Presentation on theme: "Social Skills and Counseling Approaches"— Presentation transcript:
1 Social Skills and Counseling Approaches The Learning ClinicKatie McGrady, Psy.D.Raymond W. DuCharme, Ph.D.
2 Pragmatic Language Skills The practical use of languageTHE LEARNING CLINIC
3 Survey Instructions Likert Scale of 0 - 5 Absence of skill 0 – 20% Absence of skill10 – 20%Rarely221 – 40%Sometimes341 – 60%Requires further observation461 – 80%Mastery in most settings; Some internalization581 – 100%Mastered; consistent in all settings; internalized
4 Survey Instructions Likert Scale of 0 - 5 Absence of skill 1 1 – 20% Absence of skill11 – 20%Rarely221 – 40%Sometimes341 – 60%Requires further observation461 – 80%Mastery in most settings; Some internalization581 – 100%Mastered; consistent in all settings; internalized
5 Primary Deficits of ASTwo of the salient characteristics of AS are deficits in language and in communication.
6 TOPICThe “subject” of the communicationTHE LEARNING CLINIC
7 Establishing a Conversation Can the student appropriately establish a conversation?Select & introduce a topicChoose a topicInitiate the presentation of information
8 Maintaining a Conversation Can the student appropriately maintain a conversation?Duration of topicIs the student “long-winded”?Appropriate turn-takingWait for pause in conversation before speakingGive others “space” to speak
9 Content of the Topic Accuracy Logic Relevance Conciseness Is the information accurate or distorted?LogicOne thought logically follows anotherGiving reasonable information representing sound judgmentRelevanceInformation relevant to the people and settingConcisenessInformation is concise and succinct
10 Changing Topics Appropriately Change topic of conversation to coincide with shifts in conversationIncorporate verbal & nonverbal cues to know when a change in topic is appropriateDemonstrate cognitive flexibility to shift from one topic to anotherAppropriate introduction of new topicTransitional statements
11 Revising Messages to Fit Changes in Topic When new information is received, does the student:Revise messages within flow of reciprocal conversation ORRigidly adhere to previously formed concepts & opinions
12 Modifying Message to Repair Breakdown in Communication When the student perceives a misunderstanding of the message, can s/he:Modify the messageAdjust the message so it is better understood
13 Appropriately Terminating Conversation Can the student:Use appropriate closing statements rather than walking away or starting another activity
14 PURPOSE The inferred “why” behind the communication THE LEARNING CLINIC
15 Requesting / Asking Who - When - What - Why - How Either / or Inquire about another’s emotionsAsk product questionsElicit information about a process/sequenceRequest an actionAsk permissionAsk clarification rather than feigning understandingAsk questions which suggest an action
16 Informing Explain, describe, or identify things Express personal judgments, opinions, attitudes, etc.Express beliefs about other’s abilitiesInform others of their choices, answer questions, or indicate their compliance
17 Regulating Use warnings or reminders Delineate personal claims Use of statements that are intended to control another’s behavior, to get one’s attention, negotiate, or influence actionsUse warnings or remindersDelineate personal claimsLabel the speaker who gets the next turn and use persuasion appropriatelyAttempt to delay or speed-up the actions of oneself or others
18 Expressing (receptive/expressive) Use of expressive statements and understanding of other’s use of sameIdentify and express emotionsTell jokes; understand & respond to other’s jokesApologize, congratulate, or exclaimUse and respond to teasing appropriatelyVolume and tone consistent with situation
19 Ritualizing Use of good manners and common social amenities Social communication that involves an “automatic” element in the responseUse of good manners and common social amenitiesUse of automatic social exchanges with a specific context / audience
20 ABSTRACTIONThe type of message that is communicated by language that is not concreteTHE LEARNING CLINIC
22 VISUAL / GESTURAL CUESNonverbal means of communicating attitudes, moods, or affective statesTHE LEARNING CLINIC
23 Visual / Gestural Cues Use appropriate visual / gestural cues Eye contactFacial expressionProximityBody movementsAppropriately respond to other’s use of these cues
24 Eye Contact Respond appropriately to other’s eye contact Use eye contact appropriate to the situation(rather than avoiding eye contact or using it inconsistently)
25 Gestures / Body Posture Body language (posture) can be consistent with the message & enhance it, or inconsistent and confuse the messageUse gestures & body postures appropriate to the person, setting, and communicationAccurately “read” and respond to other’s use of body language
26 Facial Expression Use facial expressions Facial expressions, such as a frown or smile, are nonverbal forms of communicationUse facial expressionsConsistent with their verbal messageAppropriate for the settingAccurately “read” & respond to other’s use of facial expressions
27 Proximity refers to the distance one stands from another Proximity / DistanceProximity refers to the distance one stands from anotherAwareness of other’s personal spaceMaintain appropriate distance from othersAdjust distance from others in response to their behaviorDifferential use of personal space with family, friends, othersAdjust use of personal space for different settings
28 Physical ContactUse of touch as a means of communication & to influence the behavior of othersUse touch to facilitate communicationUse common forms of physical contact to communicate with others“High fives” with a peerAvoid physical contact with another’s private body partsResponse to touch is appropriate to person and context
30 Problem Identification Assess Level of Emotional ArousalBehavioral DifficultiesSelf-Control DifficultiesAppropriate Social Skills?Cognitive Distortion?Appropriate Self-Control Skills?Self- MonitoringSelf- EvaluationSelf- ReinforcementSelf- InstructionRe-examine ProblemProblem- Solving Deficit?Self- Instruction TrainingProblem Solving TrainingLevel of Response Contingent ReinforcementEnvironmental ManipulationCognitive RestructuringCognitive DifficultiesProblem IdentificationSocial Skills TrainingNOYESHIGHLOWTHE LEARNING CLINIC
31 Appropriate Social Skills Does the child have the appropriate social skills needed to interact in an acceptable social manner?Have they been able to pick up social cues throughout their lives to learn socially acceptable behavior?Do they have the cognitive and language processing abilities to assimilate the knowledge of socially acceptable behaviors?
32 Level of Response-Contingent Reinforcement? What is the student’s level of response to reinforcement contingencies?Avoid response-cost systemsDoes the environment reinforce the correct targeted behavior?If not, what behavior does it reinforce?
33 Cognitive DistortionDoes the student have the ability to reflect and evaluate his/her behavior? = cognitive deficitDoes the student have maladaptive or dysfunctional thinking patterns; or do they perceive situations and are unable to evaluate the situation with an accurate perspective? = cognitive distortion
34 Problem-Solving Deficit? Does the student have the problem-solving and organizational skills needed to solve problems?Can the student accurately read context cues and adjust his/her behavior accordingly?Does the student have the ability to identify ineffective strategies?Does the student have the ability to effectively apply the correct strategy?
35 Self-Control Does the student have impulse control? Does the student remember previously stated rules, direction, and rehearsal?Is the student able to learn to self-regulate?Is the student able to perform skills with cues?Is the student able to perform appropriate learned skills without prompt from cues?
37 Social Pragmatics Group Curriculum Interventions for practical applicationTHE LEARNING CLINIC
38 Pragmatics of social interaction & communication objectives Personal space & boundariesFull range of emotionsVerbal & nonverbal communicationEmotions associated with nonverbal communicationTone and pitchVolume“Messages” connoted by nonverbal communicationCue readingTopics of conversationEntry and exit skills of communicationGive and receive feedbackSeek feedback
39 Format for Sessions Define the skills and give examples Discuss - facilitate group discussion to help students understand how the skill is used in everyday life.How does the presence or absence of the skill impact one’s life?What are opportunities to use the skill?Exercise and Videotape - involve the students in an activity to practice the skillView the videotape and provide opportunity for peer and staff verbal feedback
40 Demonstrate an understanding of personal space & boundaries Define: Personal spaceDiscuss: Appropriate distance (about one arm’s length)
41 View videotape and feedback: Exercise and Videotape: Role-play situations in which students attend to personal space in a group situation. Students practice adjusting their distance from others.Meeting someone for the first timeTalking with other students at schoolApproaching a store clerk to ask a questionView videotape and feedback:Visual feedback - each student views and evaluates own performanceVerbal feedback - peers provide feedback
42 Demonstrate the ability to identify a full range of emotions Define: Different types and degree/levels of emotions and difference between obvious and subtle emotionsDiscuss: Help make a chart of the full range of emotions. Each student must give an example of the emotion they identify.
43 Exercise and Videotape: Students demonstrate how they look when they experience that emotion. View videotape and feedback:Visual feedback - each student views their own performance: What did they do well? What could have been done better?Verbal feedback - peers provide feedback