Presentation on theme: "Behavior Based Safety Dr. A. V. Singh"— Presentation transcript:
1 Behavior Based Safety Dr. A. V. Singh NRK/Sep 2003AN INTRODUCTION TOBehavior Based Safety (BBS)Dr. A. V. Singh
2 Traditional Safety Model Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003Fewer AccidentsTraditional Safety ModelReprimandsRegulationsPoliciesCommittees & CouncilsSlogansSafety TrainingSafety MeetingsContests & Awards
3 Traditional Safety Management Safety Management System FeaturesPurpose: To reduce/eliminate injuriesin the workplace.Limited effectiveness, why?Strong reliance on AntecedentsPPEEmergency ResponsePoliciesProceduresSafety RulesIncident InvestigationSafety MeetingsAudits/InspectionsIndustrial HygieneHazard RecognitionTrainingSafety PermitsErgonomicsFire ProtectionEngineeringSafety IncentivesSafety SurveysSHE StandardsJob Safety AnalysisJSO
4 Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003Please think . . .How many of the above elements can be directly traced to injury elimination just at the moment the injury is about to occur ?Question: Are injuries totally eliminated?
5 Injury Statistics . . . 14 people die at work in US everyday Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003Injury Statistics . . .14 people die at work in US everyday11,000 people suffer from disabling injury everydayQuestion: Are injuries totally eliminated?
6 Injury Statistics . . . Year 2004 in US* Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003Injury Statistics Year 2004 in US*5200 workplace fatalities3.8 fatalities per 100,000 workers3.9 million people suffer disabling injuries6.1 injuries or illnesses per 100 workersQuestion: Are injuries totally eliminated?
7 Injury Statistics . . . In INDIA Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003Injury Statistics In INDIA124 people die at workplace everyday46575 people are injured32% contribution to global fatality at work37% of global burden of occupational injuryQuestion: Are injuries totally eliminated?
8 To Conclude . . . Good Safety Management systems exist Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003To Conclude . . .Good Safety Management systems existStill workplace is injury prone & not safeInjury although declined, still persistsWHAT IS MISSING? WHERE IS THE CATCH?
9 Scientifically proven that . . . Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003Scientifically proven that . . .In 1951, Dr. Heinrich claimed that more than 90% of injuries were caused by UNSAFE ACTSDuPont proved by research that:Injury CausesPercentInjuries due to Unsafe Acts / Behavior76Injuries due to combination of Unsafe Behavior & Conditions20Injuries due Unsafe Conditions4
10 DOE, US Govt. found out that . . . Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003DOE, US Govt. found out that . . .Personnel errors (Unsafe Acts) was present in 77% of incidents
11 (Unsafe Acts & Conditions) Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003DuPont Research found that . . .Avoid1Fatal30 LTAs300 Non LTAs3,000 Near Miss / First Aid30,000 Hazards(Unsafe Acts & Conditions)Eliminate
13 Unsafe Acts & Objectives of BBS Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003Unsafe Acts & Objectives of BBSUnsafe Acts is a behavioral processAlso defined as “at risk” behaviorObjective of BBS is to minimize “at risk” behavior at workplace
14 Principles of BBS Behavior is the cause of accidents Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003Principles of BBSBehavior is the cause of accidentsConsequence motivate behaviorWhat gets measured, gets doneFeedback is essential to improvementQuality is built early in the processConversations change organizations
15 Behavioral Safety Management Safety Management System FeaturesPurpose: To reduce/eliminate injuriesin the workplace.Improvement: Adding ConsequencesBut,Still limited effectiveness, why?Not integrated with other elementsPPEEmergency ResponsePoliciesProceduresSafety RulesIncident InvestigationSafety MeetingsAudits/InspectionsIndustrial HygieneHazard RecognitionTrainingSafety PermitsErgonomicsFire ProtectionEngineeringSafety IncentivesSafety SurveysOSHA StandardsJSOBehavioral SafetyJob Safety Analysis
16 Behavioral Safety Management To be effective:Integrate the fundamental elements1 of BBS into the Safety Management System elementsHow?Identify (pinpoint) critical behaviorsDefine behaviors precisely to measure them reliablyImplement mechanisms to determine current statusProvide feedbackReinforce progress
17 Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003What is Behavior?Behavior is anything that a person says, does, thinks or feelsEg: Working at heights with safety beltsBehavior should be observable, specific
18 Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003What is Antecedent ?Anything that occurs before or during the behavior can be an antecedent for that behaviorB: Working at heights with safety beltsA: Painful Memory of past accidentIt is Antecedents that cause a certain types of behavior to happen
19 What is Consequence ? Anything that occurs after a behavior Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003What is Consequence ?Anything that occurs after a behaviorB: Working at heights with safety beltsA: Painful Memory of past accidentC: No more accidents
20 The ABC of BBS Program A: Antecedents – cause of certain behavior Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003The ABC of BBS ProgramA: Antecedents – cause of certain behaviorB: Behavior – what you see a person doC: Consequence – outcome of a behavior
21 What is BBS Program? Understand & Influence Antecedents Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003What is BBS Program?Understand & Influence AntecedentsMake people behave safely, work safelyMinimize / eliminate workplace injuriesThis is Zero Injury Culture too . . .
22 BBS vs. Zero Injury Zero Injury is the GOAL Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003BBS vs. Zero InjuryZero Injury is the GOALBBS is the path to reach the GOAL
23 How to Implement BBS ? 7 Steps Process Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003How to Implement BBS ?7 Steps Process1. Identify Unsafe Acts in all your operations. Make a list of safe acts for these unsafe acts.2. Audit Unsafe Acts & Conditions. Report3. Measure no. of safe / unsafe acts. Know your scores4. Set Improvement Goals. Identify actions to achieve the goals. Implement Actions
24 How to Implement BBS ? 7 Steps Process Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003How to Implement BBS ?7 Steps Process5. Monitor actions implementation & trends of Unsafe Acts & conditions6. Continually improve performance7. Recognize performers & celebrate achievement
25 Q: Why focus on behavior? Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003Q: Why focus on behavior?Serious InjuriesReactiveNon Serious InjuriesNear MissesAt-Risk BehaviorsProactiveTraditionally management focus has been on topWhere does management have the most data to work with and the opportunity to be proactive in preventing accidents as opposed to reacting to accidents that already happened?Explain the safety cycle and how the emphasis moves up and down depending on management.Ask the class if they have experienced the “safety cycle” within the company.Ask the class if anyone had a near-miss or seen a near-miss today at work.Systems’ WeaknessesA: It’s the best way of measuring how well your system is working!Management gets serious about safety when there is:- Increase in accidents and cost- Serious accident- FatalityWhen accidents are low - management’s emphasis towards safety is low
27 What do we do now? Safety Activities Traditional Model BBS Program + Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003What do we do now?Safety ActivitiesFewer Unsafe ActsFewer AccidentsTraditional ModelBBS Program+
28 Primary Team Roles Management Lead by example Support the process Remove roadblocksMonitor successProvide resources
29 Basic Elements of BBS Identify/define targeted safe behaviors. Observe behaviors.Measure process/activities.Deliver feedback.Deliver positive consequences.Analyze variance/take action.Improve process continuously.
30 Consequences have the greatest influence on future behavior. Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003A-B-C ModelConsequencesBehaviorAntecedentsprompt the person to actaction - what the person actually doeswhat happens during or after the behaviorConsequences have the greatest influence on future behavior.
31 Strengthen the behavior ConsequencesConsequences follow behaviorThey either:Strengthen the behaviororWeaken the behavior
32 The Behavioral Process EVALUATEPINPOINTCRITICAL SAFE & PROCESS SUPPORT BEHAVIORSRESULTSREINFORCEPERFORMANCEIMPROVEMENTPERFORMANCEMEASUREVERBAL &GRAPHIC ONPERFORMANCEGIVEFEEDBACK
33 Classification of Consequences Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003Classification of ConsequencesType:Positive to PerformerNegative to PerformerTiming:Immediate - during or soon afterFuture - from a day to several monthsProbability:Certain that the consequence will occur againUncertain that the consequence will occur
34 If BBS has to Succeed then . . . Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003If BBS has to Succeed then . . .Top Management Commitment is essentialOwnership & involvement from all employeesSteering Committee to monitor in plantsTraining to all on BBS & safety practicesEffective Feedback – Most importantPerformance monitoring & Continual improvement
35 Safe Behavior Is safe behavior an occupational necessity? Behavior Based SafetyNRK/Sep 2003Safe BehaviorIs safe behavior an occupational necessity?Is safety only at work place?Don’t I want my son to drive safely & reach home every day?Can safe behavior be a philosophy of life?Safe Behavior = Safety Assurance