Hardware Computer architectures (IBM Compatible PC, Apples Macintosh, Sun etc.) Computer portability (mainframe, desktop, notebook/laptop, Personal Digital Assistants PDA, wearable computers) Computer designation (Workstation, Server, Client, Router, Terminal) Computer parameters and components (Processor, RAM, hard-disk, peripherals, networking) Computer connections (LAN, MAN, WAN, Internet)
Software Operating systems (Windows, DOS, MacOS, UNIX, Linux, etc.) Applications –word processing: spell-checking, grammar and style, formatting, revising and commenting, drafting and redrafting, etc. –presentations, data-bases and spreadsheets: material presentation, vocabulary storage and exchange, etc. Development –programming languages –Rapid Application Development (RAD) –authoring software –Web programming Networking –Internet protocols (TCP/IP, FTP, Telnet, SMTP, SNMP, NFS, RPC, X Windows) –Local/distributed/networked applications –Security
Pedagogical View of Technology Criteria for Software Selection Areas where computers may help Advantages and Risks of using CALL in language classroom CALL Teachers roles Balance between Information and Computer Technology (ICT) and language pedagogy
Some Technical Criteria for Software selection Hardware requirements Easy installation / reliable function Navigation/Flexibility Instructions (clear and precise) Help option Interface/ on-screen presentation Authoring ability Free from language mistakes Tailorability / Control Options
Software Methodological Criteria for Software Evaluation Does it contain basic components in Second Language Acquisition (Gass 1997; Chapelle, 1998) –Input (of target language) –Apperception (noticing aspects in TL) –Comprehension (+semantic -syntax) –Intake (+semantic +syntax) –Integration (into learners interlanguage) –Output (L2 production)
Does it agree with the methodology you adopt? Does it fit in with the curriculum? What is its goal? Does it achieve its goal? Is the language and/or skill aimed at useful for your children? Is it suitable for: the childrens age, interests, language ability, maturity level Can it be used with various types of learner groupings? (individual, pairs, group, whole class) How is feedback offered? (nature and language involved) Is it authentic? (feedback, activities, language, content) Does it offer a real-world learning situation? Does it promote meaningful use of the language? Does it accept a variety of responses? Is it motivating, interesting and fun?
Pedagogy in CALL Areas where computers may help Advantages and Risks of using CALL in language classroom CALL Teachers roles Balance between Information and Computer Technology (ICT) and language pedagogy
Areas where computers may help Teaching programme presented by a computer: The student responds on the computer and the computer provides feedback The use of computer to monitor students progress and direct them to the appropriate lessons, material, etc. The use of computer to provide exploratory environments for language learning by presenting problems in need for resolution and providing tools for further learning.
Advantages Technical –improve your computer literacy –Information revolution – computers everywhere Pedagogical –Language technology can provide relevant feedback on the users unconstrained speech- or writing production –Authentic material, electronic resources (Internet, corpora, books, radio, TV) –Combines world knowledge, discourse knowledge, linguistic knowledge –Offering interactive learning: Immediate feedback, Error analysis and Self-correction –Reinforcement
Risks Technical –may disturb a lesson due to technical problems or electrical failure –may cause computer anxiety Pedagogical –False feedback can fool the user –Lack of feedback can mislead the user –technology may become an end in itself, leading, rather than being led by teacher –Neglecting specific CALL teacher roles
Role of the teacher in CALL classroom Teachers may have problems recognizing that his role in CALL classroom is requires more than in standard classroom Standard classroom teachers roles: –tutor –guide –facilitator CALL classroom teachers roles –observer –designer/developer –implementer –evaluator –manager
CALL Teacher Guidelines (http://www.hexabyte.tn/learnenglish/mahdia/CALLpresentation.ppt) Just as students cant learn by simply sitting in a classroom, neither will they improve by sitting in front of a computer The teaching makes the difference, while the technology is a useful tool (as long as it is effectively taught and applied) Dont be afraid of knowing less than your students Pair and group students. Encourage meta- language discussion about what they are doing Offer choices to students
Computers never ahead of humans Pedagogy first, Curriculum second, Computers last (Leo van Lier) A teachers starting point in using CALL should not be the question What can I do with my PC? but rather Which medium is best suited to teach such-and-such a skill? The answer to this latter question might be the blackboard, the video, printed matter, or the tape recorder as the case may be. (Jones Frances)