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Social Skills and Counseling Approaches The Learning Clinic Katie McGrady, Psy.D. Raymond W. DuCharme, Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "Social Skills and Counseling Approaches The Learning Clinic Katie McGrady, Psy.D. Raymond W. DuCharme, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Skills and Counseling Approaches The Learning Clinic Katie McGrady, Psy.D. Raymond W. DuCharme, Ph.D.

2 Pragmatic Language Skills The practical use of language THE LEARNING CLINIC

3 Survey Instructions Likert Scale of 0 - 5 0 Absence of skill 1 0 – 20%Rarely 2 21 – 40%Sometimes 3 41 – 60%Requires further observation 4 61 – 80% Mastery in most settings; Some internalization 5 81 – 100% Mastered; consistent in all settings; internalized

4 THE LEARNING CLINIC Survey Instructions Likert Scale of 0 - 5 0Absence of skill 11 – 20%Rarely 221 – 40%Sometimes 341 – 60%Requires further observation 461 – 80% Mastery in most settings; Some internalization 581 – 100% Mastered; consistent in all settings; internalized

5 THE LEARNING CLINIC Primary Deficits of AS Two of the salient characteristics of AS are deficits in language and in communication.

6 TOPIC The subject of the communication THE LEARNING CLINIC

7 Establishing a Conversation Can the student appropriately establish a conversation? Select & introduce a topic –Choose a topic –Initiate the presentation of information

8 THE LEARNING CLINIC Maintaining a Conversation Can the student appropriately maintain a conversation? Duration of topic –Is the student long-winded? Appropriate turn-taking –Wait for pause in conversation before speaking –Give others space to speak

9 THE LEARNING CLINIC Content of the Topic Accuracy –Is the information accurate or distorted? Logic –One thought logically follows another –Giving reasonable information representing sound judgment Relevance –Information relevant to the people and setting Conciseness –Information is concise and succinct

10 THE LEARNING CLINIC Changing Topics Appropriately Change topic of conversation to coincide with shifts in conversation Incorporate verbal & nonverbal cues to know when a change in topic is appropriate Demonstrate cognitive flexibility to shift from one topic to another Appropriate introduction of new topic Transitional statements

11 THE LEARNING CLINIC Revising Messages to Fit Changes in Topic When new information is received, does the student: –Revise messages within flow of reciprocal conversation OR –Rigidly adhere to previously formed concepts & opinions

12 THE LEARNING CLINIC Modifying Message to Repair Breakdown in Communication When the student perceives a misunderstanding of the message, can s/he: –Modify the message –Adjust the message so it is better understood

13 THE LEARNING CLINIC Appropriately Terminating Conversation Can the student: –Use appropriate closing statements rather than walking away or starting another activity

14 PURPOSE The inferred why behind the communication THE LEARNING CLINIC

15 Requesting / Asking Who - When - What - Why - How –Either / or –Inquire about anothers emotions –Ask product questions –Elicit information about a process/sequence –Request an action –Ask permission –Ask clarification rather than feigning understanding –Ask questions which suggest an action

16 THE LEARNING CLINIC Informing Explain, describe, or identify things Express personal judgments, opinions, attitudes, etc. Express beliefs about others abilities Inform others of their choices, answer questions, or indicate their compliance

17 THE LEARNING CLINIC Regulating Use of statements that are intended to control anothers behavior, to get ones attention, negotiate, or influence actions Use warnings or reminders Delineate personal claims Label the speaker who gets the next turn and use persuasion appropriately Attempt to delay or speed-up the actions of oneself or others

18 THE LEARNING CLINIC Expressing (receptive/expressive) Use of expressive statements and understanding of others use of same Identify and express emotions Tell jokes; understand & respond to others jokes Apologize, congratulate, or exclaim Use and respond to teasing appropriately Volume and tone consistent with situation

19 THE LEARNING CLINIC Ritualizing Social communication that involves an automatic element in the response Use of good manners and common social amenities Use of automatic social exchanges with a specific context / audience

20 ABSTRACTION The type of message that is communicated by language that is not concrete THE LEARNING CLINIC

21 Use, understand, & respond to: Sarcasm Idioms & figurative language Indirect messages

22 VISUAL / GESTURAL CUES Nonverbal means of communicating attitudes, moods, or affective states THE LEARNING CLINIC

23 Visual / Gestural Cues Use appropriate visual / gestural cues –Eye contact –Facial expression –Proximity –Body movements Appropriately respond to others use of these cues

24 THE LEARNING CLINIC Eye Contact Respond appropriately to others eye contact Use eye contact appropriate to the situation (rather than avoiding eye contact or using it inconsistently)

25 THE LEARNING CLINIC Gestures / Body Posture Body language (posture) can be consistent with the message & enhance it, or inconsistent and confuse the message Use gestures & body postures appropriate to the person, setting, and communication Accurately read and respond to others use of body language

26 THE LEARNING CLINIC Facial Expression Facial expressions, such as a frown or smile, are nonverbal forms of communication Use facial expressions –Consistent with their verbal message –Appropriate for the setting Accurately read & respond to others use of facial expressions

27 THE LEARNING CLINIC Proximity / Distance Proximity refers to the distance one stands from another Awareness of others personal space –Maintain appropriate distance from others –Adjust distance from others in response to their behavior Differential use of personal space with family, friends, others –Adjust use of personal space for different settings

28 THE LEARNING CLINIC Physical Contact Use of touch as a means of communication & to influence the behavior of others Use touch to facilitate communication Use common forms of physical contact to communicate with others –High fives with a peer Avoid physical contact with anothers private body parts Response to touch is appropriate to person and context

29 THE LEARNING CLINIC Functional Analysis Social Cognitive Behavioral

30 Assess Level of Emotional Arousal Behavioral Difficulties Self-Control Difficulties Appropriate Social Skills? Cognitive Distortion? Appropriate Self-Control Skills? Self- Monitoring Self- Evaluation Self- Reinforcement Self- Instruction Re-examine Problem Problem- Solving Deficit? Self- Instruction Training Problem Solving Training Level of Response Contingent Reinforcement Environmental Manipulation Cognitive Restructuring Cognitive Difficulties Problem Identification Social Skills Training NO YES HIGHNO YES NO YES LOW YES THE LEARNING CLINIC

31 Appropriate Social Skills Does the child have the appropriate social skills needed to interact in an acceptable social manner? Have they been able to pick up social cues throughout their lives to learn socially acceptable behavior? Do they have the cognitive and language processing abilities to assimilate the knowledge of socially acceptable behaviors?

32 THE LEARNING CLINIC Level of Response-Contingent Reinforcement? What is the students level of response to reinforcement contingencies? Avoid response-cost systems Does the environment reinforce the correct targeted behavior? If not, what behavior does it reinforce?

33 THE LEARNING CLINIC Cognitive Distortion Does the student have the ability to reflect and evaluate his/her behavior? = cognitive deficit Does the student have maladaptive or dysfunctional thinking patterns; or do they perceive situations and are unable to evaluate the situation with an accurate perspective? = cognitive distortion

34 THE LEARNING CLINIC Problem-Solving Deficit? Does the student have the problem-solving and organizational skills needed to solve problems? Can the student accurately read context cues and adjust his/her behavior accordingly? Does the student have the ability to identify ineffective strategies? Does the student have the ability to effectively apply the correct strategy?

35 THE LEARNING CLINIC Self-Control Does the student have impulse control? Does the student remember previously stated rules, direction, and rehearsal? Is the student able to learn to self-regulate? Is the student able to perform skills with cues? Is the student able to perform appropriate learned skills without prompt from cues?


37 Social Pragmatics Group Curriculum THE LEARNING CLINIC Interventions for practical application

38 THE LEARNING CLINIC Pragmatics of social interaction & communication objectives Personal space & boundaries Full range of emotions Verbal & nonverbal communication Emotions associated with nonverbal communication Tone and pitch Volume Messages connoted by nonverbal communication Cue reading Topics of conversation Entry and exit skills of communication Give and receive feedback Seek feedback

39 THE LEARNING CLINIC Format for Sessions Define the skills and give examples Discuss - facilitate group discussion to help students understand how the skill is used in everyday life. –How does the presence or absence of the skill impact ones life? –What are opportunities to use the skill? Exercise and Videotape - involve the students in an activity to practice the skill View the videotape and provide opportunity for peer and staff verbal feedback

40 THE LEARNING CLINIC Demonstrate an understanding of personal space & boundaries Define: Personal space Discuss: Appropriate distance (about one arms length)

41 THE LEARNING CLINIC Exercise and Videotape: Role-play situations in which students attend to personal space in a group situation. Students practice adjusting their distance from others. –Meeting someone for the first time –Talking with other students at school –Approaching a store clerk to ask a question View videotape and feedback: –Visual feedback - each student views and evaluates own performance –Verbal feedback - peers provide feedback

42 THE LEARNING CLINIC Demonstrate the ability to identify a full range of emotions Define: Different types and degree/levels of emotions and difference between obvious and subtle emotions Discuss: Help make a chart of the full range of emotions. Each student must give an example of the emotion they identify.

43 THE LEARNING CLINIC Exercise and Videotape: Students demonstrate how they look when they experience that emotion. View videotape and feedback: –Visual feedback - each student views their own performance: What did they do well? What could have been done better? –Verbal feedback - peers provide feedback

44 THE LEARNING CLINIC Additional Interventions Pantomime Contracting & self-assessments Cognitive behavioral therapy Dyadic sessions

45 THE LEARNING CLINIC AS Cognitive Behavioral Interventions Functional Analysis Social Skills Training Pragmatic Skills Training Pragmatic Skill Assessment Assessment through Intervention

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