This report contains the relevant details concerning the problem as required. It is based on the extracts from the questionnaire / the feedback from participants...
10 Findings (Reports)Consideration should be given... It would be prudent / inadvisable / advisable to ... on the grounds that it / owing to the fact that / due to the fact that... I am opposed to the idea of... It would be advantageous to… I suggest that the problem of... can be addressed through... Therefore... For the satisfaction of... the ... should be... Another problem was that... I would strongly recommend... More steps also need to be taken to...
11 Conclusions/Recommendations The obvious conclusion to be drawn from these facts is that...I believe / trust due consideration will be devoted to the fact that…I recommend that …..should be…..
12 Report on transport facilities in the La Spezia area The aim of this report is to give a brief overview of transport facilities in my city, and to make some suggestions for improvements.Main means of transportThe majority of people travel to and from work by car. Only about 10% of adults use buses on a regular basis, most of these being retired people. Another 5% use the bicycle as their main means of transport.Current problemsThis reliance on the car leads to several problems. Firstly, there is a problem of air pollution caused by exhaust fumes. Secondly, there are frequent traffic jams, especially during peak periods. Finally, it is often difficult to find places to park in the city centre.Suggestions for improvementI think a new car park should be built on the outskirts of the city, linked by frequent shuttle buses to the city centre. This would reduce pollution and eliminate traffic jams.In addition, the local authority should encourage the use of bicycles by creating more cycle lanes.Finally, the bus service should be improved by increasing the frequency of buses and adding new routes to those already in place.
13 Writing Paper: Part 2 Task type: Report You have recently attended an English language course at your local school Studio BEST. At the end of the course you were given the following letter:We hope you have enjoyed studying with us. In order to plan future courses we would be grateful if you could write a short report giving us your views of the course. If you have any suggestions we would also like to hear them.Thank you in advance. Anna Możdżeń The PrincipalWrite your report for the Principal (around words)