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Presentation on theme: "Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: 1-866-229-3239 Tell Us About You! Sarah and Grace will be with you soon. For now, please: 1.Click on."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Tell Us About You! Sarah and Grace will be with you soon. For now, please: 1.Click on Polling bar at right and select answer about clickers. 2.Click on Chat bar at right and briefly answer: What do you want to learn from the webinar? 3.Notice number for tech support if needed! Tech Help:

2 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Our Common Goals Teacher Student Uni-Directional Teaching Teacher Student Bi-Directional Teaching

3 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How to Work Towards These Goals Great learning depends on great teaching and both are improved by empirical research

4 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Educator Opinion Like any classroom technology, clickers will not automatically improve teaching or enhance student learning. Clickers can be detrimental if poorly used, but highly beneficial if good practices are followed, as documented by a growing body of educational literature. Barber & Njus, 2007, pp. 1 (For a review see Caldwell, 2007)

5 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Using Clickers To Help Students Get More Out of Your Psychology Course Sarah Grison University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign DocGrison at Twitter Twitter Tag: # ClickersForPsych Tech Help:

6 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Thank You To Our Sponsors Tech Help:

7 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Goals of Webinar Interactive Session on Evidence-Based Use of Clickers 1.How can clickers increase student interest? 2.How can clickers increase active engagement? 3.How can clickers ensure students are learning? 4.How can clickers be implemented successfully?

8 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Virtual Clicker What percentage attendance do you usually have in your classes? A. 0-20% B % C % D % E %

9 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Increase Interest? Improve attendance when SRS linked to grades (Jackson & Trees, 2003) Increase student enjoyment of class (Stowell & Nelson, 2007; Simpson & Oliver, 2006) Increase student interest in class (Preszler, Dawe, Schuster & Schuster, 2007) Can make instructors seem warm, friendly, caring, and aware of student needs, (Jackson & Trees, 2003; Knight & Wood, 2005)

10 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Increase Interest? Preszler et al., biology classes ( ) Low (0-2), med (3-4), high (5-6) MCQs/lecture/ day Clickers associated with increased interest (81%) Clickers associated with increased likelihood of attending (71%)

11 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Increase Interest? By Improving Rapport 1.Encourage timely attendance with forgiving grading (e.g., 75% response for 10% of grade) 2.Ask questions about them (e.g., major)

12 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Tell Us About You! Sarah and Grace will be with you soon. For now, please: 1.Click on Polling bar at right and select answer about clickers. 2.Click on Chat bar at right and briefly answer: What do you learn from the webinar? 3.Notice number for tech support if needed! Tech Help:

13 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Increase Interest? By Improving Rapport 1.Encourage timely attendance with forgiving grading (e.g., 75% response for 10% of grade) 2.Ask questions about them (e.g., major) 3.Ask students to apply concepts to real life

14 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Stressed Are You? How much stress have you felt in your life in the past month? Lets have men answer first, then women. A. No stress B. A little stress C. Some stress D. A lot of stress E. A great deal of stress Was there any difference? If so, how might you explain this difference?

15 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: What are your stressors? A.Catastrophic events: Sudden, unexpected, life-threatening events B.Life changes: Events create demands, require a lot of adjustment C.Chronic stressors: Continue a long time D.Acute: Highly disruptive, short-lived events E.Daily hassles: Irritations, not big alone, but effects add up

16 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Increase Interest? By Improving Rapport 1.Encourage timely attendance with forgiving grading (e.g., 75% response for 10% of grade) 2.Ask questions about them (e.g., their major) 3.Ask students to apply concepts to real life 4.Ask their opinions (e.g., frontal lobe & law) 5.Allow democratic voting (e.g., color of slides) 6.Ask for student feedback and use it (micro- assessment)

17 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How is the pacing of this webinar? A. Way too fast B. A bit too fast C. Just right D. A bit too slow E. Way too slow Your Feedback Please!

18 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Student Feedback on Clickers The best aspect of the course is how the instructor uses clickers to interact with students. She actually tries to get to know her students.

19 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Goals of Webinar Interactive Session on Evidence-Based Use of Clickers 1.How can clickers increase student interest? 2.How can clickers increase active engagement? 3.How can clickers ensure students are learning? 4.How can clickers be implemented successfully?

20 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Virtual Clicker What percentage of students answer questions in your classes? A. 0-20% B % C % D % E % Is it possible that some of these students dont feel comfortable talking in class?

21 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Increase Engagement? Increase student alertness (Burnstein & Lederman, 2001) Encourage anonymous, honest assessment of attitudes (Stowell & Nelson, 2007) Increase involvement of all students regardless of culture, sex, etc. (Reay, Li, & Bao, 2008) Require students to use and manipulate concepts (Freeman et al., 2007) Provide foot-in-the-door for discussion, one-minute writing, think-pair-share (Lyman, 1981) Help students process information more deeply (i.e., understanding, reasoning) (Beatty, 2004; Beatty et al., 2006)

22 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Increase Engagement? Reay, Li, & Bao, 2008 Tested in 3 quarters in large physics classes One section used clickers, one did not Clicker section did better on common exams (22- 26%) and had greater gains on post test Women showed greater gains when using clickers

23 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Increase Engagement? Freeman et al., 2007 Two Bio 180 classes: 1 w/ clickers, 1 w/ cards Both got better exam scores vs prior term (14 points on average) Across both, fewer students got less than C- (4.7%) Trend for high risk students using clickers to perform better vs cards

24 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Increase Engagement? By Pulling Active Engagement Warm them up with class starter questions

25 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Psych 100: Monday, 10/11/2010 Announcements Exam grades are up Final NOT cumulative! Estimated midterm grade coming…. Last day to drop without a W is Friday 10/15 Homework!! Read for Wed: (106) What color is this large box? blue. purple.

26 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Increase Engagement? By Pulling Active Engagement Warm them up with class starter questions Prime videos with questions to ensure attention Get foot in the door for deeper engagement

27 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: We just watched a video of Terri Schiavo. Was she conscious or not in the video?video of Terri Schiavo A. Yes B. No Now, turn to your neighbor and explain your answer. Lets Think About It!

28 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Increase Engagement? By Pulling Active Engagement Warm them up with class starter questions Prime videos with questions to ensure attention Get foot in the door for deeper engagement Play the devils advocate

29 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: What is Psychology? A B C D E

30 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Student Feedback on Clickers The instructor does a great job keeping our attention and I love the interactive nature of the class.

31 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Increase Engagement? By Pulling Active Engagement Warm them up with class starter questions Prime videos with questions to ensure attention Get foot in the door for deeper engagement Play the devils advocate Demonstrate concepts so they experience them

32 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help:

33 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help:

34 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: A.blue; activation of the s-cones B.yellow; activation of the s-cones C.blue; opponent processes in the ganglion cells D.yellow; opponent processes in the ganglion cells Did you get it? If you stare at the color blue long enough, and then look at a white piece of paper, you will see the color _____ due to _____.

35 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Increase Engagement? By Pulling Active Engagement Warm them up with class starter questions Prime videos with questions to ensure attention Get foot in the door for deeper engagement Ask students what should happen in a scenario Play the devils advocate Demonstrate concepts so they experience them Do in class experiments and graphically display answers for groups

36 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Mini-Experiment RIGHT half of the room, please close eyes! LEFT half of the room, please keep looking.

37 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Mini-Experiment Left half of room put pen in mouth with the tip in front of your nose. See me! Now look at this…

38 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Mini-Experiment How funny was the picture? A. Very unfunny B. Rather unfunny C. Neither unfunny nor funny D. Rather funny E. Very funny

39 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Mini-Experiment LEFT half of the room, please close eyes! RIGHT half of the room, please keep looking.

40 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Mini-Experiment Please try to be quiet! Right half of room put pen in mouth with the tip by your cheek. See me! Now look at this…

41 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Mini-Experiment How funny was the picture? A. Very unfunny B. Rather unfunny C. Neither unfunny nor funny D. Rather funny E. Very funny

42 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Mini-Experiment Any difference in funniness ratings? If so, how does this demonstrate the facial feedback Hypothesis?

43 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Mini-Experiment Explain why we got these results on your activity sheet. Be sure to refer to James theory! Pen with tip in front of your nose. Pen with tip by cheek.

44 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Student Feedback on Clickers I really enjoyed using the clickers for in-class experiments. I think they are an awesome way for the student to fully understand the material.

45 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Goals of Webinar Interactive Session on Evidence-Based Use of Clickers 1.How can clickers increase student interest? 2.How can clickers increase active engagement? 3.How can clickers ensure students are learning? 4.How can clickers be implemented successfully?

46 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Virtual Clicker What percentage of students can you demonstrate showing learning over your course? A. 0-20% B % C % D % E %

47 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Increase Learning? Provide comprehension checks for self-evaluation (Morling, McAuliffe, Cohen, & DiLorenzo, 2008) Especially valuable for analysis questions (Slain, Abate, Hodges, Stamatakis, & Wolak, 2004) Encourage peer interaction and peer instruction (Mazur, 1997; Crouch & Mazur, 2001) Allow flexible response to confusion with contingent teaching (Draper & Brown, 2004; Beatty, Gerace, Leonard, & Dufresne, 2006) Augment long-term retention (Crossgrove & Curran, 2008; Grison et al, in preparation) Improve exam scores (Preszler et al., 2007; Morling et al., 2008; Grison et al, in preparation)

48 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Increase Learning? Grison, Luke, Shigeto & Watson, in prep 30 sections of Intro Psych were in-class experiment f Low/High nums clicker MCQs (4/8) for 2 chapters Either for material presented in class or not (i.e., text) Clickers improved post test performance at 2 weeks and 3 months

49 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Increase Learning? Preszler, et al., 2007 Recall used 6 bio classes ( ) Across classes, low (0-2), med (3-4), high (5-6) questions/lecture/day Better exam grades were associated with having received more questions on that topic

50 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Increase Learning? By Checking Learning of Content Push 1.Check learning of class and text content at different cognitive levels (e.g., Blooms taxonomy) 2.Use peer instruction to correct understanding 3.Permits flexible, contingent teaching to address problems

51 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Did you get it? After suffering a large bruise during a somewhat wild game of Twister, Rachel feels a throbbing pain in her leg. This dull pain is carried by A. A–delta fibers. B. ganglion cells. C. C fibers. D. hair cells. Why is C correct? How can you remember this?

52 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Can you apply the concept? The residents of a burning apartment complex had to decide whether or not to throw their 9- month old infant out the window into the arms of a police officer waiting 4 floors below. The uncle said I looked into his eyes and saw that he would catch her. Then I let her go. His decision was made based on A. utility. B. expected value. C. the gamblers fallacy. D. decision making flaws. Why is A correct? Example of B?

53 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Increase Learning? By Checking Learning of Content Push 1.Check learning of class and text content at different cognitive levels (e.g., Blooms taxonomy) 2.Use peer instruction to correct understanding 3.Permits flexible, contingent teaching to address problems 4.Ask students what should happen in a scenario

54 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: A person volunteered on Saturday to help pick up trash along a highway. The work was strenuous and the person was sore the next day. What does cognitive dissonance theory predict will happen? A) The person will not volunteer again B) The person will volunteer again What should happen? Discuss with your neighbor under what conditions A and B could be correct.

55 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Increase Learning? By Checking Learning of Content Push 1.Check learning of class and text content at different cognitive levels (e.g., Blooms taxonomy) 2.Use peer instruction to correct understanding 3.Permits flexible, contingent teaching to address problems 4.Ask students what should happen in a scenario 5.Use classroom assessment techniques to check learning (e.g., quick write, muddiest point, etc.) 6.Do quick low stakes testing with immediate feedback (e.g., pre/post term assessment, quiz, practice exam)

56 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Student Feedback The clicker questions are extremely effective and help us to understand the material better.

57 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Goals of Webinar Interactive Session on Evidence-Based Use of Clickers 1.How can clickers increase student interest? 2.How can clickers increase active engagement? 3.How can clickers ensure students are learning? 4.How can clickers be implemented successfully?

58 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Be Implemented? Summary Clickers are a tool…Neither necessary nor sufficient for improving learning Research suggests clickers help increase student interest, engagement and learning But! Only if we use pedagogical techniques that research has shown supports our goals

59 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Educator Opinion Ultimately…the pedagogical practices of the instructor, not the incorporation of technology, [are] key to student comprehension. Judson & Sawada, 2002, pp. 167

60 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: If clickers were available to you next year, what is the likelihood you would use them? A. Almost definitely (81-100%) B. Very likely (61-80%) C. Maybe (41-60%) D. Very unlikely (21-40%) E. Almost definitely not (0-20%) What Do You Think?

61 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Be Implemented? Practices That Tend to Lead to Success 1. Be sure your goals match what pedagogical gain can be provided by SRS. 2. Choose SRS carefully based on needs, constraints. 3. Train yourself to use the SRS well before class starts. 4. Make appropriate changes to your course and lectures to incorporate SRS. 5. Explain SRS to students, why you are using them, how they will be graded, and other expectations. 6. Be prepared to troubleshoot a lot at first and reassure students their data are being collected. 7. Learn about and use best practice in SRS pedagogy. 8. And last but not least….Back up data, back up data, back up data!

62 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How Can Clickers Be Implemented? Practices That Tend to Lead to Failure 1. Fail to explain why you are using SRS. 2. Fail to discuss what learning means or the depth of participation and learning you expect in your class. 3. Only use SRS for attendance. 4. Never ask students to talk with each other. 5. Only use factual recall questions. 6. Dont make use of the student response information. 7. Think of SRS as only a testing device, rather than a device to inform learning. Douglas Duncan, 2008

63 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: How successful was this webinar in help you learn what you wanted to know? A. Extremely successful B. Rather successful C. Neither successful nor unsuccessful D. Rather unsuccessful E. Extremely unsuccessful Your Feedback Please!

64 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: A Big Thank You To… Graduate Students and Teaching Faculty for Introductory Psychology at University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Especially our graduate TA/RA hybrids: Aya Shigeto Eva Chen Steven Luke Patrick Watson

65 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Questions? Questions about clickers? Stick around for a bit! You can talk with us via mic or in the chat. Or contact me at Or follow DocGrison at TwitterDocGrison at Twitter

66 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Resources Barber, M., & Njus, D. (2007). Clicker Evolution: Seeking Intelligent Design. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 6(1), 1-8. Beatty, I. D. (2004). Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communication Systems. Educause Center for Applied Research (ECAR) Research Bulletin ERB0403, Feb 3. Beatty, I. Gerace, W., Leonard, W., & Dufresne, R. (2006). Designing effective questions for classroom response system teaching. American Journal of Physics, 74, Burnstein, R., & Lederman, L. (2001). Using wireless keypads in lecture classes. The Physics Teacher, 39, Caldwell, J. E. (2007). Clickers in the large classroom: Current research and best-practice tips. Life Sciences Education, 6, Crossgrove, K., & Curran, K. L. (2008). Using clickers in nonmajors- and majors-level biology courses: Student opinion, learning, and long-term retention of course material. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 7, Using clickers in nonmajors- and majors-level biology courses: Student opinion, learning, and long-term retention of course material Crouch, C. H., & Mazur, E. (2001). Peer instruction: Ten years of experiences and results. American Journal of Physics, 69, Duncan, D. (2008). Draper, S. W., & Brown, M. I. (2004). Increasing interactivity in lectures using an electronic voting system. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20, Freeman, S., OConner, E., Parks, J. W., Cunningham, M., Hurley, D., Haak, D., Dirks, C., and Wenderoth, M. P. (2007). Prescribed active learning increases performance in introductory biology. CBE Life Sci. Educ. 6, 132–139. Grison, S, Luke, S. G., Shigeto, A., & Watson, P. Benefits of the testing effect extend to the classroom: Answering clicker questions improves students long-term retention. Manuscript in preparation

67 Sarah Grison, Ph.D. Tech Help: Resources Jackson, M. H., and Trees, A. R. (2003). Clicker implementation and assessment. comm.colorado.edu/mjackson/clickerreport.htm (accessed 16 July 2006). Judson, E., & Sawada, D. (2002). Learning from past and present: Electronic response systems in college lecture halls. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 21, Knight, J. K., and Wood, W. B. (2005). Teaching more by lecturing less. Cell Biol. Educ. 4, 298–310. Mazur, E. (1997). Peer instruction: A user's manual.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Morling, B., McAuliffe, M., Cohen, L., & DiLorenzo, T. M. (2008). Efficacy of personal response systems (clickers) in large, introductory psychology classes. Teaching of Psychology, 35, Preszler, R. W., Dawe, A., Shuster, C. B., and Shuster, M. (2007). Assessment of the effects of student response systems on student learning and attitudes over a broad range of biology courses. CBE Life Sci. Educ. 6, 29–41. Reay, N., Li, P., & Bao, L. (2008). Testing a new voting machine question methodology. American Journal of Physics, 76, Simpson, V., and Oliver, M. (2006). Using electronic voting systems in lectures. VotingSystems.pdf (accessed 12 July 2006). Slain, D., Abate, M., Hodges, B. M., Stamatakis, M. K., & Wolak, S. (2004). An interactive response system to promote active learning in the doctor of pharmacy curriculum. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 68(5), 1-9. Stowell, J. R., &Nelson, J. M. (2007). Benefits of electronic audience response systems on student participation, learning, and emotion. Teaching of Psychology, 34,


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