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Inorganic Compounds. Usually small Usually small Lack carbon and/or hydrogen Lack carbon and/or hydrogen Many contain ionic bonds Many contain ionic bonds.

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Presentation on theme: "Inorganic Compounds. Usually small Usually small Lack carbon and/or hydrogen Lack carbon and/or hydrogen Many contain ionic bonds Many contain ionic bonds."— Presentation transcript:

1 Inorganic Compounds

2 Usually small Usually small Lack carbon and/or hydrogen Lack carbon and/or hydrogen Many contain ionic bonds Many contain ionic bonds Examples: Examples: –Water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, many acids, bases and salts

3 Water The most abundant inorganic substance in the human organism The most abundant inorganic substance in the human organism Makes up about 60% of body weight Makes up about 60% of body weight Makes up most of the volume of cells and body fluids Makes up most of the volume of cells and body fluids

4 Properties of Water Excellent solvent and suspending medium…huh? Excellent solvent and suspending medium…huh? –It dissolves a lot of different things Solvent – a liquid or gas in which some other gas is suspended Solvent – a liquid or gas in which some other gas is suspended Solute – the material that is suspended in a solvent Solute – the material that is suspended in a solvent Solution – combination of a solvent and solute Solution – combination of a solvent and solute –Water caries nutrients, oxygen, and wastes as well as suspends large organic molecules allowing for essential chemical reations to take place.

5 Water can participate in chemical reactions Water can participate in chemical reactions –In decomposition water helps break down large molecules. (hydrolysis) –Helps in the synthesis of hormones, enzymes, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates

6 Water absorbs and releases heat very slowly Water absorbs and releases heat very slowly –Water requires a large input of energy to increase its temperature and a large release of energy to decrease its temperature –The large amount of water in the body helps to maintain a constant temperature

7 Water requires a large amount of heat to change from a liquid to a gas Water requires a large amount of heat to change from a liquid to a gas –When you sweat it takes a lot of energy to evaporate.

8 Water serves as a lubricant Water serves as a lubricant –As a major part of mucus, saliva and other body fluids, water allows internal organs to slide over each other and lubricates joints where bones, ligaments and tendons rub against each other

9 Acids, Bases and Salts Combination of Ions Combination of Ions Dissociation/Ionization – when an ionic substance dissolves in water and breaks apart into the ions that formed it Dissociation/Ionization – when an ionic substance dissolves in water and breaks apart into the ions that formed it Acids dissociate into H+ ions Acids dissociate into H+ ions Bases dissociate into OH- ions Bases dissociate into OH- ions Salts form ions that are not H+ or OH- Salts form ions that are not H+ or OH-

10 Acids and Salts react with each other to form salts: Acids and Salts react with each other to form salts: HCl + KOH KCl + H 2 O

11 Acid/Base Balance The more H+ in a solution the more acidic something is The more H+ in a solution the more acidic something is pH is the measure of how acid something is pH is the measure of how acid something is

12 pH Scale Runs from 0 – 14 Runs from 0 – 14 Based on the amount of H+ dissolved in solution Based on the amount of H+ dissolved in solution 0 = lots of H+ therefore acidic 0 = lots of H+ therefore acidic 14 = lots of OH- therefore basic (alkaline) 14 = lots of OH- therefore basic (alkaline) 7 means the amount of H+ = OH- (neutral) 7 means the amount of H+ = OH- (neutral) A change of 1 on the pH scale means a 10x change in concentration A change of 1 on the pH scale means a 10x change in concentration

13 Bodys pH The pH range of blood is 7.35-7.45 (you need to know these exact numbers!) The pH range of blood is 7.35-7.45 (you need to know these exact numbers!) The body maintains pH through the use of buffer systems The body maintains pH through the use of buffer systems

14 Buffer Systems Consist of a weak acid and a weak base that function to prevent drastic changes in the pH of body fluid by rapidly changing strong acids and bases into weak acids and bases Consist of a weak acid and a weak base that function to prevent drastic changes in the pH of body fluid by rapidly changing strong acids and bases into weak acids and bases

15 Negative Feedback and pH balance Decreased blood pH detected by chemoreceptors in the body control center in the brain sends nerve impulses to the respiratory system diaphragm contracts more forcefully to get rid of more CO 2 increase in pH Decreased blood pH detected by chemoreceptors in the body control center in the brain sends nerve impulses to the respiratory system diaphragm contracts more forcefully to get rid of more CO 2 increase in pH


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