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Rethinking Teacher Supervision and Evaluation Dudley-Charlton – Kim Marshall – April 29, 2011 MORE REVISIONS FOR CHALRTON APR 26, 11.

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Presentation on theme: "Rethinking Teacher Supervision and Evaluation Dudley-Charlton – Kim Marshall – April 29, 2011 MORE REVISIONS FOR CHALRTON APR 26, 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rethinking Teacher Supervision and Evaluation Dudley-Charlton – Kim Marshall – April 29, 2011

2 Your role? Principal Assistant principal Teacher Union official
Instructional coach District official Consultant Education advocate University or college Other 10

3 Approximate FRPL of your students
0-10% 11-20% 21-30% 31-40% 41-50% 51-60% 61-70% 71-80% 81-90% 91-100% 9 Answer Now

4 Percent of New York 7th-graders proficient and above in ELA, and FRPL

5 What are the two biggest factors in achievement in low-SES schools?
Differences in class size Strict discipline Sense of mission School leadership Teaching practices Curriculum content Parent involvement PD, coaching Teachers’ credentials Staff morale 8

6 As a teacher, which two most improved your teaching and your students’ learning?
Ideas from books, articles PD workshops in school Workshops and courses outside school Supervision suggestions from administrators End-of-year evaluation by administrators Ideas and suggestions from fellow teachers Ideas and suggestions from loved ones Internet resources Figuring it out myself Other 7

7 Evaluation has become a polite, if near-meaningless matter between a beleaguered principal and a nervous teacher. Research has finally told us what many of us suspected all along: that conventional evaluation, the kind the overwhelming majority of American teachers undergo, does not have any measurable impact on the quality of student learning. In most cases, it is a waste of time. Mike Schmoker, 1992 Except for a few instances, the traditional evaluation process is exhausting and fruitless. Kathleen Elvin, Brooklyn principal, 2008 Principal evaluation of teachers is a low-leverage strategy for improving schools, particularly in terms of the time it requires of principals. Richard DuFour & Robert Marzano, 2009

8 Your reaction to these statements?
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree 6 Answer Now!

9 Widget Effect – New Teacher Project
Chicago teacher ratings on 4-point scale: Superior – 25,332 Excellent – 9,176 Satisfactory – 2,232 Unsatisfactory – 149 Elgin teacher ratings on 3-point scale: Excellent – 2,035 Satisfactory – 264 Unsatisfactory – 11 Denver ratings on binary scale: 2,374 Satisfactory 32 Unsatisfactory

10 A summary Quality of teaching is hugely important to kids’ futures.
Especially is they have any kind of disadvantage. 99% of U.S. teachers are rated Excellent or Satisfactory. But there’s plenty of mediocre and ineffective teaching. We’re not differentiating excellent, good, mediocre, poor A mediocre hotel isn’t a big deal, but with teaching… We’re not helping mediocre/unsatisfactory teachers… And the evaluation system is exhausting principals.

11 Saints, cynics, and sinners
Saints spend 6+ hours per teacher. Pre-observation conference, observation, write-up, post-conference Cynics bang out observations/evaluations. Tedious, won’t make much difference, but… Sinners don’t do them (except when the heat is on). Usually get away with it




15 Bill Ribas, Teacher Evaluation That Works, 2005

16 Which category describes the principal you know best?
Saint Cynic Sinner 5 Answer Now!

17 The $64,000 Question Could a saint’s school have low student achievement? The story of one principal in New York City Could a sinner’s school have high student achievement?

18 The challenge How can principals sample teaching accurately?
Positively influence teaching? Assure quality teaching in every class, every day? Boost learning for all students? Is this humanly possible?

19 Each teacher teaches 900 lessons a year

20 How to supervise this kind of work?
Police departments have a similar challenge Very difficult to keep tabs on police officers How do you make sure they’re doing the right thing all the time? How do you motivate them to do want to do the right thing all the time? Rigid policies and procedures – “officer-proof” Supervisors cruising around checking up Compstat – using crime statistics, arrests - results Video cameras in patrol cars

21 Teachers are on their own 99
Teachers are on their own 99.9% of the time; many are great, many are not. What to do? Hire more administrators to evaluate more frequently “Master Educators” from central to evaluate teachers Evaluate teachers using value-added test scores Wyoming proposal: once-a-year videotaping Cameras monitoring classrooms all the time Student input; parent input A 4-year evaluation cycle Trust in teachers’ professionalism Prayer

22 Logic model – how it could work
A shared definition of good teaching Principals see everyday teaching in action. Principals are knowledgeable and perceptive observers. Principals have an effective way to give feedback. Principals address mediocre and ineffective teaching. Teachers hear and accept the feedback. Teachers take ownership for student learning.

23 A. A shared definition of good teaching
Every district has criteria in its evaluation form. Required presentation to teachers, sign-off But does everyone pay attention, buy in? A common problem: defining just one level.

24 Is there agreement on good teaching in your school?
We all agree on what excellent, good, mediocre, poor teaching looks like. We agree on what good teaching looks like. There are some disparities within the school. There are many different opinions on what good teaching is. 7 Answer Now!

25 Teachers are immune to feedback from a coach or administrator
when they have different definitions of quality. The single most important thing that a school leader can do is reach agreement with the staff about quality. Fisher and Frey, 2010

26 B. Principals see everyday reality
Factors that make this difficult: H.S.P.S. – evaluation avoided, procrastinated Principals see only 0.1% of teaching The principal’s presence changes things. Announced observations, “glamorized” lessons A “collusive deal” – utterly bogus Restaurant owner’s concerns… It’s what teachers do every day that boosts learning. Like healthy eating, exercise – keeping it up

27 It has been said that when a principal walks into a room, it has the same effect as seeing a state trooper pull out onto the highway – the students straighten up and “take their foot off the gas”, even if they weren’t speeding (er, misbehaving). Peter Hall, Nevada principal (2005)

28 In your school, how many formal teacher evaluation visits are announced in advance?
All of them About 75% About half About 25% None of them 6

29 In defense of pre-announced visits
“I want to see teachers at their best.” “It is my firm belief that mediocre teachers will hang themselves whether announced or unannounced.” “I have never met a bad teacher who didn’t look horrible despite an announced visit.”


31 C. Principals are knowledgeable and perceptive observers of teaching
A shared definition of good teaching helps. So does knowledge of curriculum goals, calendar, ideas Touring classrooms with thoughtful colleagues helps. Best of all: being in classrooms a lot, talking to teachers, and looking at student learning. Most principals don’t do enough of this.

32 D. An effective way to give feedback
Often low-quality forms, checklists Teacher signs, files away – little impact High skill level needed to do good lesson write-ups. Lots of words without clear judgment, feedback. Plus it’s time-consuming, exhausting for principals Some principals have teachers draft their evaluations. Some cut corners, paste in boilerplate

33 Your opinion of your district’s end-of-year teacher evaluation form?
Excellent tool that improves teaching Good feedback tool Not bad but doesn’t affect teaching much Poor tool that doesn’t capture good teaching or help teachers improve 6

34 Problematic models Narratives – verbiage without impact
Teacher goal-setting – very hard to follow up Checklists – perfunctory, don’t distinguish Quality descriptions with no rubric Binary ratings – Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory Three-point scales: Excellent Satisfactory Unsatisfactory Five-point scales: “Gentleman’s C”



37 E. Principals step up to the plate on mediocre and ineffective teaching
Some don’t push teachers to be better. Want to keep the peace, avoid conflict, be liked Fear of grievances, lengthy proceedings Afraid of jeopardizing other initiatives. Wait for them to retire. And some teachers are scary…


39 F. Teachers hear and accept the feedback
Can be overwhelming – too much feedback to absorb Many teachers shrug off criticism. Lots of reasons to ignore a principal: You’re hardly ever in my room. You haven’t taught in years. You never taught my grade level/subject. You don’t have children of your own. I was having a bad day. Criticism makes some teachers shut down…


41 G. Teachers take ownership for student learning
Many teachers work in isolation. Little ownership for the school’s mission For many, evaluation is paternalistic, top-down. Impressing, charming, getting over on boss It’s about instructional inputs, which are debatable. How to instill intrinsic motivation? Get teachers focused on learning, finding the most effective methods and materials, always improving?

42 Dependency   Results Paternalistic Glamorized lessons
Winning the boss’s approval “I liked when you…” Lesson plans turned in Data analysis because we have to CYA Working in isolation Shared vision, mission Team unit planning On-the-spot assessments Common interim assessments Immediate team analysis, action plans Supervisory voice in head all the time Continuously improving

43 In short, the logic model isn’t working
No school effectiveness lists include supervision/eval. Marzano, DuFour, Saphier: a “weak lever” for change Core problem: full-lesson evaluations that are infrequent, announced, time-consuming, not focused on results Lots of mediocre, ineffective teaching under the radar How can we get good teaching in every class, every day? Here’s my 4-part proposal…

44 I. MINI-OBSERVATIONS Principals need a system for:
Getting into classrooms Seeing everyday reality Giving teachers meaningful feedback Continuously improving student learning Gathering data for year-end evaluations Many are racked with guilt about not doing this.

45 Mini-observations: systematic, frequent sampling and coaching
Short visits to fit them in to very busy days Unannounced to see what kids are experiencing daily Lots of them to sample all aspects of teaching, blend in Prompt, thoughtful feedback to each teacher Informal and low-stakes to maximize adult learning Systematic cycling through the whole staff Integrated with team unit planning and results analysis

46 Like a Gallup Poll

47 Still not much time, but…
Much more representative than one dog-and-pony A random sampling is amazingly accurate. And this is as much as most principals can do. My challenge: What’s the alternative? We still rely on teachers’ professionalism, skill. But by frequently checking in and giving feedback Message: It’s what you do every day that matters.

48 About how often is the average teacher visited and given feedback in your school?
Never Once every two years Once a year Twice a year 3-5 times a year 6-8 times a year About once a month About every two weeks Once every week More than once a week 5 Answer Now

49 Why not call them “walk-throughs”?
Confusion with learning walks - a team touring the whole building, general feedback (Resnick, Elmore) The wrong term for a focused, thoughtful observation with feedback – sounds to teachers like a drive-by. Video clip Safety walk-through Showing the flag Learning walk/ Instructional rounds Mini-observations Full-lesson observation

50 Education Week, March 12, 2008

51 What might worry teachers about mini-observations?
If you were introducing this idea, what concerns would you predict? What might principals worry about? Brainstorm in groups of 2-3 Jot down your key points for a kick-off meeting.

52 Nine key success factors
Staying long enough to gather helpful information Making enough visits to get a balanced picture Having a clear sense of what to look for Capturing and remembering key insights Giving feedback in a way teachers can hear and accept Stepping up with criticism, not accepting mediocrity Shifting gears with unsatisfactory teaching Being clear that mini-observations are evaluative Explaining mini-observations to teachers

53 How long depends on your purpose
Showing the flag: 5 seconds Checking on a substitute: 6 seconds In-depth professional development: 45 min. + Making the case for dismissal: multiple 45 min. But what about a dialogue about instruction?

54 How long does a principal need to stay to form a meaningful impression?
1 minute 3 minutes 5 minutes 10 minutes 15 minutes 20 minutes 25 minutes 35 minutes 45 minutes 1 hour or more 5 Answer Now!



57 Videotape and role-play - preferred grade level?
Kindergarten Grade 4-5 Middle school High-school English High-school science GOOD RETHINKING OF LEAD-IN (SCATTER PLOT) AND SAMPLING CHALLENGE, LOTS OF REVISIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS MID-JULY 2010 5 Answer Now

58 Was that enough time to get a sense of what was going on in the classroom?
Yes No 5 Answer Now!

59 Was it possible to give meaningful feedback to the teacher afterward?
Yes No 5 Answer Now!

60 Best range: 5-15 minutes Depending on: How many teachers
How many administrators doing mini-observations Discipline issues 5 minutes worked for me with 42 teachers to supervise I could fit them into the nooks and crannies But not too short! Principal who sees all classes 2nd per. Note: no pre-observation conferences

61 So who does full-lesson observations?
All teachers should have them periodically. Instructional coaches (also co-observe with principal) Peer observers Lesson study colleagues Videotaping lesson, watching with a critical friend New teachers need more detailed feedback. But principal only does unsatisfactory teachers.

62 2. Doing lots A good annual target: 10/teacher/year
Seeing each teacher every 2-3 weeks Sampling all aspects of instruction Frequent visits build dialogue, candor, and trust. How? Set a daily target number and keep it up! My track record: 11, 12, 12, 14, 12, 7, 12, 11, 11+

63 Do the math for your staff
# of teachers Minis for year # per day Stretch goal 60 600 3.3 4 50 500 2.7 3 40 400 2.2 30 300 1.7 2 20 200 1.1 10 100 .6 1

64 A hypothesis on frequency
The less frequently a principal visits classrooms… The more chance for an inaccurate impression The riskier for teachers – caught in a bad moment The more teachers do their own thing The more teachers get into bad habits The more frequently a principal visits… The more accurate a picture of daily instruction The safer for teachers – accurate sampling The more thoughtful the feedback The better the quality of instruction

65 Refinements and variations
Mixing up morning, mid-day, and afternoon visits Arriving at beginning, middle, or end of lessons Doing a grade-level team in a single day Deciding to stay longer “Intensives” – Herb Daughtry Following one class through an entire day Others?

66 Which strategy would help you keep up mini-observations all year?
Will power My boss being on my case A daily target number of visits A weekly target Tracking data Rewarding myself A bare office Other 5 Answer Now!

67 The boss’s support really helps
Regularly visiting, asking good questions How’s it going? Hitting target? What noticing? Very helpful if it’s a district policy Seen as a best practice, frequently discussed Training and support, watching videotapes Also, taking something off the table! Like what?

68 3. Knowing what to look for
Can’t use the end-of-year evaluation checklist, rubric Too much to look for Only seeing a lesson fragment; not fair or practical Many mini-observation checklists are being developed. eCOVE, iObservation, others Problem: the principal is rating, evaluating Schoolwide or systemwide data gathering, but does that help the individual teacher. Is it good coaching?




72 A hypothesis on checklists
The more detailed and elaborate the checklist… The more constrained the principal The more consumed with recording data The less perceptive in observing students, tasks The less seriously teachers take the feedback The less frequent are classrooms visits The simpler and clearer the vision of good teaching… The more observant principal is The more focused on a few key change levers The more seriously teachers will take the feedback The more frequently visits will occur

73 “You can observe a lot by watching”
Slowing down, breathing, listening, paying attention Not imposing a checklist on the situation This teacher in this classroom in this moment What’s most important? What deserves feedback? Capturing 1-3 thoughtful points So as not to miss anything, a mental checklist helps. The irreducible elements of good teaching… With a clear sense of your red flags on each

74 S - Safety O - Objectives T - Teaching E - Engagement L - Learning

75 The L in SOTEL Ultimately, year-end state tests, but in real time?
Teachers’ checking for understanding Looking at the learning task (City, Elmore, et al.) Asking a student “What are you working on?” Teacher teams looking at student work Teacher teams looking at interim assessments One-on-one principal/teacher chats with work

76 4. Capturing insights You don’t want to forget important stuff.
For example, COPWAKTA, great moment, low rigor Clipboards, checklists, iPhones, laptops can distract. Plus, you can miss the forest for the trees. The key: Being a good observer! Not missing the big picture! One or two key points only. Jot notes later?



79 Which would you as a teacher prefer your principal to use?
Checklist on a clipboard Notepad Laptop BlackBerry iPad Flip video camera Recording device No writing in class Doesn’t matter 5 Answer Now!

80 5. Giving feedback that will make a difference
After a mini-observation, there’s lots to say: Praise, on-the-edge, reinforcement, suggestions Questions, redirection, criticism, reprimand What’s the best way to deliver the feedback? How soon? Where?

81 Some possible approaches
No feedback to the teacher; supervisus interruptus Memo to whole staff showcasing best practices Post-It note on teacher’s desk on the way out Hand-written feedback in mailbox Checklist filled out, in teacher’s mailbox Palm Pilot electronic checklist sent to teacher later that day Face-to-face conversation soon afterward

82 The trouble with written feedback
In , people talk at you; in conversation I can talk with [people], and a casual remark can lead to a level of discussion that neither party anticipated from the beginning. I am more likely to learn from someone in a conversation than in an exchange, which simply does not allow for the serendipity, intensity and give-and-take of real-time interaction. Steven Levy, Newsweek, June 11, 2007

83 Especially in our digital age,
the power of talking to people in person is exponential. Howard Schultz Starbucks founder

84 9 advantages of face-to-face
Can quickly and efficiently cover a lot of ground Less paperwork Less threatening than written, less bureaucratic Focus on 1-2 key points, teacher not overwhelmed The teacher can push back, informal dialogue. Can be tentative, check on something (girl’s card) Can judge if the teacher can handle criticism. Can segue into general talks about instruction, status. Much more likely to change ineffective practices

85 Four-squares feedback
What’s going well Any concerns Next steps What I can do?

86 Informal, somewhat humble posture
Stand-up chats are lighter, less threatening. Brief – 30 seconds to 5 minutes; don’t overdo it! Not an all-seeing, all-knowing, judgmental god “I was only there for ten minutes; here’s what I saw.” “I’m curious about what happened after I left…” Really listening to how the teacher responds Give-and-take, suggestions, commendations

87 Feedback in writing? Signature?
Feels bureaucratic, CYA to the teacher Less nuanced, detailed than face-to-face Teacher not invited into the conversation Face-to-face is quicker, more direct, more powerful. Signature only if there’s a red flag – “letter to file” How about this sequence: Mini-observation Face-to-face conversation A short to the teacher summing up

88 Nine ineffective practices
Intervening with students – “Excuse me, …” Giving the teacher “private” feedback on the spot Sending feedback from a laptop while in class Written feedback that “ends there” Several-day delay before giving feedback Bureaucratic checklist, robotic use of technology Distracted – “He’s there but he’s not there.” Perfunctory – I’m checking you off my list. Not giving all teachers feedback all the time Arizona district: trio visit, pullout, demo

89 Which is most likely to improve teaching and teachers’ investment in improving?
No feedback Verbal feedback during class Post-it note on desk Memo to staff on best practices Checklist in mailbox Electronic checklist Written comments in mailbox or Face-to-face talk Written comments, then face-to-face Face-to-face, then written comments 5 Answer Now!

90 Best location for mini feedback?
Principal’s office Corridor Playground Teacher’s classroom during free period Cafeteria Faculty lounge Parking lot A bar after hours A phone call in evening Other 5 Answer Now

91 Avoidance I’m too busy! Can’t track down teachers.
Will I have enough to say? Bite the bullet on criticism? I’m more comfortable with a checklist, Another reason: binge mini-observing

92 “I made it my business” “Face-to-face feedback is the driver of change.” Paul Bambrick-Santoyo, 2010 If it’s perceptive and delivered well, it can really affect teaching and learning. Being strategic about tracking down teachers. And following up on subsequent visits, chats

93 Scheduled check-in meetings?
Each teacher has a scheduled meeting time Do mini-observations shortly before check-ins Use the check-in to give feedback Also to have a more general How’s-it-going talk Helps keep principal on track Any disadvantages?

94 Linking to school-wide improvement
The principal can be a cross-pollinator! Spread good ideas, things to avoid, think about Organize PD on specific areas Put teachers in touch with each other Peer observation Pass along insights to teams, instructional coaches. Talk about units, student learning.

95 6. Stepping up to the plate

96 A leader who is silent on mediocrity speaks loudly
Some teachers get into bad habits, slack off - mediocrity Addressing mediocre and poor teaching depends on: A clear, shared vision of effective teaching Urgency – good teaching really, really matters Guts How to keep our moral edge? Co-observe classrooms with your boss Regularly look at interim assessment results

97 Pointers from Thomas Hoerr (2004)
Pick the time and place carefully. Be timely. Be specific. Watch your body language. Tell why this is important to you and the school. Say that you’ve been there too. Allow for a response. Review and reinforce at the end.

98 7. Shifting gears with unsatisfactory teaching
Mini-observations aren’t sufficient. Full-lesson observations, ideally unannounced Union reps, lawyer consulted at every step Diagnosis and prescription, improvement plan 2-3 chances to improve, plenty of support If insufficient improvement, dismissal

99 8. A clear, explicit link to end-of-the-year evaluations
It’s understood that mini-observations are evaluative. No firewall between minis and evaluation. It’s all part of improving teaching and learning. This may require collective bargaining or a waiver. At the Mather, there was rapid acceptance of the idea. People trusted I was seeing reality, feedback was honest. We did away with the dog-and-pony show! Which opened up time for mini-observations.

100 9. A clear explanation to teachers
Launch with a good rationale What’s the problem to which this is the solution? Old system is chewing up time and is ineffective Change will help our school’s mission. Reassure teachers on the key worries. Show a videotape! It really helps make the point. In the first couple of cycles, accentuate the positive.


102 The logic of mini-observations
Unannounced to see everyday reality. But it would be unfair to observe just once a year. So observations must be frequent to sample accurately. But if frequent, don’t have time to stay for full lessons. So observations need to be short. But visits are short, full write-ups aren’t possible. So brief, face-to-face feedback and follow-up s. But it’s easy to lose track, miss teachers, double up. So the process must be systematic.

103 Advantages for teaching and learning
See reality without distortion (no glamorized; blend in) Get to know how all teacher are doing, spot problems CEO visibility, listening, getting ideas, credibility Build trust, the lubricant of school culture Unspoken message: everyday teaching is what matters I’m your coach; let’s solve problems together. More humble, winning posture – teachers hear, accept Good time management – squeezed into busy days Gathering anecdotes for meetings, parents Lots of information for year-end evaluations

104 How would you personally feel about being supervised using mini-observations?
Strongly prefer this approach Prefer it No difference one way or the other Uncomfortable with it Very negative about it 5 Answer Now!

105 With mini-observations with feedback a year, would you have a pretty accurate picture of each teacher’s performance? Yes No 5 Answer Now!

106 How much impact would this have on teaching and learning?
Very positive Somewhat positive Not much impact No impact 5 Answer Now!



109 To be a good mini-observer, it helps to know the curriculum
A razzle-dazzle lesson, but does it… Align with standards? Big ideas? Contain the appropriate level of rigor, detail? Get at the big ideas, essential questions? Principals can’t micromanage every lesson. 25,000 a year! But can monitor teacher teams’ curriculum unit plans





114 Key to increasing teacher ownership
Teacher teams (e.g., Grade 3, 7th-grade social studies) Starting with the end in mind: a shared vision of what students should know and be able to do Planning each 4-6 week curriculum unit in advance Principal reviewing drafts, dropping in Instructional coaches supporting teacher teams

115 A difference in tone Asking for lesson plans feels officious, untrusting. Working with teams on unit plans is stimulating and productive work. It’s also much more manageable! Essential Questions are better for classroom walls than SWBAT lesson objectives.

116 Some insights on backwards design
It won’t happen by itself. It pushes teachers to plan deeper, more thoughtfully. It’s challenging intellectual work, best done in teams. It builds collaboration, investment in the mission. It’s the best way to integrate standards. It gets higher-order, college-ready ideas into lessons. Much easier to supervise unit plans than lesson plans

117 A simplified unit planning template
State standards (written out verbatim, unpacked) Knowledge goals - Students will know… Skill goals - Students will be able to… Big ideas - Students will understand that… Essential Questions (3-4 in kid-friendly language) End-of-unit assessments (written up front) Lesson-by-lesson instructional plan See sample fifth-grade nutrition unit

118 Some key leadership steps
• Clarity on end-of-year learning goals for each grade Having teams decide on units, calendar them Insisting that teacher teams collaboratively plan units Providing a simple unit planning template, model unit Giving teams the time to plan Making sure teachers start with the standards Reviewing unit drafts, revising, visiting meetings Subscribing to providing UbD training, support

119 What is the potential of backwards unit design in your school?
We’re doing this already. It would greatly improve the quality of teaching and learning. It would bring about some improvements. It wouldn’t make much difference. It would confuse and overload teachers. 5

120 How does involvement in unit planning affect teacher supervision?
It makes the principal a more perceptive and helpful observer. It gives the principal a little more of an idea of curriculum content. It turns the principal into a desk-bound curriculum bureaucrat. Principals don’t have the time to get this involved in curriculum. 5 Answer Now

121 Synergy with mini-observations

122 III. INTERIM ASSESS-MENTS: Introducing student learning into supervision and evaluation



125 Mini-observations and curriculum units: Necessary but not sufficient
It’s not enough to get into classrooms a lot. It’s not enough to have good curriculum unit plans. Are students learning? This must be part of supervision and evaluation. But how? A national debate is raging.

126 Problems with individual merit pay
Practical – Test scores not available till summer. Psychometric – Tests not valid for individual evaluation. Value-added – We need three years of data for validity. Staff dynamics – Collaboration is undermined. Curriculum quality – Low-level test prep. Moral – Turning up the heat increases cheating. Fairness – How to divvy up credit among all the teachers who contribute to students’ success?

127 But isn’t there some way?
Here’s why it matters. The moment of truth in classrooms A teacher teaches a curriculum unit, assesses learning

128 Inexorable gap-widening forces
Pressure to cover the curriculum, prepare for tests Pressure from parents of high-achieving students Beliefs about intelligence Fatalism about the bell curve Shortage of ideas, materials to help those kids Isolation from colleagues… How can we stop the gap from widening?




132 “Professional Learning Communities” good interim tests, analysis, action
Same-grade, same-subject teacher teams collaborating Common goals, interim assessments every 6 weeks Immediate scoring and data display Collegial sharing on what worked, what didn’t Non-evaluative to foster adult learning Grappling with student misconceptions, learning problems This gets teachers really invested. The engine of improvement in high-achieving schools.

133 Visible Learning by John Hattie (2009)



136 8 keys to success with interim assessments
High-quality tests, well aligned, appropriate rigor Rapid turnaround (24 hours) Clear, graphic data display Productive team data meetings, “data without blame” Administrator/coach involvement, support - video clip Honest reflection, continuous improvement Immediate follow-up with students Students involved: knowing status, setting goals…





141 Principals are the key orchestrators
Building understanding and trust Insisting on common interim assessments Scheduling assessments, team meetings, follow-up Ground rules to keep focused, low-stakes Team leaders facilitate; principal drops in, supports Young administrator’s entry point: results vs. methods Teachers hold each other accountable for high quality. “Man on Fire” swimming sequence

142 Agile teaching, responsive to student learning minute by minute, day by day, month by month.
Dylan Wiliam and Ian Beatty, 2009

143 What is the potential of interim assessments in your school?
We’re doing this now. If done well, this would bring about major improvements in teaching and learning. It would have some benefits. Teacher teams are resistant to this kind of work. Interim assessments would have a negative impact on our school. 5 Answer Now

144 How about the principal’s role in interim assessments?
Shifting the conversation to results is key to effective supervision and leadership. The principal should help guide this process but not lead it. The principal should let teachers handle assessments. Principals don’t have the time or expertise to do this kind of work. 5 Answer Now

145 Three kinds of supervision interact


147 End-of-year evaluation
After doing 10+ mini-observations with feedback… After working with teams on curriculum unit plans… After working with teams on interim assessments… How to sum up a teacher’s performance for the year? Narratives, checklists, and goals all have problems… Must differentiate between great, good, mediocre, poor Recognize quality, give tough-love feedback to others

148 Teacher evaluation rubrics
Rubrics spell out four levels of teaching quality. They force judgment. A road-map to help underperformers to improve Charlotte Danielson: Framework for Teaching,1996 Some districts, charter schools using rubrics Endorsed in Education Sector report, Rush to Judgment Big advantages over write-ups, checklists, goal-setting

149 Kim’s rubrics (2006, 2010) Open source
Researched rubrics, best ideas, step-by-step process: First, deciding on “buckets” based on many models: Planning and preparation for learning Classroom management Delivery of instruction Monitoring, assessment, and follow-up Family and community outreach Professional responsibilities

150 The rating scale and labels
4 – Highly Effective 3 – Effective 2 – Improvement Necessary 1 – Does Not Meet Standards Differentiate the four levels of performance The goal – all teachers performing at Level 3 and 4 Identify master teachers for maxi roles in school Intervene with mediocre and ineffective

151 Sorting and drafting A wide search for the criteria of good teaching
Finding the most powerful, best written The inputs that lead to high student achievement Sorting them into the six “buckets” Drafting Level 3 (Effective) Short and sweet!

152 D. Monitoring, Assessment, and Follow-up [Effective level]
- Posts clear criteria for proficiency, including rubrics and exemplars of student work. - Diagnoses students’ knowledge and skills up front and makes small adjustments based on the data. - Frequently checks for understanding and gives students helpful information if they seem confused. - Has students set goals, self-assess, and know where they stand academically at all times. - Regularly posts students’ work to make visible and celebrate their progress with respect to standards. - Uses data from interim assessments to adjust teaching, re-teach, and follow up with failing students. - Takes responsibility for students who are not succeeding and gives them extra help. - When necessary, refers students for specialized diagnosis and extra help. - Analyzes data from assessments, draws conclusions, and shares them appropriately. - Reflects on the effectiveness of lessons and units and continuously works to improve them.

153 Drafting the other three levels and creating headlines

154 Involving teachers Goal: understanding, trust, investment in improvement Rubrics negotiated, shared and discussed up front Voluntary self-assessment and goal-setting In May/June, each teacher fills out the rubric. Input in areas where principal lacks information. Meet, compare, discuss the evidence Finalize, celebrate, set goals


156 Let’s try one page Think of a teacher you know well.
Pick one domain (Classroom Management?) Read across each line circling 4, 3, 2, or 1 The best description of that teacher’s performance. What strikes you about using rubrics? Pluses Concerns

157 Flip through the whole package
A total of 60 facets of teaching (Danielson has 77) Covering all aspects of the job Judged by at least 10 mini-observations, conversations, visits to team meetings, other interactions For teachers at Level 1 and 2, improvement plan, support Rubrics not appropriate as classroom visit checklists! Rubric data from a whole faculty can be very helpful…


159 Policy questions with rubrics
A score for each domain? An overall score? More weight for some domains? B, C, D ? A different rubric for new teachers? Involving teachers, others in tweaking the rubrics? Student input? Parent input? Rubrics for other job categories? (Westwood, Mass.) Differential pay depending on rubric level?

160 Other factors matter more
Do you think teachers rated at Levels 3 and 4 produce high achievement? Without a doubt Probably Not necessarily Other factors matter more 5 Answer Now


162 Would it be OK for your child (or niece or nephew) to be in a Level 2 classroom?
Yes No 5 Answer Now

163 Suggestions for Level 2 teachers
For those with an overall Level 2 rating… No salary step raise A year to improve to Level 3 Lots of support If insufficient improvement, dismissal Being implemented in Hillsborough, Florida with strong union support

164 Ideas for rewarding teachers for results
Who gets rewarded? Individual teachers Teacher teams The whole staff What is measured? End-of-year standardized test scores Value-added gains in test scores Student gains on in-school assessments Classroom performance (observations, rubric scores) What’s the reward? A $$ pay bonus Commendation in the year-end evaluation Verbal praise from the principal

165 My suggestions Who gets rewarded? Individual teachers Teacher teams
The whole staff What is measured? End-of-year standardized test scores Value-added gains in test scores Team’s student gains on in-school assessments Classroom performance (observations) What’s the reward? A $$ pay bonus Commendation in the year-end evaluation Verbal praise from the principal

166 Highly effective teachers share their magic, boost their schools
Mentors and team leaders They observe classes, are observed Work with their teams on curriculum units Work with their teams analyzing results Mentor new teachers, struggling colleagues Serve on the school leadership team Write proposals, dream up new ideas Think about policy, district issues

167 How would you personally feel about being evaluated with these rubrics?
Great Quite good Doesn’t matter either way Quite worried Very concerned, negative 5 Answer Now!

168 How much impact do you think using these rubrics would have on teaching and learning?
Very positive impact Somewhat positive impact Not much difference Very little impact Negative impact 5 Answer Now!

169 Will the logic model work now?
A shared definition of good teaching Principals see everyday teaching in action. Principals are knowledgeable and perceptive observers. Principals have an effective way to give feedback. Principals address mediocre and ineffective teaching. Teachers hear and accept the feedback. Teachers take ownership for student learning.

170 How to make this sustainable? A principal’s time (35 teachers)
Full-dress evaluation hours (50 observations, 6 hrs each) Mini-observations hours (4 a day, follow-up talk) Showing the flag - 80 hours (1/2 hour a day most days) Lesson plan inspection - 70 hours (2 hours a week) Rubrics, conferences - 55 hours (1 hour each, 1/2 hr. conference) Interim assessments- 50 hours (5 a year, 10 hours each) Curriculum planning - 40 hours (six hours 6 times a year) Learning walks/rounds - 12 hours a year (4 hours x processing) Calculated 9 hours a day x 180 days


172 The most powerful activities - 260 hours

173 Instructional leadership on the hoof
Early-morning ing, paperwork, calls Out front greeting colleagues, students, parents Quick meeting with leadership team, secretary 2-3 mini-observations; face-to-face feedback to 2-3 Monitoring the “big rock” projects for the year Dropping in on a teacher team doing unit planning Dropping in on a team looking at data, student work Cafeteria time and other interaction with students Private conversations with students, teachers, parents Outside at dismissal having informal chats, unwinding Late afternoon ing and paperwork

174 Work smart, build collaboration, close the achievement gap!

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