Presentation on theme: "Why do we process certain Information when other stimuli passes us by."— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction to Memory C:\Documents and Settings\fac6l170\My Documents\My Videos Why do we process certainInformation when other stimulipasses us by.We will be looking atShort term memoryLong term memory
3The difference between STM and LTM CapacityDurationEncodingForgettingSTMVery limited(7 items)Mainly acoustic(By sound)MainlyDisplacementLTMUnlimited(A lifetime)Mainly semantic(By meaning)Interference
4Evidence for separate stores Brain Damage: Shows some people lose theAbility of one type of memory but not the other.Case Study of Clive WearingSTM damaged, but some of LTM intactWhat aspect of Clive Wearing’s memory remained fully intact?
5Evidence For separate stores The Case of H.M. (Milner, 1966) – STM damaged, LTM intactHypothalamus Removed“Some aspects of H. M.’s memory remained intact. He could, for example, learn basic motor tasks, but had to be reminded that he knew how to perform them!
6QuestionsOutline the evidence for a division between STM and LTM (2 marks)Explain how studies of Brain Damage can support the argument for a division between STM and LTM (2 marks)Give one criticism when using studies into Brain Damage (2 marks)
9Check your Capacity in STM Write down 8 strings of numbers first with three numbers then add one more for each following string E.g. 265,2768, …and so on. Use different numbers each timeIn pairs : One person read out your no’s while your partner writes them down immediately after hearing them.Now swap roles. Note down your scores
10Results of your STM1: What is your score ( this is the longest strip of numbers you recalled )2: The class mean =STM suggested capacity (Jacobs, 1887 and Miller, 1956) is 7+/-2
11We call this ‘Digit Span Technique’ Jacobs carried out this study (1887) and George Miller repeated this (1957) with similar findings, naming his study “The Magical Number Seven”Capacity in STM = 7 +/- 2 digitsMiller believed it was the numberof chunks of information that wasimportant
12Miller termed this: Chunking C B T U O D S A G I L E P N GCBT UOD SAG ILE PNGCAT SUN LEG DOT PIGShowing that capacity can appear to increase by chunking
13Measuring the Capacity in STM Simon (1974): arguedThat it depended on the sizeof the chunks. Small chunksMore capacity, larger chunkssmaller capacity.
14Factors Affecting Capacity: Rehearsal and storage in LTM: This will increase the capacity for STMReading digits aloud:Strengthens memorytracePronunciation time:Lower capacity forArabic words than English asthey take longer to pronounce
15Real Life ApplicationBaddeley discovered that e can chunk information, better if we using meaning at the beginning and then alternated using numbers and letters together.i.e SW6 8PQ = South West London then some random numbers between more letters.
16Questions2) Outline one characteristics of short-term memory (2 marks)3) Outline one study supporting the capacity of STM (2 marks)4) Give one criticisms of the above study (2 marks)
20This time after you have looked at the words This time after you have looked at the words. You need to count back in 3’s from 100Velvet VillageStomach CarpetFlower FavourGossip LawfulChamber StartedSandalWarehouse
21Studies in Duration Peterson and Peterson (1959) found that when participantswere given a 3-second intervalthey could remember 90% of data.However, when there was an18- second interval retentionreduced.
22Methodological Issues Laboratory study using Repeated measures…1. In groups, criticise this study(use your researchmethods terms)
23Factors Affecting Duration in STM Rehearsal: increases duration.Intention to recall: When we areunder pressure to remember.Relevance of information: - is theinformation important to you?
24Duration in LTM It is generally accepted that LTM lasts a lifetime. Bahrick et al (1975)tested memory andfound that after 34 yearsmemory was good, butafter 47 years there wasa decided dip.
25Factors affecting duration in LTM Feedback around the room:Cues in experimentsDepth of learningPattern of learningNature of Material to be learned
26Factors affecting duration in LTM Cues in experiments: Cues (things that remind us) help recall, example recognition tasks were higher than recall tasks.Depth of learning: The more time spent learning, the longer information stays.Pattern of learning: Spaced out learning hold longer than intensive learningNature of Material to be learned: Meaningful information is better retained
27True or False? (duration) 1. The less time spent learning, the longer information stays.2. It is generally accepted that LTM lasts a lifetime.3. Rehearsal: increases duration in LTM4. Spaced out learning hold longer than intensive learning5. The relevance of information to us is not important6. We remember the same amount of information whether we are given cues or not
28True or False ANSWERS1. The less time spent learning, the longer information stays: FALSE2. It is generally accepted that LTM lasts a lifetime: TRUE3. Rehearsal: increases duration in LTM: FALSE (IT IS TRUE FOR STM)4. Spaced out learning hold longer than intensive learning: TRUE5. The relevance of information to us is not important: FALSE6. We remember the same amount of information whether we are given cues or not: FALSE (CUES HELP US REMEMBER)
29As stimuli reaches memory it is in it’s raw form. i. e As stimuli reaches memory it is in it’s raw form. i.e. a visual picture or a sound It is believed that STM and LTM have different methods of encoding informationEncoding
303 Main Types of Encoding Acoustic: The sound of the stimulus Visual: The physicalappearance of the stimulusSemantic: Themeaning of the stimulus
31Task: In pairsExplain how you could adapt your notes from class so that they are in an:Acoustically memorable formVisually memorable formSemantically memorable form
32Acoustic Coding in STM B G C T D V Conrad ran a number of tests. Write these letters down in the correct serial orderAcoustically similarB G C T D V
33Second Condition. J G X M S F Acoustically dissimilar Now write these letters down in the correct serial orderJ G X M S F
34Conclusion Conclusion: Conrad believed that we must convert information FLOWERthat is visual into acousticto store it in STMTherefore, participants were confused when faced with lettersthat sounded the sameMethodology: A little low in validity, not everyday chore to place letters in order
35Evidence for Encoding: STM and LTM Baddeley suggested STM used Acoustic coding because we confuse acoustically similar wordsHe also found that words thatwere similar in meaningwere poorly recalled in LTM.
36Evidence for Encoding: Baddeley Method: Baddeley gave participants lists of words that pertained to either one of these categories: accoustically similar, accoustically dissimilar, semantically similar, and semantically dissimilar.Participants were tested on immediate recall and on delayed recall.
37Baddeley’s lists List A AS: Mad, map, mad, mat, cad, cap, cat. List B AD: pen, cow, pit, sup, day , wet, ranList C SS: tall, high, broad, wide, big, large, fatList B SD: foul, thin, late, safe, strong, back, look
38Evidence for Encoding: Results:Immediate recall showed that the most confusion arose between the acoustically similar words as opposed to the words that were acoustically dissimilar. There was no difference in recall for the semantically similar and dissimilar words.In the delayed recall test, the most confusion arose between semantically similar words as opposed to words that were semantically dissimilar. There was no difference in recall for the acoustically similar and dissimilar words.
39TaskWrite a conclusion for Baddeley’s study into encoding, describing what can be concluded about encoding in STM and LTM. (4 marks)Explain one criticism of Baddeley’s lab study (2 marks)
40Evidence for different Encoding Conrad (1964) foundthat STM used acousticcoding.
41Multi Store ModelAtkinson and Shiffrin (1968) created The information-processing system to help explain how memory works
42What is a Model ? Psychologists have used flow charts to try and explainhow memory worksInformation-processingsystems are similar to theworkings of acomputer.There is a temporarystore, a STM and LTM store. Temporary store = buffer on a computer
43The Multi Store Model Stimulus input Attention Rehearsal Sensory memory STM LTMVisual, auditory Acoustic coding semantic coding‘Haptic’ coding limited capacity Unlimited capacityLimited capacity brief duration Unlimited durationVery brief durationRehearsal Loop
44Evidence for a distinction between STM and LTM Glanzer and Cunitz (1966): When participants were distracted they lost the recency effect but not the primacy effectLong term memory:The Primacy effect( beginning of a word list)Short term memory:Recency effect( the end of a word list)Their work showed thatthere was a differencebetween STM store and LTM store
45Evaluating Glanzer and Cunitz (1966): Laboratory studies: ?Validity: ?
46Weaknesses Different types of information: Some data is a lot more excitingand therefore easier to remember.It’s not always about how much!Repetition vs Semantic:Craik and Lockhart found thatinformation is remembered betterif it is processed with meaningrather than simple rehearsal.
47Weaknesses Flashbulb memory: This supports Semantic inputting Kulik and Brownargue that shocking eventsare imputed without rehearsal.Linear: Ruchkin (1999)Information in LTM helpsto improve recall from STM.(words with meaning vs wordswithout)
48Weaknesses Brain Damage: It has been shown that people with damaged STM do not necessarily haveimpairment to their LTM.Artificial Experiments: Laboratoryexperiments do not necessarilyshow us how we behave in thereal world.
49The Working Memory Model Baddeley and Hitch believe that memory is much more complex than the Multi-story model suggests. They focused on short-term memory as an active process with different components
50The Working Memory Model Baddeley and Hitch believed thatthere was more than one componentto STM.One for information that we hearOne for information that we see.Therefore we can do two tasksat once, i.e. driving a car andhaving a conversation at the same timeattention test - Google Video
52The Working Memory Model There are three different componentsThe Central Executive: Responsible for all the processing and attention tasks.The Phonological Loop: The temporary storage system for verbal information.The Visuo-spatial sketchpad: The temporary storage system for visual information
54This part of the loop holds Phonological store:This part of the loop holdsthe words you hear, likean inner ear.Articulatory control system:This is where words are silentlyrepeated or rehearsed, like aninner voice.
55Evidence for Working Memory Baddeley et al ran numerousexperiments and found evidenceto support the existence of the Phonological loop, the Visuo-spatial sketchpad and the Central Executive
56Evidence for the Visuo-Spatial Baddeley et al (1973) showed two tasksF H L Task one: identify the angles on a letterTask two: Follow a spotlightThey could not do both tasks together.They could do one visual task andone auditory task.This shows that there is a differencebetween the phonological loop and the visual-spatial sketchpad
57Evidence for the Phonological loop Baddeley et al (1975): presented lists of wordsWith one syllable: Harm, Wit, TwiceWith multi syllables: Organisation, UniversityIt takes longer to say multi syllable word, therefore participant remembered more single syllable wordsThis shows that we remember information by listening to the word in our heads. Shorter words take shorter time to rehearse
58Strength and Weaknesses of Working memory. This model is generally accepted throughout the psychological world. It has a much more in-depth and logical interpretation of STM
59WMM Information TasksRead and highlight the information on the WMM and as a group summarise 10 key pointsExplain one case study and two lab studies that support the WMM.Identify a criticism of each of the above research methodsExplain two weaknesses of the model (4 marks)
60Evidence for the Central Executive Some evidence from Neurological investigation shows that brain activity is increased when doing two tasks that require attention and rehearsal.It is difficult to test the existence of a central executive.There has been limited evidence given and this is one of the weaknesses of this theory
61Lesson ObjectivesUnderstand the concept that eyewitness testimony is not always reliable.Know the procedures of experimental research into eyewitness testimonyUnderstand Reconstructive Memory
62How accurate do we recall details of events witnessed. Eye Witness TestimonyHow accurate do we recall details of events witnessed.
64Misleading Information Loftus discovered that a problem we have in recalling events often comes from stimuli experienced after the event.Participants wereShown aVideo clip of acar accident.misleadinginformationCaused errorsin recall
65Loftus’ Experiments Experiment 1: After watching the car .Experiment 1: After watching the carCrash Participants were askedhow fast the car was going.Some questionnaires said how fastWas the car going when it hit othersothers used the word smashed orContacted instead or hit.Experiment 2: Students were shown aVideo of a multiple car crash. One weekLater they were brought back and askedWas there any broken glass? Again usingThe various verbs; hit, smashed, or contacted
66The Results of Both Experiments .VERBMEAN ESTIMATE OF SPEED (mph)Smashed40.8Collided39.3Bumped38.1Hit34.0Contacted31.8Results – Experiment 1How fast was the car going?Results – Experiment 2Did you see any broken glass?ResponseSmashedHitControlYes1676No344344
67Discussion Response Bias: critical words bias a person’s response. Memory is altered: The criticalword changes a person’s memory.Reconstructive memoryInformation processing for an event:1: The person’s own perception, during the event2: Information supplied after the event
68Demand Characteristics Participants might have guessed the aim of the experiment and changed their behaviourTo reduce demandcharacteristics Loftusoffered money toparticipants who gotThe recall correct.Despite this incentiveover 70% still gotthe recall details wrong.Black et al
69Methodology and Ethics Laboratory experiments are high in reliability.Although films of real eventswere shown participants wouldhave experienced thingsdifferently if they had beenpresent at the car crash.Lack of validity/ emotionalresponseEthics: Participants weredeceived therefore debriefingwould be necessary afterwards
71Schemas Schema: Is our Preconceived ideas about certain experiences. i.e. eating in a restaurantTuckey and Brewer (2003)did an experiment on ourideas about bank robbersParticipants recalled moredetails if they were in line with their schema of such events.
72Anxiety Loftus and Burns (1982) found that high levels of anxiety negatively effectmemory.When people witnessed aMan with a knife coveredin blood leaving a roomIdentification was poor.To busy looking at theknife.Christianson and Hubinette discovered that in real life experiences of anxiety often heighten recall. Witness bank robbery > Being threatened by robbers.
73Age of ParticipantChildren seem to accept what others tell them as part of their own memories (Poole and Lindsay 2001 = incorporate stories into real events)Flin et al (1992) foundthat children forget detailsmuch quicker than adults.Elderly people: Recall ofevents is less accurate
74Methodology and Ethics There is difficulties in eliminatingextraneous variable with childrenThere are also ethical issues whenusing children. Need informedconsent from parent.In the real world when events happenwe are not expecting them therefore notprepared to try and remember everydetail . + demand Characteristics.
76Method of Questioning Fisher (1987) discovered If misleading informationhas an affect of EWT thenit is important that the policeare careful not to misdirectwitnesses.Fisher (1987) discoveredthat police asked closedquestions which seems toconflict with the witnessestestimony. They alsofrequently interruptedbreaking concentration.
77The Cognitive Interview Instructions to witnessContextreinstatementRecall what you were thinking, feeling and the scene beforehandReport everythingReport everything, even triviaRecall from changedPerspectiveRecall it from another’s point of view.Recall in reverse orderReport from different ways moving backwards and forwards in time
78Evidence for the Cognitive Interview Geiselman et al (1985) found that the cognitive interview was better than the original method and hypnosis. More correctdetails were recalledBut there was alsomore mistakesFisher et al (1990)discovered that policein Miami wereimpressed with results.
79Evidence for the Cognitive Interview Police have expressed a concern, with the increase incorrect detail, when using CI.They believe that the context reinstatement and reporting everything are more useful than the other two categoriesThis has been backed up by psychologists Milne and Bull (2002)
80Improving Memory Teaching strategies for memory improvement is a useful tool for future exams
81Mnemonics based on Visual Imagery The Peg Word SystemOne is bunTwo is ShoeThree is treeFour is a doorFive is a hiveSix are SticksSeven is HeavenEight is a GateNine is a LineTen is Hen
82One is bunTwo is ShoeThree is treeFour is a doorFive is a hiveSix are SticksSeven is HeavenEight is a GateNine is a LineTen is Hen
83Mnemonics based on Visual Imagery The Peg Word SystemEggsBreadBiscuitsTomatoesPotatoesCheeseJamPastaJuiceCornflakes
84Six are SticksOne is bunSeven is HeavenTwo is ShoeThree is treeEight is a GateFour is a doorNine is a LineFive is a hiveTen is Hen
85Mnemonics based on Visual Imagery The Peg-word system: Where you thing of one word and then peg another on to help recallThe Method of Loci: Thing of things you see on your route to college. Then attach a list of item to each of the things on your route
86Visual ImageryPaivio (1965): found that people could remember words that were easy to put pictures to – concrete V abstract nounsBeni and Moe (2003):Present words + images together,rather than words + wordsor images + images
89Organisation and Understanding Bransford and Johnson gave a passage to participant.One with a title to the pieceOne with no title (Content was not clear)People remembered the title and that coupled with their schema helped recall.
90Organisation in memory Bransford and Johnson (1972) found that participants who were given a title to a passage of information found it easier to recall than those not given a title, as participants applied already stored knowledge on the topic to their understanding of the passage. This enhanced their recall later.
91ChunkingAs already noted, chunking increases the amount we can recall and also reduces the load on memory. A difficult task can be reduced to a simpler task for STM.
92Encoding and retrieval strategies We recall things better if we try and retrieve the information in the same context or situation as when we learnt it.(Geiselman and Glenny (1977)
93Active processingWe are more likely to remember material that we have actively processed. Simple rehearsal is not enough to lay down long-lasting memories.Craik (1977) investigated recall of a word list under different conditions e.g. Is a word written in capital letters, does the word rhyme with another word, is it the name of a living thing.They found that group 3 remembered more than groups 1 and 2 because they had to think about the meaning of the word rather than just look at its structure.
94Attention and practice If we don’t pay attention to material we cannot remember it (as looked at in EWT).Practice is also important in order to remember large amounts of information for an exam, for example. Ericsson and Chase (1981) studied SF who could memorise up to 80 digits in one go – he had to practice for an hour a day over a two year period to do this!However, you need to be aware of your own memory and what works best for you!