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1 AN INTRODUCTION TO Behavior Based Safety (BBS) Dr. A. V. Singh.

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Presentation on theme: "1 AN INTRODUCTION TO Behavior Based Safety (BBS) Dr. A. V. Singh."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO Behavior Based Safety (BBS) Dr. A. V. Singh

2 2 Contests & Awards R e p ri m a n ds R eg ul at io ns Policies Committees & Councils Slogans Safety Training Safety Meetings Fewer Accidents Traditional Safety Model

3 3 Traditional Safety Management Safety Management System Features PPEEmergency ResponsePolicies ProceduresSafety RulesIncident Investigation Safety MeetingsAudits/InspectionsIndustrial Hygiene TrainingSafety Permits Hazard Recognition Fire ProtectionEngineering Ergonomics Safety Incentives SHE StandardsSafety Surveys Job Safety AnalysisJSO Purpose: To reduce/eliminate injuries in the workplace. Limited effectiveness, why? Strong reliance on Antecedents

4 4 Please think... How many of the above elements can be directly traced to injury elimination just at the moment the injury is about to occur ? Question: Are injuries totally eliminated?

5 5 Injury Statistics people die at work in US everyday 11,000 people suffer from disabling injury everyday Question: Are injuries totally eliminated?

6 6 Injury Statistics... Year 2004 in US* 5200 workplace fatalities 3.8 fatalities per 100,000 workers 3.9 million people suffer disabling injuries 6.1 injuries or illnesses per 100 workers Question: Are injuries totally eliminated?

7 7 Injury Statistics... In INDIA 124 people die at workplace everyday people are injured 32% contribution to global fatality at work 37% of global burden of occupational injury Question: Are injuries totally eliminated?

8 8 To Conclude... Good Safety Management systems exist Still workplace is injury prone & not safe Injury although declined, still persists WHAT IS MISSING? WHERE IS THE CATCH?

9 9 Scientifically proven that... In 1951, Dr. Heinrich claimed that more than 90% of injuries were caused by UNSAFE ACTS DuPont proved by research that: Injury CausesPercent Injuries due to Unsafe Acts / Behavior76 Injuries due to combination of Unsafe Behavior & Conditions 20 Injuries due Unsafe Conditions4

10 10 DOE, US Govt. found out that... Personnel errors (Unsafe Acts) was present in 77% of incidents

11 11 DuPont Research found that... 30,000 Hazards (Unsafe Acts & Conditions) 3,000 Near Miss / First Aid 300 Non LTAs 30 LTAs 1 Fatal Eliminate Avoid

12 12 To Conclude... Eliminate Unsafe Acts / Conditions = Avoid Injuries & Accidents Safety Activities Fewer Unsafe Acts Fewer Accidents

13 13 Unsafe Acts & Objectives of BBS 1.Unsafe Acts is a behavioral process 2.Also defined as at risk behavior Objective of BBS is to minimize at risk behavior at workplace

14 14 Principles of BBS Behavior is the cause of accidents Consequence motivate behavior What gets measured, gets done Feedback is essential to improvement Quality is built early in the process Conversations change organizations

15 15 Behavioral Safety Management Safety Management System Features PPEEmergency ResponsePolicies ProceduresSafety RulesIncident Investigation Safety MeetingsAudits/InspectionsIndustrial Hygiene TrainingSafety Permits Hazard Recognition Fire ProtectionEngineering Ergonomics Safety Incentives OSHA StandardsSafety Surveys Purpose: To reduce/eliminate injuries in the workplace. Improvement: Adding Consequences But, Still limited effectiveness, why? Not integrated with other elements Job Safety Analysis Behavioral Safety JSO

16 16 Behavioral Safety Management To be effective: –Integrate the fundamental elements 1 of BBS into the Safety Management System elements –How? Identify (pinpoint) critical behaviors Define behaviors precisely to measure them reliably Implement mechanisms to determine current status Provide feedback Reinforce progress

17 17 What is Behavior? Behavior is anything that a person says, does, thinks or feels Eg: Working at heights with safety belts Behavior should be observable, specific

18 18 What is Antecedent ? Anything that occurs before or during the behavior can be an antecedent for that behavior B: Working at heights with safety belts A: Painful Memory of past accident It is Antecedents that cause a certain types of behavior to happen

19 19 What is Consequence ? Anything that occurs after a behavior B: Working at heights with safety belts A: Painful Memory of past accident C: No more accidents

20 20 The ABC of BBS Program A: Antecedents – cause of certain behavior C: Consequence – outcome of a behavior B: Behavior – what you see a person do

21 21 What is BBS Program? Understand & Influence Antecedents Minimize / eliminate workplace injuries Make people behave safely, work safely This is Zero Injury Culture too...

22 22 BBS vs. Zero Injury Zero Injury is the GOAL BBS is the path to reach the GOAL

23 23 How to Implement BBS ? 7 Steps Process 1. Identify Unsafe Acts in all your operations. Make a list of safe acts for these unsafe acts. 2. Audit Unsafe Acts & Conditions. Report 3. Measure no. of safe / unsafe acts. Know your scores 4. Set Improvement Goals. Identify actions to achieve the goals. Implement Actions

24 24 How to Implement BBS ? 7 Steps Process 5. Monitor actions implementation & trends of Unsafe Acts & conditions 6. Continually improve performance 7. Recognize performers & celebrate achievement

25 25 Reactive Proactive A: Its the best way of measuring how well your system is working! Q: Why focus on behavior? Systems Weaknesses Serious Injuries At-Risk Behaviors Non Serious Injuries Near Misses

26 26 Recall... Safety Activities Fewer Unsafe Acts Fewer Accidents

27 27 What do we do now? Safety Activities Fewer Unsafe Acts Fewer Accidents Traditional Model BBS Program +

28 28 Primary Team Roles Management Lead by example Support the process Remove roadblocks Monitor success Provide resources

29 29 Basic Elements of BBS Identify/define targeted safe behaviors. Observe behaviors. Measure process/activities. Deliver feedback. Deliver positive consequences. Analyze variance/take action. Improve process continuously.

30 30 Consequences Behavior Antecedents prompt the person to act action - what the person actually does what happens during or after the behavior Consequences have the greatest influence on future behavior. A-B-C Model

31 31 Consequences Consequences follow behavior They either: Strengthen the behavior or Weaken the behavior

32 32 RESULTS CRITICAL SAFE & PROCESS SUPPORT BEHAVIORS PERFORMANCE VERBAL & GRAPHIC ON PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT PINPOINT EVALUATE MEASURE REINFORCE GIVE FEEDBACK The Behavioral Process

33 33 Classification of Consequences Type: Positive to Performer Negative to Performer Timing: Immediate - during or soon after Future - from a day to several months Probability: Certain that the consequence will occur again Uncertain that the consequence will occur

34 34 If BBS has to Succeed then... Top Management Commitment is essential Ownership & involvement from all employees Steering Committee to monitor in plants Training to all on BBS & safety practices Effective Feedback – Most important Performance monitoring & Continual improvement

35 35 Safe Behavior Is safe behavior an occupational necessity? Can safe behavior be a philosophy of life? Is safety only at work place? Dont I want my son to drive safely & reach home every day? Safe Behavior = Safety Assurance

36 36 Thank you


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