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A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Career development for young people who have disengaged or who are at risk of disengaging: Policy and system.

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Presentation on theme: "A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Career development for young people who have disengaged or who are at risk of disengaging: Policy and system."— Presentation transcript:

1 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Career development for young people who have disengaged or who are at risk of disengaging: Policy and system support 16th March 2010. (2.00 to 4.00 pm)

2 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Sources Kendall, S. and Kinder, K. (2005). Reclaiming Those Disengaged from Education and Learning: a European Perspective. Slough: NFER. (Austria, England, Belgium Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Switzerland and Wales). Enhancing career development: The role of community-based career guidance for disengaged adults (2005) National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER). Helena Kasurinen and Mika Launikari (2009) Career Guidance for Youth-at-risk in Finland Its Crunch Time: Raising youth engagement and attainment (2007) Australian Industry Group.

3 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Dimensions of disengagement Not in: education employment training NEET

4 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Manifestations of disengagement Flight:Absent and disconnected: - irregular, truancy, dropout Fight:Present, but absent - disruptive, destructive, - behavioural problems

5 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Why disengagement? 1.Impact of educational structure: Comprehensive vs. selective; higher incidence of diengagement in selective systems 2.Effect of inclusion and exclusion: segregation may exacerbate disengagement. 3. Lack of congurence with prescribed modes of career development: boredom, distraction, disconnect from existing attitudes to work, unchallenged.

6 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Why disengagement? 4. Socio-economic and community factors Home background and area of residence were seen as being key influences on disengagement. For example, in the UK socio-economic status was seen as being a stronger predictor of achievement than early attainment. In five of the countries, minority ethnic groups were noted as being over-represented in the disengaged group – this was evident in the Netherlands, Austria, Norway, Spain and England.

7 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Why disengagement? 5.Family environment parents do not value school. condone non-attendance. have low or too high expectations. family events: such as bereavement, divorce, or new stepfamily, can also have an impact.

8 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Why disengagement? 6.Pupil factors Lack of social skills. Not attending school, for example, due to bullying. Friends beyond school resulting in non-attendance and disengagement. Lack of academic ability. Having special educational needs. Substance misuse. Previous negative experiences of school. Students who have to repeat a school year or those who have to change from a higher to lower level of education.

9 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Why disengagement? 7. Curriculum factors The perceived irrelevance of the curriculum to life. Inappropriate exam and assessment procedures. Reduced time for pastoral provision because of the pressure to cover the prescribed curriculum. Inappropriate teaching methods with schools focusing on curriculum and subject content rather than on learners.

10 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Why disengagement? 8. Influence of vocational education: Vocational qualifications do not have parity of esteem with academic qualifications. There is a danger of seeing vocational education as the solution to disengagement. Greater focus is required on person-centered approaches to career development rather than providing a vocational alternative.

11 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Established models, associated with outcome-driven thinking... based on linear development through education to a lifetime career, may be useful for some but are unlikely to engage all young people. Reid, 2008.

12 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) The accumulation of disadvantage

13 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Arulmani, G. & Nag-Arulmani, S. (2001) 13 Human Development Reports The Less Visible Factors Cognitive Development. Education and Literacy (drop outs, completion rates). Employability (preparation to enter the world of work). Specific social, cultural and psychological variables seem to predict differences between the child in poverty and the more advantaged. `

14 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Arulmani, G. & Nag-Arulmani, S. (2001) 14 Accumulation of disadvantage It seems possible to locate points of vulnerability along the spectrum of human development. The experience of disadvantage seems to have a cumulative impact on development culminating in the internalization of psychological barriers.

15 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Accumulation of disadvantage Early ChildhoodMiddle ChildhoodAdolescence Lower access to stimulation material. Lower exposure to speech and language stimulation. Lower range of significant others who can stimulate child. Lower school enrollment and irregular attendance. Lower academic performance. Short term orientation to future; lower ability to symbolically represent future outcomes. Parental attitudes closely related to school drop-out. Lower Self-esteem. Typical motivational patterns (e.g. lower emphasis on personal effort; higher dependence on others). Lower scores on planning and goal setting. Stronger orientation to earning than training. Poor literacy acquisition.

16 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) The Jiva Project: Capacity building for career counselling and livelihood planning. India

17 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Extract from: Work Orientations and Responses to Career Choices: An Indian Regional Survey (WORCC-IRS) (2006) A survey undertaken by The Promise Foundation that covered 13 different regions of India. Close 10000 participants 8 languages

18 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Influences on Career Choice

19 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Subject / Career Options Science Commerce Humanities Vocational Subjects ?

20 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Parents Desire

21 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Occupational Prestige Social and cultural forces grade occupations on a hierarchy of prestige. The respectability attributed to an occupation plays a powerful role in shaping interest directed toward that occupation. Children begin to recognise prestige linked differences among jobs and thereby learn to include or eliminate occupational alternatives.

22 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Occupational Prestige Hierarchy The impact of prestige on career preferences has been documented in both the Indian and the international literature. Prestige ratings of 28 occupations with corresponding indications of Interest, Self Confidence and Parent Approval.

23 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Occupations receiving the lowest prestige ratings are those belonging to the blue collar and vocational category.

24 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Socio Economic Status and Subject Preferences

25 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social Cognitive Theory (SCT): Key Concepts Formulated by Albert Bandura in the 1980s as a refinement of his Social Learning Theory. SCT analyses the diverse ways in which beliefs of personal efficacy operate within a network of socio-cultural and socio- economic influences, to shape life paths.

26 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social Cognitive Theory (SCT): Key Concepts Formulated by Albert Bandura in the 1980s as a refinement of his Social Learning Theory. SCT analyses the diverse ways in which beliefs of personal efficacy operate within a network of socio-cultural and socio- economic influences, to shape life paths.

27 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Three Social Cognitive Mechanisms Self Efficacy Outcome Expectations Goal Setting...are particularly relevant to understanding career development

28 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social Cognitive Theory 1. Self Efficacy Beliefs 2. Outcome Expectations 3. Goal Setting Performance Accomplishments Vicarious Experience Verbal Persuasion Imagined outcome Projected anticipation Future orientation Symbolically represent future outcomes

29 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social Cognitive Theory Self-efficacy Beliefs: Beliefs about ones ability to be successful in the performance of a task Self-referent thought influences behaviour Quality of self efficacy beliefs influence whether: - behaviour will be initiated - how much energy will be expended - maintenance of this behaviour in the face of obstacles

30 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Influences on self efficacy beliefs Performance Accomplishments (Success Experiences) Actual performance on a task. Accomplishments that are success experiences move the individual closer to mastery experiences. A success experience contributes to self-efficacy only when the individual is able to attribute the reason for success to personal effort. I got one right... Now let me try the next.

31 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Influences on self efficacy beliefs Vicarious Experience Observation of a social role model Promotes a similar belief in oneself and influences personal self-efficacy for that task The more similar to oneself the more powerful is the vicarious experience The greater the real or assumed similarity of the model to the observer, the powerful is the models success or failure on the observers self-efficacy The failure of important role models causes a decline in self-efficacy for that task If she can do it... Maybe I can too.

32 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Influences on self efficacy beliefs Verbal Persuasion Encouragement from someone else that they possess the capabilities to be successful at a particular task Repeated verbal feedback that questions a persons capabilities could lead to: - Avoidance of that activity - Giving up in the face of barriers - Weak engagement with the task Undermines motivation and promotes disbelief in one's capabilities She told me I can do it... She believes in me.

33 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social Cognitive Theory to affect the quality of Self Efficacy beliefs Performance Accomplishments Vicarious Experience Verbal Persuasion interact reciprocally I tried and it worked! If she can do it let me try...! She told me I can do it...!

34 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social Cognitive Theory 1. Self Efficacy Beliefs 2. Outcome Expectations 3. Goal Setting Performance Accomplishments Vicarious Experience Verbal Persuasion Imagined outcome Projected anticipation Future orientation Symbolically represent future outcomes

35 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social Cognitive Theory Outcome Expectations Expectation that a certain consequence would result from a certain action Estimation of the quality of the outcome Are only imagined and notional outcomes Particularly relevant in an environment where the linkage between effort and outcome are imperfect A person may not invest effort in an activity for which she has a high potential, if the outcome expectation for that activity is negative

36 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Outcome Expectations: Implications for career development If outcome expected does not match projected anticipation or imagined outcome, may not engage with the process. If a service or a scheme is not congruent with what the person thinks he/she deserves, may not value the scheme Examples: - going against the common belief - scepticism - loss of support from others if that action is taken - loss of prestige - gender incongruence

37 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social Cognitive Theory 1. Self Efficacy Beliefs 2. Outcome Expectations 3. Goal Setting Performance Accomplishments Vicarious Experience Verbal Persuasion Imagined outcome Projected anticipation Future orientation Symbolically represent future outcomes

38 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social Cognitive Theory Goal Setting Capacity to symbolically represent and conceptualise future effects of present actions. Engagement in an activity that has an effect in the future Determination to reach a target Requires: - ability to react in a self-evaluative manner to own behaviour - internal standards of performance Goals call for sustained action over a period of time

39 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Social Cognitive Theory: Impact and Relevance Merely believing does actually record success Expectation alone will not produce the desired outcome Must be mindful of the individuals ability levels

40 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Tackling disengagement Curative Preventative focused on routes. back into learning. enabling appropriate targeting of resources evaluation of initiatives. strengthen transition stages. bridge gap between vocational and academic education. promote self-efficacy. strenghten self-mediation. realistic goal setting. promote future orienation.

41 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Case Study 1: Employment Skills Training Project Analysis of the Maldivian social cognitive environment revealed consistent patterns of commonality and specificity along career beliefs.

42 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Development of a programme Searched within social cognitive environment for thought habits and patterns: High emphasis on acquiring college education It is the government's responsibility. My father will do it for me. Its too hard for me. I would rather be unemployed. Negation of personal responsibility Giving up in the face of barriers Saying NO rather than YES to personal engagement with work and career development

43 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) The social marketing campaign Slogan Youth Employment Services YES! YES! BECAUSE I CAN Yes Career Counselling Programme

44 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) The social marketing campaign Logo and Slogan

45 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Universalist principles interpreted into a specific cultural context

46 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Harnessing diversity Some evidence (Arulmani, G & Agisa Abdulla 2007)* Glassian Effect Sizes indicating the impact of career guidance on career beliefs * Capturing the ripples: Addressing the sustainability of the impact of social marketing. Social Marketing Quarterly Acultural approach Blended commonalities with specificities

47 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Case Study 2: The Promise Foundation, India: Career guidance and livelihood planning project Analysis of social cognitive environment revealed the following key social cognitions pertaining to work: - Work is an integral part of life - Work is an extension of life - Work is related to life stages Jiva Life in most Indian languages

48 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) The Jiva Framework The Jiva spiral! The Jiva Career Spiral Mental tick marks! The Jiva Tick mark The changing and the unchanged. Changing and unchanged Green and blue! Green and Blue!

49 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Principle 1: The Jiva Spiral: A non linear approach to career development Career and livelihood development occur in a spiral! Over time one returns to where one started, but in qualitatively different manner. Cultural Value: The circularity of life

50 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Principle 2: The Jiva Tick Mark Assess before you accept Weigh up pros and cons and then accept or reject. How relevant is an opportunity to one's interests and aptitudes? Is an opportunity merely a job offering or is it an opening into a real career? Cultural Value: Nishkama: Dispassionate decision making

51 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Principle 3: Green and blue A healthy career cares for the other When you set the sky as the limit are you also turning the earth brown? Cultural Value: Sensitivity to the other

52 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Principle 4: The Changing and the Unchanged A healthy career allows change with stability The individual is growing; the world of work is also changing. A career develops in finding the balance between what changes and what does not change. Personal interests for example, are liable to change while aptitudes are deeper traits. Healthy careers and livelihoods are in tune with a dynamic and moving world and at the same time grounded in values that are constant. Cultural Value: Paradox of change and constancy

53 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Principle 5: Give, in order to get Skills for life long development A career lies in the interface between garnering of personal gain and services rendered to society. Career development suffers or even grinds to a halt when the dynamic tension between this giving and receiving is disturbed. Cultural Value: Ashramas: Life stages have life responsibilities

54 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Theory to Practice Group 1:Performance accomplishment and career development Group 2:Vicarious experience and career development Group 3: Verbal persuasion and career development Group 4: Outcome expectations and career development Group 5: Goal setting and career development 30 minutes for small group discussions 30 minutes for short presentation.

55 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Discussion Point: Group 1: Are there any weak links in the transition stages. Group 2:Any comment: Greater focus is required on person- centered approaches to career transitions rather than providing a vocational alternative. Group 3:Reduced time for pastoral provision because of the pressure to cover the prescribed curriculum. Group 4:Is it necessary to review content of training programmes for careers counsellors for skills transfer pertaining to multicultural competencies: - Culture sensitive counselling. - Promotion of self-efficacy. - Skills to work with parents / community. HOW could this achieved?

56 A workshop presented by Gideon Arulmani (2010) Almost eight months after Time 3 of this study, a young man visited the researcher. Full of confidence he walked into the researchers office and said that he had attended a six month course on screen printing and now had a regular job. Then, rather shyly he said had something to give the researcher. He drew a soiled envelope from his pocket and said I received my first salary today. I want you to use this to help someone else in the way you helped me. Inside the envelope was a fifty rupee note. A large sum of money for a boy from his background. Moved, but curious I asked him which of the intervention groups he had belonged to. The boy looked up and said, The group where we learned to think differently. Outcomes of a study on the promotion of self-efficacy for career development


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