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ORGANIZATION OF LIFE (HOW TO BUILD A HUMAN)

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Presentation on theme: "ORGANIZATION OF LIFE (HOW TO BUILD A HUMAN)"— Presentation transcript:

1 ORGANIZATION OF LIFE (HOW TO BUILD A HUMAN)
ATOMS ® MOLECULES ® MACROMOLECULES ® CELLS ® TISSUES ® ORGANS ® ORGAN SYSTEMS ® ORGANISM (HUMAN) ® POPULATION ® COMMUNITY ® ECOSYSTEM ® BIOSPHERE

2 HEIRARCHY OF LIFE

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4 HISTOLOGY MUSCLE TISSUE NERVOUS TISSUE EPITHELIAL TISSUE
PRIMARY TISSUE TYPES HISTOLOGY study of tissues MUSCLE TISSUE NERVOUS TISSUE EPITHELIAL TISSUE CONNECTIVE TISSUE

5 This study could be of bacteria, plants, animals or humans
PHYSIOLOGY The study of the integrated functions of the vital systems of living organisms This study could be of bacteria, plants, animals or humans

6 HOMEOSTASIS

7 MAINTENANCE OF A RELATIVELY STABLE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
HOMEOSTASIS MAINTENANCE OF A RELATIVELY STABLE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Homeostasis is essential for the survival of each cell, and each cell, through its specialized activities, contributes as part of a body system to the maintenance of the internal environment shared by all cells

8 PARAMETERS THAT ARE HOMEOSTATICALLY REGULATED
BLOOD OXYGEN CONCENTRATION (~200 ml/L in arteries) PULSE-OXYIMETER (~ %) TOTAL BODY WATER (TBW) = 0.6 x Body Weight BLOOD GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION (~ mg/dl) BLOOD/BODY NUTRIENT LEVEL (Carbohydrates, Amino Acids, Fatty Acids, Vitamins, Minerals, etc.) BODY TEMPERATURE (~ 37 ° C OR ~ ° F)

9 PARAMETERS THAT ARE HOMEOSTATICALLY REGULATED
BLOOD CARBON DIOXIDE LEVEL (~ ml/L) BLOOD pH = ACIDITY/ALKALINITY (~ 7.4) SALT AND OTHER ELECTROLYTE CONCENTRATION (Na+, K+, Ca+, Cl-, Mg+, H+, HCO3-, PO4, etc.) BLOOD VOLUME (related to total body water) plasma volume, salt and water balance BLOOD PRESSURE related to blood volume, cardiac output, & total peripheral resistance METABOLIC WASTE CONCENTRATION IN BLOOD urea, hormone metabolites, drug metabolites, etc.

10 ORGAN SYSTEMS NERVOUS SYSTEM SKELETAL SYSTEM MUSCULAR SYSTEM
CARDIOVASCULAR (CIRCULATORY) SYSTEM RESPIRATORY SYSTEM LYMPHATIC SYSTEM IMMUNE SYSTEM URINARY (EXCRETORY) SYSTEM DIGESTIVE SYSTEM ENDOCRINE SYSTEM REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

11 ORGAN SYSTEMS

12 NEGATIVE FEEDBACK Most homeostatically controlled parameters in the body are regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback occurs when a change in a controlled variable triggers a response that opposes the change, driving the variable in the opposite direction of the initial change.

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14 POSITIVE FEEDBACK This type of control mechanism is relatively rare in the body because it moves the controlled variable even farther from a steady state. Positive feedback continually enhances the output so that the controlled variable continues to be moved in the direction of the initial change Positive feedback reinforces the change in the same direction. Such action would be comparable to the heat generated by a furnace triggering the thermostat to call for even more heat output from the furnace so that the room temperature would continually rise. Examples = Mechanisms of Ovulation and Parturition (Birth)

15 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY As we proceed through the course, we will discuss a number of different pathophysiological conditions (diseases and abnormal states) which illustrate physiological mechanisms Pathophysiology refers to the study of the abnormal functioning of the body (altered physiology) associated with disease.

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17 PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

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19 ORGANIC MOLECULES

20 CARBOHYDRATES – MONOSACCHARDIES & DISACCHARIDE

21 STRUCTURE OF GLYCOGEN

22 POLYSACCHARIDES = many simple sugar units linked together

23 MONOGLYCERIDE = one molecule of glycerol linked to one fatty acid molecule

24 LIPIDS - TRIGLYCERIDES (FATS)

25 FAT = FATTY ACID TRIGLYCERIDE = one molecule of glycerol linked to three fatty acid molecules

26 CHOLESTEROL = a different type of lipid

27 LIPOSOME = the double layer of lipids that helps form cell membranes to separate a cell from other cells and the environment

28 STRUCTURE OF AN AMINO ACID = the building block of proteins

29 AMINO ACIDS ARE LINKED TOGETHER BY PEPTIDE BONDS TO FORM PROTEINS

30 PROTEINS/PEPTIDES (PRIMARY STRUCTURE)

31 LEVELS OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE = amino acid chains fold up in specific ways at the molecular level to give the protein an overall specific three dimensional shape and thus a specific function

32 MUSCLE IS MADE MOSTLY OF PROTEIN

33 HUMAN MUSCLE FIBERS

34 HAIR IS MADE MOSTLY OF PROTEIN

35 AN ENZYME = A BIOLOGICAL CATALYST MOST ENZYMES ARE PROTEINS

36 DNA (DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID)

37 A DNA NUCLEOTIDE = THE BUILDING BLOCK OF A LARGER DNA MOLECULE

38 A CHAIN OF DNA NUCLEOTIDES

39 THE DNA DOUBLE HELIX = TWO STRANDS OF DNA NUCLEOTIDES BONDED TOGETHER

40 HORMONES Hormone = a chemical (molecule) released from one cell or tissue that regulates the function of another cell or tissue. Hormones are always transported in the blood.

41 TYPES OF HORMONES BASED ON THEIR CHEMICAL STRUCTURE
STEROIDS = have a structure similar to cholesterol PROTEINS = chains of amino acids FATTY ACIDS = look somewhat like fat AMINES = contain a special nitrogen group

42 STEROIDS PROTEINS FATTY ACIDS AMINES EXAMPLES OF HORMONES
Testosterone, Estrogen, Progesterone PROTEINS LH, FSH, GnRH (these regulate the gonads) FATTY ACIDS Prostaglandins (these cause cramps) AMINES Adrenaline, Serotonin

43 LIGHT MICROSCOPE

44 ELECTRON MICROSCOPE

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46 ANIMAL (HUMAN) CELL

47 CELL BIOLOGY

48 AN ANIMAL CELL

49 CELLS ARE SMALL – THEY NEED A LARGE SURFACE AREA FOR THE TRANSPORT OF NUTRIENTS IN AND WASTES OUT

50 AN ANIMAL CELL SHOWING ORGANELLES ORGANELLE = A COMPARTMENTALIZED STRUCTURE IN A CELL THAT PERFORMS A SPECIFIC FUNCTION FOR THE CELL

51 A BACTERIA CELL = NO CELL NUCLEUS THESE TYPES OF CELLS ARE PROKARYOTIC

52 E. COLI = A BACTERIA FOUND IN YOUR INTESTINES

53 CELL NUCLEUS AND ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

54 CELL NUCLEI

55 THE ROUGH ER MAKES PROTEINS THAT WILL BE RELEASED FROM CELLS

56 MITOCHONDRIA = MAKES CELL ENERGY IN THE FORM OF A MOLECULE CALLED ATP

57 CELL CYTOSKELETON = PROTEIN FIBERS THAT GIVE THE CELL ITS SHAPE

58 FLAGELLA = SPERM TAIL

59 ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

60 CELLS DIVIDING IN AN EARLY EMBRYO

61 CHROMOSOMES IN THE CELL NUCLEUS CHROMOSOMES ARE MADE OF DNA

62 CHROMOSOMES DUPLICATE BEFORE CELLS DIVIDE

63 THE CELL CYCLE = THE DAY-TO-DAY LIFE OF A CELL

64 THE HUMAN LIFE CYCLE

65 A DIVIDING CELL

66 SKIN CELLS ARE CONSTANTLY DIVIDING

67 BREAST CELLS NORMAL CANCEROUS

68 CELL DIVISION - MITOSIS

69 CELL DIVISION - MITOSIS

70 INTERPHASE

71 PROPHASE

72 SPINDLE FIBERS FORM DURING CELL DIVISION TO MOVE CHROMOSOMES

73 INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT OF CHROMOSOMES

74 MOUSE TRAITS

75 CROSSING OVER = Chromosomes break off and re-attach to recombine genes between homologous chromosomes = OCCURS DURING PROPHASE

76 CROSSING OVER OF CHROMOSOMES CREATES RECOMBINED CHROMOSOMES

77 METAPHASE

78 ANAPHASE

79 TELOPHASE

80 CELL DIVISION - MITOSIS

81 MEIOSIS – MEIOSIS I

82 MEIOSIS – MEIOSIS II

83 COMPARISON OF MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS

84 DOWN’S SYNDROME

85 MATERNAL AGE vs. RATE OF DOWN’S SYNDROME

86 KARYOTYPING = a technique to visualize the chromosomes and number of chromosomes in a dividing cell

87 HUMAN FEMALE KARYOTYPE

88 HUMAN MALE KARYOTYPE

89 NONDISJUNCTION = failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis

90 FERTILIZATION AFTER NONDISJUNCTION IN AN EGG

91 DOWN’S SYNDROME KARYOTYPE

92 Amniocentesis = sampling the amnionic fluid around the fetus for fetal cells

93 Chorionic Villi Sampling = sampling the placental cells which have the same DNA as fetal cells

94 KLINEFELTER’S SYNDROME (XXY) = due to nondisjunction of sex chromosomes
Due to fertilization with an egg or sperm that has an extra X chromosome

95 TURNER’S SYNDROME (XO) = due to nondisjunction of sex chromosomes
Due to fertilization with an egg or sperm lacking an X chromosome

96 THE HUMAN LIFE CYCLE

97 Proteins Perform Most Cell Functions

98 DNA = DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID

99 DNA BASES

100 RNA = RIBONUCLEIC ACID THIS IS AN RNA NUCLEOTIDE

101 DNA FORMING A DOUBLE HELIX

102 DNA REPLICATES (IT IS COPIED) TO MAKE NEW CHROMOSOMES BEFORE CELL DIVISION OCCURS (during S phase)

103 DNA DUPLICATION = COPYING CHROMOSOMES

104 DNA IS USED AS THE BLUEPRINT TO MAKE PROTEINS

105 GENE = A SEQUENCE OF DNA THAT CODES FOR THE AMINO ACID SEQUENCE IN A PROTEIN

106 THE GENETIC CODE = each triplet of DNA bases codes for a triplet of RNA bases = a CODON
Each triplet RNA CODON codes for a specific amino acid in a protein

107 DNA IS TRANSCRIBED INTO RNA RNA IS TRANSLATED INTO A PROTEIN

108 CHANGES IN THE DNA CAUSE CHANGES IN THE RNA AND THUS IN THE AMINO ACID SEQUENCE OF A PROTEIN

109 Sickle Cell Anemia

110 Sickle Red Blood Cells

111 Normal vs. Sickle Red Blood Cells

112 SICKLE CELL ANEMIA IS CAUSED BY A SINGLE CHANGE IN ONE DNA BASE WHICH CAUSES A SINGLE AMINO ACID TO CHANGE IN HEMOGLOBIN


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