2 Prior Knowledge Quiz POP!! Raise your hand if….. You have ever been in a classroom that felt “unmanaged”You have established “rules/expectations” in your school/classroom for all kidsYou think the kids in your building know and follow the rules/expectationsYou have established ways to reinforce the rules/expectations
3 Turn and TalkWith your neighbor, talk about your current classroom or school-wide rules/expectations3
4 Outcomes Identify the evidence based practices in classroom management Reflect on the practices currently in place in your school/classroom systemConsider strategies to set and reinforce schoolwide/classroom expectations
6 What the Research Says about Classroom Management Linked to success (academic and behavior)Prevention of escalation/problems among “at-risk”Supports all students in preventionScreams “This classroom is SAFE” to allSpeaks of positive school climates(Aber et al., 1998; Mitchell, Bradshaw & Leaf, 2009)Teachers experience greater efficacyIncreased student achievementCreative and flexible instructional deliveryTeacher longevity (Woolfolk, 2002)The rationale for the study really goes back to the belief that Schools can either inhibit or foster the development of behavior problems in students. There is a great deal of literature showing that classrooms with poor behavior management produce negative students outcomes. In fact, the number of students considered at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders have been linked to classroom organization and behavior management. Further, research supports that students in poorly managed classrooms are not only at risk for current behavior problems while in that classroom, but they are at greater risk for future behavior problems. For instance, Kellam…….1998 randomly assigned students to first grade classrooms either receiving a classroom management intervention or not (the Good Behavior Game) and they found that boys that were poorly managed were significantly more likely have behavior problems in sixth grade than similar boys in well managed classrooms. Further, these students are being followed and they are in their 20’s. They are finding that students in the first grade classroom who received the classroom management are less likely to be diagnosed with CD or antipersonality disorder. So, simply intervening and providing effective classroom management in 1st grade reduced long term negative outcomes. Therefore, finding ways to increase effective behavior management practices in the classroom is paramount.
7 Teacher Evaluation & Environment Domain 2: Classroom EnvironmentComponent 2a: Creating an Environment of Respect /RapportTeacher interaction with studentsStudent interactionComponent 2b: Establishing a Culture for LearningImportance of the contentStudent pride in workExpectations for learning and achievementComponent 2c: Managing Classroom ProceduresManagement of instructional groupsManagement of transitionsManagement of materials/suppliesPerformance of non instructional dutiesSupervision of volunteers and paraprofessionalsComponent 2d: Managing Student BehaviorExpectationsMonitoring of student behaviorResponse of student misbehaviorComponent 2e: Organizing Physical SpaceSafety and arrangement of furnitureAccessibility to learning and use of physical resources
8 To Manage Your Classroom Evidence Based PracticesTo Manage Your Classroom
9 Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management 1. Maximize structure in the classroom.2. Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations.3. Actively engage students in observable ways.4. Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior.5. Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior.(Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, & Myers Sugai, in preparation)
11 CHAMP’s - My Expectations C – can you talk?Honest, out loud and on topicCells phoneSide commentsH - How to get Help?Questions are GOOD! Raise handTalk to neighbor quietlyA – What about Activities?Minimal today due to timeM – can you Move?Quietly – yes!P – How will I know you are Participating?SLANT:Sit up, Lean forward, Activate your thinking, Note important info, Track the talker
13 Secondary Prevention: RtI/PBISTertiary Prevention:SpecializedIndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk Behavior5%Primary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & Settings15%Secondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk Behavior80% of StudentsOSEP Center on Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports;
14 A Look at School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems ClassroomSetting SystemsNon-classroomSetting SystemsIndividual StudentSystemsSchool-wideSystems
15 Why PBIS? Why not whip them into shape? In the past our beliefs about behavior management systems were punitive. We believed that students should know how to be “good” and that students who were “bad” needed to be punished. We believed that the threat of punishment was sufficient to cause students to be “good”. Many of us believed that we should not have to reward students for being good as they were only doing what they were supposed to do and that rewarding good behavior was just bribing them.
16 Expectations/Rules are “Universal” Primary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & Settings80% of StudentsUNIVERSALOSEP Center on Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports;
17 Classroom OR Schoolwide? School wide are overarchingEveryone – Every placeThink “BIG PICTURE”Classroom linked to School wideMy kids – specific settingsSpecific, Observable, MeasureableOften referred to as “Rules” in PBISAs a team, how will you work to make all classrooms effective setting?Melding classroom practices to promote academic gains with classroom with classroom practices to promote behavioral gainsLink classroom to school-wide through:School-wide expectationsClassroom vs. office managed rule violationsFocus on classroom settings if:More than 50% of referrals are from classroom settings
18 Where to Focus? Data is the KEY! Focus on _______ systems if: More than 60% of referrals are from _____ settingsLook specifically at classrooms if:50% or more of ODRs (office discipline referrals) come from less than 10% of the classrooms
19 Focusing on Setting Clear Expectations will. . . Improve general classroom and school climateDecrease dependence on reactive disciplinary practices (ODR’s)Maximize impact of instruction to affect academic achievementImprove behavioral supports for students with emotional and behavioral challengesThis is a great use of analyzing data to drive your decision making, when more than 50% of the referrals are coming from the classroom setting
20 Expectations: Guiding Principles Good teaching is one of our best behavior management toolsActive engagementPositive reinforcementPre-correctionWe know that the use of best practices will lower the incidence of problem behaviors
22 Just A Word About Structures EnvironmentRoutinesThink of your favorite store.What is it you like about it?Why do you keep going back?
23 Maximize Structure in Your Classroom. Develop Predictable RoutinesTeacher routines: volunteers, communications, movement, planning, grading, etc.Student routines: personal needs, transitions, working in groups, independent work, instruction, getting, materials, homework, etc.Design environment to (a) elicit appropriate behavior and (b) minimize crowding and distraction:Arrange furniture to allow easy traffic flow.Ensure adequate supervision of all areas.Designate staff & student areas.Seating arrangements (groups, carpet, etc.)SEE HANDOUT (Kagan)
24 Design A Positive Environment Four instances of praise for every correction (4:1) minimumBegin each class period with a celebrationYour first comment to a child establishes behavioral momentumProvide multiple paths to success/praise
25 2. Post, Teach, Review, Monitor, and Reinforce a Small Number of Positively Stated Expectations Establish behavioral expectations/rulesTeach rules in context of routinesPrompt or remind students of rule prior to entering natural contextMonitor students’ behavior in natural context & provide specific feedback.Evaluate effect of instruction - review data, make decisions, & follow up
26 1. Classroom Expectations & Rules Identify, Teach, Practice, Reinforce1. Classroom Expectations & RulesOne of the things we want to emphasize is the importance of good classroom systems.We do this because we know…building effective classroom systems will reduce the number of students who require more intensive support.Today we are looking specifically at classroom expectations and rules.
27 What are Expectations & Rules? Expectations are outcomesRules are the specific criteria for meeting expectationsRules identify/define concepts of acceptable behaviorUse of expectations and rules provides a guideline for students to monitor their own behavior & remind/motivate students to meet certain standardsTo correctly establish classroom rules we need to understand some specific vocabulary.Although they are associated, expectations and rules are not the same.Expectations are the outcomes we want to get. For example, we want students to be Safe, to be Respectful, to be a Learner, to be Responsible. These are expectations or outcomes.Rules are how we get to those outcomes. Rules are specific, they define what we want students TO DO and they provide a consistent guideline for how to meet the standards of our expectations.You have already identified the expectations for your school. You have used those expectations to create rules for non-classroom settings- these are on your matrix. Our focus today is using school wide expectations to identify individual classroom rules.For example, what does it mean to be Safe in Mrs. Anderson’s kindergarten classroom? Or what does it mean to be Respectful in Mr. Smith’s PE class?Again, expectations are the outcomes we want for students and you’ve already identified those on your matrix. Rules are the specific criteria for meeting those expectations in each classroom within your building.(Newcomer, 2008)
28 Guidelines for Writing Classroom Rules Consistent with school wide expectations/rulesObservableMeasureablePositively statedUnderstandable/Kid friendlyClassroom expectations and rules must be consistent with schoolwide expectations and rules. School rules are in effect in the classroom. What we identify as classroom rules are additional, extra or specific to the classroom setting – anything not already covered by the schoolwide rules that you want in effect in your classroom.To enhance the effectiveness of classroom rules, 5 guidelines need to be considered.Classroom rules need to be written in observable measurable terms. Observable means, “I can see it”Classroom rules also need to be written in Measurable terms. Measurable means, “I can count it”Third, just as we do with schoolwide and non-classroom rules… classroom rules should be positively stated. Positively stated rules encourage the desired behavior. This means telling students what we want them TO do.Fourth, classroom rules need to be understandable. Rules are stated so students clearly understand what is meant. Vocabulary should be consistent with student’s grade and/or ability level (ie “use school appropriate language” might be ok at the middle school level, but perhaps is not understandable for a kindergarten classroom)The last guideline for writing classroom rules is…Always applicable. Rules should be based on problems which typically occur and they should not vary or change within the same setting.(Newcomer, 2008)
29 Guidelines for Writing Classroom Rules Always applicable- Intend to consistently enforceA small number 3-5No “Dead Mans Rules”Posted Clearly
30 Other Considerations… Students play a role in formulating rulesRules displayed prominently; easily seenTeacher models and reinforces consistentlyRules that are easily monitoredOther ideas to consider…Students should be given an opportunity for input about classroom rules. This increases the likelihood they will know and follow the rules.Classroom rules should be posted so they are easily seen. This serves as a reminder to students AND increases the likelihood teachers will teach, model, refer to and reinforce the rules.Rules should be manageable and not require excessive time to hold students accountable.
32 Expectations and Rules Example… Expectation is:“Students will be Safe”Rules are…Keep hands and feet to selfUse materials correctlyHere’s an example of Expectation and rules…
33 Which of These Follow the Guidelines? Keep hands and feet to yourselfTurn in completed assignmentRespect othersWalk in the hallwaysDon’t runTurn to a partner. Talk and decide… which of these statements meet the 5 guidelines for writing rules? Remember, to be considered a “rule,” the behavior must be observable, measureable, positively stated, understandable, and always applicable.Answers:Keep hands and feet to yourself (good)Turn in completed assignment (good)Respect others (not observable, measureable, understandable)Walk in the hallways (good)Don’t run (isn’t positively stated)(Newcomer, 2008)
34 Turn and TalkDo the rules you mentioned to your partner earlier meet these criteria?
35 Establish Behavioral expectations/Rules Operationally define what the rules look like across all the routines and settings in your classroom.One way to do this is in a matrix format.
36 Elementary School’s Matrix HallRulesCafeteriaRecessBe safeKeep hands, feet & objects to self.Keep all food to self without sharing.Use equipment safely.Follow game rules.Be preparedHave planner signed.Have lunch money ready.Be dressed out & in place on time.Be respectfulUse polite language at a respectful volumeFace forward & keep the line moving.Use polite language and respectful tone of voice.ExpectationsThis matrix is incomplete (2 expectations and 3 settings are missing) due to space limitations on the slide. A completed matrix could be developed for the handout packet OR spaces for the other expectations and settings could be left blank for the culminating activity. (See notes under the activity slide.)It is good to remind teams that every expectation does not need to have a rule attached to it for every setting. Some rules may all fall under 1-2 expectations in a given setting.3636
37 Establish Behavioral expectations/Rules Close your eyes and visual your perfect classroom on a perfect day. What do you want to see and hear?Open your eyes. Write down the four most important things you saw and heard.Transfer the behaviors to a sample classroom matrix.
38 Rules within Routines Matrix ExpectationsEntering ClassroomSeat WorkSmall Group ActivityLeaving ClassroomBe SafeBe RespectfulBe ResponsibleBe An Active LearnerRULES
39 Teach Rules in the Context of Routines Teach expectations directlyDefine rule in operational terms—tell students what the rule looks like within routineProvide students with examples and non-examples of rule-following within routineActively involve students in lesson- game, role-play, (assess their understanding)Provide opportunities to practice
41 (How to ask for assistance for difficulty tasks) “Cool Tool”Skill NameGetting Help(How to ask for assistance for difficulty tasks)Teaching Examples1. When you’re working on a math problem that you can’t figure out, raise your hand and wait until the teacher can help you.2. You and a friend are working together on a science experiment but you are missing a piece of lab equipment, ask the teacher for the missing equipment.3. You are reading a story but you don’t know the meaning of most of the words, ask the teacher to read and explain the word.Kid Activity1. Ask 2-3 students to give an example of a situation in which they needed help to complete a task, activity, or direction.2. Ask students to indicate or show how they could get help.3. Encourage and support appropriate discussion/responses. Minimize attention for inappropriate responses.After the Lesson(During the Day)1. Just before giving students difficult or new task, direction, or activity, ask them to tell you how they could get help if they have difficulty (precorrection).2. When you see students having difficulty with a task (e.g., off task, complaining), ask them to indicate that they need help (reminder).3. Whenever a student gets help the correct way, provide specific praise to the student.
42 Expectations & behavioral skills are taught & recognized in natural context
43 Prompt or Remind Students of the Rule Provide students with visual prompts (e.g., posters, illustrations, etc).Use pre-corrections,verbal remindersbehavioral rehearsalsdemonstrationssocially appropriate behaviors when or before settings were problem behavior is likely” ~ Colvin, Sugai, Good, Lee, 1997Get in, Prompt/Correct, and GET OUTThink “Drive-by prompting”
44 Monitor Students’ Behavior in Natural Context Active Supervision (Colvin, Sugai, Good, Lee, 1997):Move aroundLook around (Scan)Interact with studentsProvide reinforcement to those following rules.Catch errors early and provide specific, corrective feedback to students who are not following rules.Think about how you would correct an academic error
50 Establish a Continuum of Strategies to Respond to Inappropriate Behavior. Be clear about what behaviors are to be dealt with in the classroom vs. those that should be sent to the office
51 Evaluate the Effect of Instruction Collect dataAre rules being followed?If there are errors,who is making them?where are the errors occurring?what kind of errors are being made?Summarize data (look for patterns)Use data to make decisions
52 What is happening between 10 am and noon? What about after 4 pm….what is going on there?
57 RECAPMaximize structure in the classroom.Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations.Actively engage students in observable ways.Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior.Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior.
58 Why Set Expectations and Reward Positive Behaviors? You get more of what you focus on.Reinforcement works.Do you think they taught Shamu how to do what they wanted by telling him he was a bad boy if he didn’t do what we wanted? Do you think lion and tiger shows use discipline to get the animals to do what they want? You can never have enough enforcement, students must agree to behave in an appropriate manner and they will do this if they know what is expected and receive positive feedback. If you focus on the negative and ignore the positive you will get more of what you focused on.