Presentation on theme: "Rethinking Teacher Supervision and Evaluation Dudley-Charlton – Kim Marshall – April 29, 2011 MORE REVISIONS FOR CHALRTON APR 26, 11."— Presentation transcript:
1 Rethinking Teacher Supervision and Evaluation Dudley-Charlton – Kim Marshall – April 29, 2011 MORE REVISIONS FOR CHALRTON APR 26, 11
2 Your role? Principal Assistant principal Teacher Union official Instructional coachDistrict officialConsultantEducation advocateUniversity or collegeOther10
3 Approximate FRPL of your students 0-10%11-20%21-30%31-40%41-50%51-60%61-70%71-80%81-90%91-100%9Answer Now
4 Percent of New York 7th-graders proficient and above in ELA, and FRPL
5 What are the two biggest factors in achievement in low-SES schools? Differences in class sizeStrict disciplineSense of missionSchool leadershipTeaching practicesCurriculum contentParent involvementPD, coachingTeachers’ credentialsStaff morale8
6 As a teacher, which two most improved your teaching and your students’ learning? Ideas from books, articlesPD workshops in schoolWorkshops and courses outside schoolSupervision suggestions from administratorsEnd-of-year evaluation by administratorsIdeas and suggestions from fellow teachersIdeas and suggestions from loved onesInternet resourcesFiguring it out myselfOther7
7 Evaluation has become a polite, if near-meaningless matter between a beleaguered principal and a nervous teacher. Research has finally told us what many of us suspected all along: that conventional evaluation, the kind the overwhelming majority of American teachers undergo, does not have any measurable impact on the quality of student learning. In most cases, it is a waste of time.Mike Schmoker, 1992Except for a few instances, the traditional evaluation process is exhausting and fruitless.Kathleen Elvin, Brooklyn principal, 2008Principal evaluation of teachers is a low-leverage strategy for improving schools, particularly in terms of the time it requires of principals.Richard DuFour & Robert Marzano, 2009
8 Your reaction to these statements? Strongly AgreeAgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly Disagree6Answer Now!
9 Widget Effect – New Teacher Project Chicago teacher ratings on 4-point scale:Superior – 25,332Excellent – 9,176Satisfactory – 2,232Unsatisfactory – 149Elgin teacher ratings on 3-point scale:Excellent – 2,035Satisfactory – 264Unsatisfactory – 11Denver ratings on binary scale:2,374 Satisfactory32 Unsatisfactory
10 A summary Quality of teaching is hugely important to kids’ futures. Especially is they have any kind of disadvantage.99% of U.S. teachers are rated Excellent or Satisfactory.But there’s plenty of mediocre and ineffective teaching.We’re not differentiating excellent, good, mediocre, poorA mediocre hotel isn’t a big deal, but with teaching…We’re not helping mediocre/unsatisfactory teachers…And the evaluation system is exhausting principals.
11 Saints, cynics, and sinners Saints spend 6+ hours per teacher.Pre-observation conference, observation, write-up, post-conferenceCynics bang out observations/evaluations.Tedious, won’t make much difference, but…Sinners don’t do them (except when the heat is on).Usually get away with it
15 Bill Ribas, Teacher Evaluation That Works, 2005
16 Which category describes the principal you know best? SaintCynicSinner5Answer Now!
17 The $64,000 QuestionCould a saint’s school have low student achievement?The story of one principal in New York CityCould a sinner’s school have high student achievement?
18 The challenge How can principals sample teaching accurately? Positively influence teaching?Assure quality teaching in every class, every day?Boost learning for all students?Is this humanly possible?
20 How to supervise this kind of work? Police departments have a similar challengeVery difficult to keep tabs on police officersHow do you make sure they’re doing the right thing all the time?How do you motivate them to do want to do the right thing all the time?Rigid policies and procedures – “officer-proof”Supervisors cruising around checking upCompstat – using crime statistics, arrests - resultsVideo cameras in patrol cars
21 Teachers are on their own 99 Teachers are on their own 99.9% of the time; many are great, many are not. What to do?Hire more administrators to evaluate more frequently“Master Educators” from central to evaluate teachersEvaluate teachers using value-added test scoresWyoming proposal: once-a-year videotapingCameras monitoring classrooms all the timeStudent input; parent inputA 4-year evaluation cycleTrust in teachers’ professionalismPrayer
22 Logic model – how it could work A shared definition of good teachingPrincipals see everyday teaching in action.Principals are knowledgeable and perceptive observers.Principals have an effective way to give feedback.Principals address mediocre and ineffective teaching.Teachers hear and accept the feedback.Teachers take ownership for student learning.
23 A. A shared definition of good teaching Every district has criteria in its evaluation form.Required presentation to teachers, sign-offBut does everyone pay attention, buy in?A common problem: defining just one level.
24 Is there agreement on good teaching in your school? We all agree on what excellent, good, mediocre, poor teaching looks like.We agree on what good teaching looks like.There are some disparities within the school.There are many different opinions on what good teaching is.7Answer Now!
25 Teachers are immune to feedback from a coach or administrator when they have different definitions of quality.The single most important thingthat a school leader can dois reach agreement with the staff about quality.Fisher and Frey, 2010
26 B. Principals see everyday reality Factors that make this difficult:H.S.P.S. – evaluation avoided, procrastinatedPrincipals see only 0.1% of teachingThe principal’s presence changes things.Announced observations, “glamorized” lessonsA “collusive deal” – utterly bogusRestaurant owner’s concerns…It’s what teachers do every day that boosts learning.Like healthy eating, exercise – keeping it up
27 It has been said that when a principal walks into a room, it has the same effect as seeing a state trooper pull out onto the highway – the students straighten up and “take their foot off the gas”, even if they weren’t speeding (er, misbehaving). Peter Hall, Nevada principal (2005)
28 In your school, how many formal teacher evaluation visits are announced in advance? All of themAbout 75%About halfAbout 25%None of them6
29 In defense of pre-announced visits “I want to see teachers at their best.” “It is my firm belief that mediocre teachers will hang themselves whether announced or unannounced.” “I have never met a bad teacher who didn’t look horrible despite an announced visit.”
31 C. Principals are knowledgeable and perceptive observers of teaching A shared definition of good teaching helps.So does knowledge of curriculum goals, calendar, ideasTouring classrooms with thoughtful colleagues helps.Best of all: being in classrooms a lot, talking to teachers, and looking at student learning.Most principals don’t do enough of this.
32 D. An effective way to give feedback Often low-quality forms, checklistsTeacher signs, files away – little impactHigh skill level needed to do good lesson write-ups.Lots of words without clear judgment, feedback.Plus it’s time-consuming, exhausting for principalsSome principals have teachers draft their evaluations.Some cut corners, paste in boilerplate
33 Your opinion of your district’s end-of-year teacher evaluation form? Excellent tool that improves teachingGood feedback toolNot bad but doesn’t affect teaching muchPoor tool that doesn’t capture good teaching or help teachers improve6
34 Problematic models Narratives – verbiage without impact Teacher goal-setting – very hard to follow upChecklists – perfunctory, don’t distinguishQuality descriptions with no rubricBinary ratings – Satisfactory/UnsatisfactoryThree-point scales:ExcellentSatisfactoryUnsatisfactoryFive-point scales: “Gentleman’s C”
37 E. Principals step up to the plate on mediocre and ineffective teaching Some don’t push teachers to be better.Want to keep the peace, avoid conflict, be likedFear of grievances, lengthy proceedingsAfraid of jeopardizing other initiatives.Wait for them to retire.And some teachers are scary…
39 F. Teachers hear and accept the feedback Can be overwhelming – too much feedback to absorbMany teachers shrug off criticism.Lots of reasons to ignore a principal:You’re hardly ever in my room.You haven’t taught in years.You never taught my grade level/subject.You don’t have children of your own.I was having a bad day.Criticism makes some teachers shut down…
41 G. Teachers take ownership for student learning Many teachers work in isolation.Little ownership for the school’s missionFor many, evaluation is paternalistic, top-down.Impressing, charming, getting over on bossIt’s about instructional inputs, which are debatable.How to instill intrinsic motivation?Get teachers focused on learning, finding the most effective methods and materials, always improving?
42 Dependency Results Paternalistic Glamorized lessons Winning the boss’s approval“I liked when you…”Lesson plans turned inData analysis because we have toCYAWorking in isolationShared vision, missionTeam unit planningOn-the-spot assessmentsCommon interim assessmentsImmediate team analysis, action plansSupervisory voice in head all the timeContinuously improving
43 In short, the logic model isn’t working No school effectiveness lists include supervision/eval.Marzano, DuFour, Saphier: a “weak lever” for changeCore problem: full-lesson evaluations that are infrequent, announced, time-consuming, not focused on resultsLots of mediocre, ineffective teaching under the radarHow can we get good teaching in every class, every day?Here’s my 4-part proposal…
44 I. MINI-OBSERVATIONS Principals need a system for: Getting into classroomsSeeing everyday realityGiving teachers meaningful feedbackContinuously improving student learningGathering data for year-end evaluationsMany are racked with guilt about not doing this.
45 Mini-observations: systematic, frequent sampling and coaching Short visits to fit them in to very busy daysUnannounced to see what kids are experiencing dailyLots of them to sample all aspects of teaching, blend inPrompt, thoughtful feedback to each teacherInformal and low-stakes to maximize adult learningSystematic cycling through the whole staffIntegrated with team unit planning and results analysis
47 Still not much time, but… Much more representative than one dog-and-ponyA random sampling is amazingly accurate.And this is as much as most principals can do.My challenge: What’s the alternative?We still rely on teachers’ professionalism, skill.But by frequently checking in and giving feedbackMessage: It’s what you do every day that matters.
48 About how often is the average teacher visited and given feedback in your school? NeverOnce every two yearsOnce a yearTwice a year3-5 times a year6-8 times a yearAbout once a monthAbout every two weeksOnce every weekMore than once a week5Answer Now
49 Why not call them “walk-throughs”? Confusion with learning walks - a team touring the whole building, general feedback (Resnick, Elmore)The wrong term for a focused, thoughtful observation with feedback – sounds to teachers like a drive-by.Video clipSafety walk-throughShowing the flagLearning walk/ Instructional roundsMini-observationsFull-lesson observation
51 What might worry teachers about mini-observations? If you were introducing this idea, what concerns would you predict?What might principals worry about?Brainstorm in groups of 2-3Jot down your key points for a kick-off meeting.
52 Nine key success factors Staying long enough to gather helpful informationMaking enough visits to get a balanced pictureHaving a clear sense of what to look forCapturing and remembering key insightsGiving feedback in a way teachers can hear and acceptStepping up with criticism, not accepting mediocrityShifting gears with unsatisfactory teachingBeing clear that mini-observations are evaluativeExplaining mini-observations to teachers
53 How long depends on your purpose Showing the flag: 5 secondsChecking on a substitute: 6 secondsIn-depth professional development: 45 min. +Making the case for dismissal: multiple 45 min.But what about a dialogue about instruction?
54 How long does a principal need to stay to form a meaningful impression? 1 minute3 minutes5 minutes10 minutes15 minutes20 minutes25 minutes35 minutes45 minutes1 hour or more5Answer Now!
57 Videotape and role-play - preferred grade level? KindergartenGrade 4-5Middle schoolHigh-school EnglishHigh-school scienceGOOD RETHINKING OF LEAD-IN (SCATTER PLOT) AND SAMPLING CHALLENGE, LOTS OF REVISIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS MID-JULY 20105Answer Now
58 Was that enough time to get a sense of what was going on in the classroom? YesNo5Answer Now!
59 Was it possible to give meaningful feedback to the teacher afterward? YesNo5Answer Now!
60 Best range: 5-15 minutes Depending on: How many teachers How many administrators doing mini-observationsDiscipline issues5 minutes worked for me with 42 teachers to superviseI could fit them into the nooks and cranniesBut not too short! Principal who sees all classes 2nd per.Note: no pre-observation conferences
61 So who does full-lesson observations? All teachers should have them periodically.Instructional coaches (also co-observe with principal)Peer observersLesson study colleaguesVideotaping lesson, watching with a critical friendNew teachers need more detailed feedback.But principal only does unsatisfactory teachers.
62 2. Doing lots A good annual target: 10/teacher/year Seeing each teacher every 2-3 weeksSampling all aspects of instructionFrequent visits build dialogue, candor, and trust.How? Set a daily target number and keep it up!My track record: 11, 12, 12, 14, 12, 7, 12, 11, 11+
63 Do the math for your staff # of teachersMinis for year# per dayStretch goal606003.34505002.73404002.2303001.72202001.110100.61
64 A hypothesis on frequency The less frequently a principal visits classrooms…The more chance for an inaccurate impressionThe riskier for teachers – caught in a bad momentThe more teachers do their own thingThe more teachers get into bad habitsThe more frequently a principal visits…The more accurate a picture of daily instructionThe safer for teachers – accurate samplingThe more thoughtful the feedbackThe better the quality of instruction
65 Refinements and variations Mixing up morning, mid-day, and afternoon visitsArriving at beginning, middle, or end of lessonsDoing a grade-level team in a single dayDeciding to stay longer“Intensives” – Herb DaughtryFollowing one class through an entire dayOthers?
66 Which strategy would help you keep up mini-observations all year? Will powerMy boss being on my caseA daily target number of visitsA weekly targetTracking dataRewarding myselfA bare officeOther5Answer Now!
67 The boss’s support really helps Regularly visiting, asking good questionsHow’s it going? Hitting target? What noticing?Very helpful if it’s a district policySeen as a best practice, frequently discussedTraining and support, watching videotapesAlso, taking something off the table!Like what?
68 3. Knowing what to look for Can’t use the end-of-year evaluation checklist, rubricToo much to look forOnly seeing a lesson fragment; not fair or practicalMany mini-observation checklists are being developed.eCOVE, iObservation, othersProblem: the principal is rating, evaluatingSchoolwide or systemwide data gathering, but does that help the individual teacher. Is it good coaching?
72 A hypothesis on checklists The more detailed and elaborate the checklist…The more constrained the principalThe more consumed with recording dataThe less perceptive in observing students, tasksThe less seriously teachers take the feedbackThe less frequent are classrooms visitsThe simpler and clearer the vision of good teaching…The more observant principal isThe more focused on a few key change leversThe more seriously teachers will take the feedbackThe more frequently visits will occur
73 “You can observe a lot by watching” Slowing down, breathing, listening, paying attentionNot imposing a checklist on the situationThis teacher in this classroom in this momentWhat’s most important? What deserves feedback?Capturing 1-3 thoughtful pointsSo as not to miss anything, a mental checklist helps.The irreducible elements of good teaching…With a clear sense of your red flags on each
74 S - Safety O - Objectives T - Teaching E - Engagement L - Learning
75 The L in SOTEL Ultimately, year-end state tests, but in real time? Teachers’ checking for understandingLooking at the learning task (City, Elmore, et al.)Asking a student “What are you working on?”Teacher teams looking at student workTeacher teams looking at interim assessmentsOne-on-one principal/teacher chats with work
76 4. Capturing insights You don’t want to forget important stuff. For example, COPWAKTA, great moment, low rigorClipboards, checklists, iPhones, laptops can distract.Plus, you can miss the forest for the trees.The key: Being a good observer!Not missing the big picture! One or two key points only.Jot notes later?
79 Which would you as a teacher prefer your principal to use? Checklist on a clipboardNotepadLaptopBlackBerryiPadFlip video cameraRecording deviceNo writing in classDoesn’t matter5Answer Now!
80 5. Giving feedback that will make a difference After a mini-observation, there’s lots to say:Praise, on-the-edge, reinforcement, suggestionsQuestions, redirection, criticism, reprimandWhat’s the best way to deliver the feedback?How soon?Where?
81 Some possible approaches No feedback to the teacher; supervisus interruptusMemo to whole staff showcasing best practicesPost-It note on teacher’s desk on the way outHand-written feedback in mailboxChecklist filled out, in teacher’s mailboxPalm Pilot electronic checklist sent to teacherlater that dayFace-to-face conversation soon afterward
82 The trouble with written feedback In , people talk at you; in conversation I can talk with [people], and a casual remark can lead to a level of discussion that neither party anticipated from the beginning. I am more likely to learn from someone in a conversation than in an exchange, which simply does not allow for the serendipity, intensity and give-and-take of real-time interaction.Steven Levy, Newsweek, June 11, 2007
83 Especially in our digital age, the power of talking to people in personis exponential.Howard SchultzStarbucks founder
84 9 advantages of face-to-face Can quickly and efficiently cover a lot of groundLess paperworkLess threatening than written, less bureaucraticFocus on 1-2 key points, teacher not overwhelmedThe teacher can push back, informal dialogue.Can be tentative, check on something (girl’s card)Can judge if the teacher can handle criticism.Can segue into general talks about instruction, status.Much more likely to change ineffective practices
85 Four-squares feedback What’s going wellAny concernsNext stepsWhat I can do?
86 Informal, somewhat humble posture Stand-up chats are lighter, less threatening.Brief – 30 seconds to 5 minutes; don’t overdo it!Not an all-seeing, all-knowing, judgmental god“I was only there for ten minutes; here’s what I saw.”“I’m curious about what happened after I left…”Really listening to how the teacher respondsGive-and-take, suggestions, commendations
87 Feedback in writing? Signature? Feels bureaucratic, CYA to the teacherLess nuanced, detailed than face-to-faceTeacher not invited into the conversationFace-to-face is quicker, more direct, more powerful.Signature only if there’s a red flag – “letter to file”How about this sequence:Mini-observationFace-to-face conversationA short to the teacher summing up
88 Nine ineffective practices Intervening with students – “Excuse me, …”Giving the teacher “private” feedback on the spotSending feedback from a laptop while in classWritten feedback that “ends there”Several-day delay before giving feedbackBureaucratic checklist, robotic use of technologyDistracted – “He’s there but he’s not there.”Perfunctory – I’m checking you off my list.Not giving all teachers feedback all the timeArizona district: trio visit, pullout, demo
89 Which is most likely to improve teaching and teachers’ investment in improving? No feedbackVerbal feedback during classPost-it note on deskMemo to staff on best practicesChecklist in mailboxElectronic checklistWritten comments in mailbox orFace-to-face talkWritten comments, then face-to-faceFace-to-face, then written comments5Answer Now!
90 Best location for mini feedback? Principal’s officeCorridorPlaygroundTeacher’s classroom during free periodCafeteriaFaculty loungeParking lotA bar after hoursA phone call in eveningOther5Answer Now
91 Avoidance I’m too busy! Can’t track down teachers. Will I have enough to say? Bite the bullet on criticism?I’m more comfortable with a checklist,Another reason: binge mini-observing
92 “I made it my business”“Face-to-face feedback is the driver of change.”Paul Bambrick-Santoyo, 2010If it’s perceptive and delivered well, it can really affect teaching and learning.Being strategic about tracking down teachers.And following up on subsequent visits, chats
93 Scheduled check-in meetings? Each teacher has a scheduled meeting timeDo mini-observations shortly before check-insUse the check-in to give feedbackAlso to have a more general How’s-it-going talkHelps keep principal on trackAny disadvantages?
94 Linking to school-wide improvement The principal can be a cross-pollinator!Spread good ideas, things to avoid, think aboutOrganize PD on specific areasPut teachers in touch with each otherPeer observationPass along insights to teams, instructional coaches.Talk about units, student learning.
96 A leader who is silent on mediocrity speaks loudly Some teachers get into bad habits, slack off - mediocrityAddressing mediocre and poor teaching depends on:A clear, shared vision of effective teachingUrgency – good teaching really, really mattersGutsHow to keep our moral edge?Co-observe classrooms with your bossRegularly look at interim assessment results
97 Pointers from Thomas Hoerr (2004) Pick the time and place carefully.Be timely.Be specific.Watch your body language.Tell why this is important to you and the school.Say that you’ve been there too.Allow for a response.Review and reinforce at the end.
98 7. Shifting gears with unsatisfactory teaching Mini-observations aren’t sufficient.Full-lesson observations, ideally unannouncedUnion reps, lawyer consulted at every stepDiagnosis and prescription, improvement plan2-3 chances to improve, plenty of supportIf insufficient improvement, dismissal
99 8. A clear, explicit link to end-of-the-year evaluations It’s understood that mini-observations are evaluative.No firewall between minis and evaluation.It’s all part of improving teaching and learning.This may require collective bargaining or a waiver.At the Mather, there was rapid acceptance of the idea.People trusted I was seeing reality, feedback was honest.We did away with the dog-and-pony show!Which opened up time for mini-observations.
100 9. A clear explanation to teachers Launch with a good rationaleWhat’s the problem to which this is the solution?Old system is chewing up time and is ineffectiveChange will help our school’s mission.Reassure teachers on the key worries.Show a videotape! It really helps make the point.In the first couple of cycles, accentuate the positive.
102 The logic of mini-observations Unannounced to see everyday reality.But it would be unfair to observe just once a year.So observations must be frequent to sample accurately.But if frequent, don’t have time to stay for full lessons.So observations need to be short.But visits are short, full write-ups aren’t possible.So brief, face-to-face feedback and follow-up s.But it’s easy to lose track, miss teachers, double up.So the process must be systematic.
103 Advantages for teaching and learning See reality without distortion (no glamorized; blend in)Get to know how all teacher are doing, spot problemsCEO visibility, listening, getting ideas, credibilityBuild trust, the lubricant of school cultureUnspoken message: everyday teaching is what mattersI’m your coach; let’s solve problems together.More humble, winning posture – teachers hear, acceptGood time management – squeezed into busy daysGathering anecdotes for meetings, parentsLots of information for year-end evaluations
104 How would you personally feel about being supervised using mini-observations? Strongly prefer this approachPrefer itNo difference one way or the otherUncomfortable with itVery negative about it5Answer Now!
105 With mini-observations with feedback a year, would you have a pretty accurate picture of each teacher’s performance?YesNo5Answer Now!
106 How much impact would this have on teaching and learning? Very positiveSomewhat positiveNot much impactNo impact5Answer Now!
109 To be a good mini-observer, it helps to know the curriculum A razzle-dazzle lesson, but does it…Align with standards? Big ideas?Contain the appropriate level of rigor, detail?Get at the big ideas, essential questions?Principals can’t micromanage every lesson.25,000 a year!But can monitor teacher teams’ curriculum unit plans
114 Key to increasing teacher ownership Teacher teams (e.g., Grade 3, 7th-grade social studies)Starting with the end in mind: a shared vision of what students should know and be able to doPlanning each 4-6 week curriculum unit in advancePrincipal reviewing drafts, dropping inInstructional coaches supporting teacher teams
115 A difference in toneAsking for lesson plans feels officious, untrusting.Working with teams on unit plans is stimulating and productive work.It’s also much more manageable!Essential Questions are better for classroom walls than SWBAT lesson objectives.
116 Some insights on backwards design It won’t happen by itself.It pushes teachers to plan deeper, more thoughtfully.It’s challenging intellectual work, best done in teams.It builds collaboration, investment in the mission.It’s the best way to integrate standards.It gets higher-order, college-ready ideas into lessons.Much easier to supervise unit plans than lesson plans
117 A simplified unit planning template State standards (written out verbatim, unpacked)Knowledge goals - Students will know…Skill goals - Students will be able to…Big ideas - Students will understand that…Essential Questions (3-4 in kid-friendly language)End-of-unit assessments (written up front)Lesson-by-lesson instructional planSee sample fifth-grade nutrition unit
118 Some key leadership steps • Clarity on end-of-year learning goals for each gradeHaving teams decide on units, calendar themInsisting that teacher teams collaboratively plan unitsProviding a simple unit planning template, model unitGiving teams the time to planMaking sure teachers start with the standardsReviewing unit drafts, revising, visiting meetingsSubscribing to providing UbD training, support
119 What is the potential of backwards unit design in your school? We’re doing this already.It would greatly improve the quality of teaching and learning.It would bring about some improvements.It wouldn’t make much difference.It would confuse and overload teachers.5
120 How does involvement in unit planning affect teacher supervision? It makes the principal a more perceptive and helpful observer.It gives the principal a little more of an idea of curriculum content.It turns the principal into a desk-bound curriculum bureaucrat.Principals don’t have the time to get this involved in curriculum.5Answer Now
125 Mini-observations and curriculum units: Necessary but not sufficient It’s not enough to get into classrooms a lot.It’s not enough to have good curriculum unit plans.Are students learning?This must be part of supervision and evaluation.But how?A national debate is raging.
126 Problems with individual merit pay Practical – Test scores not available till summer.Psychometric – Tests not valid for individual evaluation.Value-added – We need three years of data for validity.Staff dynamics – Collaboration is undermined.Curriculum quality – Low-level test prep.Moral – Turning up the heat increases cheating.Fairness – How to divvy up credit among all the teachers who contribute to students’ success?
127 But isn’t there some way? Here’s why it matters.The moment of truth in classroomsA teacher teaches a curriculum unit, assesses learning
128 Inexorable gap-widening forces Pressure to cover the curriculum, prepare for testsPressure from parents of high-achieving studentsBeliefs about intelligenceFatalism about the bell curveShortage of ideas, materials to help those kidsIsolation from colleagues…How can we stop the gap from widening?
132 “Professional Learning Communities” good interim tests, analysis, action Same-grade, same-subject teacher teams collaboratingCommon goals, interim assessments every 6 weeksImmediate scoring and data displayCollegial sharing on what worked, what didn’tNon-evaluative to foster adult learningGrappling with student misconceptions, learning problemsThis gets teachers really invested.The engine of improvement in high-achieving schools.
136 8 keys to success with interim assessments High-quality tests, well aligned, appropriate rigorRapid turnaround (24 hours)Clear, graphic data displayProductive team data meetings, “data without blame”Administrator/coach involvement, support - video clipHonest reflection, continuous improvementImmediate follow-up with studentsStudents involved: knowing status, setting goals…
141 Principals are the key orchestrators Building understanding and trustInsisting on common interim assessmentsScheduling assessments, team meetings, follow-upGround rules to keep focused, low-stakesTeam leaders facilitate; principal drops in, supportsYoung administrator’s entry point: results vs. methodsTeachers hold each other accountable for high quality.“Man on Fire” swimming sequence
142 Agile teaching, responsive to student learning minute by minute, day by day, month by month. Dylan Wiliam and Ian Beatty, 2009
143 What is the potential of interim assessments in your school? We’re doing this now.If done well, this would bring about major improvements in teaching and learning.It would have some benefits.Teacher teams are resistant to this kind of work.Interim assessments would have a negative impact on our school.5Answer Now
144 How about the principal’s role in interim assessments? Shifting the conversation to results is key to effective supervision and leadership.The principal should help guide this process but not lead it.The principal should let teachers handle assessments.Principals don’t have the time or expertise to do this kind of work.5Answer Now
147 End-of-year evaluation After doing 10+ mini-observations with feedback…After working with teams on curriculum unit plans…After working with teams on interim assessments…How to sum up a teacher’s performance for the year?Narratives, checklists, and goals all have problems…Must differentiate between great, good, mediocre, poorRecognize quality, give tough-love feedback to others
148 Teacher evaluation rubrics Rubrics spell out four levels of teaching quality.They force judgment.A road-map to help underperformers to improveCharlotte Danielson: Framework for Teaching,1996Some districts, charter schools using rubricsEndorsed in Education Sector report, Rush to JudgmentBig advantages over write-ups, checklists, goal-setting
149 Kim’s rubrics (2006, 2010) Open source Researched rubrics, best ideas, step-by-step process:First, deciding on “buckets” based on many models:Planning and preparation for learningClassroom managementDelivery of instructionMonitoring, assessment, and follow-upFamily and community outreachProfessional responsibilities
150 The rating scale and labels 4 – Highly Effective3 – Effective2 – Improvement Necessary1 – Does Not Meet StandardsDifferentiate the four levels of performanceThe goal – all teachers performing at Level 3 and 4Identify master teachers for maxi roles in schoolIntervene with mediocre and ineffective
151 Sorting and drafting A wide search for the criteria of good teaching Finding the most powerful, best writtenThe inputs that lead to high student achievementSorting them into the six “buckets”Drafting Level 3 (Effective)Short and sweet!
152 D. Monitoring, Assessment, and Follow-up [Effective level] - Posts clear criteria for proficiency, including rubrics and exemplars of student work.- Diagnoses students’ knowledge and skills up front and makes small adjustments based on the data.- Frequently checks for understanding and gives students helpful information if they seem confused.- Has students set goals, self-assess, and know where they stand academically at all times.- Regularly posts students’ work to make visible and celebrate their progress with respect to standards.- Uses data from interim assessments to adjust teaching, re-teach, and follow up with failing students.- Takes responsibility for students who are not succeeding and gives them extra help.- When necessary, refers students for specialized diagnosis and extra help.- Analyzes data from assessments, draws conclusions, and shares them appropriately.- Reflects on the effectiveness of lessons and units and continuously works to improve them.
153 Drafting the other three levels and creating headlines
154 Involving teachersGoal: understanding, trust, investment in improvementRubrics negotiated, shared and discussed up frontVoluntary self-assessment and goal-settingIn May/June, each teacher fills out the rubric.Input in areas where principal lacks information.Meet, compare, discuss the evidenceFinalize, celebrate, set goals
156 Let’s try one page Think of a teacher you know well. Pick one domain (Classroom Management?)Read across each line circling 4, 3, 2, or 1The best description of that teacher’s performance.What strikes you about using rubrics?PlusesConcerns
157 Flip through the whole package A total of 60 facets of teaching (Danielson has 77)Covering all aspects of the jobJudged by at least 10 mini-observations, conversations, visits to team meetings, other interactionsFor teachers at Level 1 and 2, improvement plan, supportRubrics not appropriate as classroom visit checklists!Rubric data from a whole faculty can be very helpful…
159 Policy questions with rubrics A score for each domain? An overall score?More weight for some domains? B, C, D ?A different rubric for new teachers?Involving teachers, others in tweaking the rubrics?Student input? Parent input?Rubrics for other job categories? (Westwood, Mass.)Differential pay depending on rubric level?
160 Other factors matter more Do you think teachers rated at Levels 3 and 4 produce high achievement?Without a doubtProbablyNot necessarilyOther factors matter more5Answer Now
162 Would it be OK for your child (or niece or nephew) to be in a Level 2 classroom? YesNo5Answer Now
163 Suggestions for Level 2 teachers For those with an overall Level 2 rating…No salary step raiseA year to improve to Level 3Lots of supportIf insufficient improvement, dismissalBeing implemented in Hillsborough, Florida with strong union support
164 Ideas for rewarding teachers for results Who gets rewarded?Individual teachersTeacher teamsThe whole staffWhat is measured?End-of-year standardized test scoresValue-added gains in test scoresStudent gains on in-school assessmentsClassroom performance (observations, rubric scores)What’s the reward?A $$ pay bonusCommendation in the year-end evaluationVerbal praise from the principal
165 My suggestions Who gets rewarded? Individual teachers Teacher teams The whole staffWhat is measured?End-of-year standardized test scoresValue-added gains in test scoresTeam’s student gains on in-school assessmentsClassroom performance (observations)What’s the reward?A $$ pay bonusCommendation in the year-end evaluationVerbal praise from the principal
166 Highly effective teachers share their magic, boost their schools Mentors and team leadersThey observe classes, are observedWork with their teams on curriculum unitsWork with their teams analyzing resultsMentor new teachers, struggling colleaguesServe on the school leadership teamWrite proposals, dream up new ideasThink about policy, district issues
167 How would you personally feel about being evaluated with these rubrics? GreatQuite goodDoesn’t matter either wayQuite worriedVery concerned, negative5Answer Now!
168 How much impact do you think using these rubrics would have on teaching and learning? Very positive impactSomewhat positive impactNot much differenceVery little impactNegative impact5Answer Now!
169 Will the logic model work now? A shared definition of good teachingPrincipals see everyday teaching in action.Principals are knowledgeable and perceptive observers.Principals have an effective way to give feedback.Principals address mediocre and ineffective teaching.Teachers hear and accept the feedback.Teachers take ownership for student learning.
170 How to make this sustainable? A principal’s time (35 teachers) Full-dress evaluation hours (50 observations, 6 hrs each)Mini-observations hours (4 a day, follow-up talk)Showing the flag - 80 hours (1/2 hour a day most days)Lesson plan inspection - 70 hours (2 hours a week)Rubrics, conferences - 55 hours (1 hour each, 1/2 hr. conference)Interim assessments- 50 hours (5 a year, 10 hours each)Curriculum planning - 40 hours (six hours 6 times a year)Learning walks/rounds - 12 hours a year (4 hours x processing)Calculated 9 hours a day x 180 days
173 Instructional leadership on the hoof Early-morning ing, paperwork, callsOut front greeting colleagues, students, parentsQuick meeting with leadership team, secretary2-3 mini-observations; face-to-face feedback to 2-3Monitoring the “big rock” projects for the yearDropping in on a teacher team doing unit planningDropping in on a team looking at data, student workCafeteria time and other interaction with studentsPrivate conversations with students, teachers, parentsOutside at dismissal having informal chats, unwindingLate afternoon ing and paperwork
174 Work smart, build collaboration, close the achievement gap!