3Outcome / Learning Goal Knowledge of “look-fors” associated with standards-based classrooms.
4Essential QuestionsWhat artifacts and instructional practices are present in a standards-based classroom?PrincipalsHow do you determine where your school is in implementing standards-based instruction?How do school leaders support teachers who are not “there yet”?TeachersWhat instructional processes have to be in place to develop the artifacts associated with a standards-based classroom?How does a teacher implement the instructional processes needed for a standards-based classroom?
5Think about the differences between the two lessons Activating StrategyWatch the videoThink about the differences between the two lessons
6In order to practice what we preach… Assess, Assess, Assess!In order to practice what we preach…Pre-Assessment-4 CornersPurposePre-Assessment – Does not have to be pencil and paper, usually done after the activating strategy, critical to guide instruction.
7As a group, make a list of elements of a standards-based classroom Elements of SBC’sAs a group, make a list of elements of a standards-based classroomRecord your list on chart paperShare responses
8“My definition of a good teacher has changed from one who explains things so well that students understand to one who gets students to explain so well that they can be understood.”Steven C. Reinhart“Never Say Anything a Kid Can Say!”Mathematics Teaching in The Middle School, April 2000
9What does it mean???In a standards-based classroom, learning outcomes aligned to content standards are held constant, and all students are expected to attain proficiency in them. Flexibility is provided in the time and support each student needs to meet the standard. Teachers follow a cycle of instruction— assessment, planning, instruction, assessment, and re-teaching---so all students meet specific, clearly stated and understood, high academic standards in each content area.Read and identify three words that excite and/ or concern you. (Remove the “stressing of words”.)
10Academic Content Standards Instructional CycleAcademic Content StandardsAcademicContentStandardsplanteachrevisereteachAssessingAcademic standards are at the heart / centerAssessment is on going and continuousCycle occurs around the core standards and continuous assessment.
11Decreasing numbers of students GEORGIA STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT PYRAMID OF INTERVENTIONSTIER 4SPECIALLY DESIGNED LEARNINGTargeted students participate in learning that includes:Specialized programsAdapted content, methodology, or instructional deliveryGPS access/extensionIncreasing Intensity of InterventionTIER 3SST DRIVEN LEARNINGTargeted students participate in learning that is in addition to Tier 1 and Tier 2 and different by including:Individualized assessmentsInterventions tailored to individual needsReferral for specially designed instruction if neededDecreasing numbers of studentsTIER 2NEEDS BASED LEARNING:Targeted students participate in learning that is in addition toTier 1 and different by including:Formalized processes of interventionGreater frequency of progress monitoringGive me a “thumb up” if you have heard the terms “Pyramid of Interventions.” At the base of the pyramid, called Tier 1, is standards-based learning. EVERY child should be provided with Tier 1. Tiers 2, 3, and 4 describe interventions that should be made for those students who don’t “get it” the first time.TIER 1STANDARDS-BASED CLASSROOM LEARNING:All students participate in general education learning that includes:Implementation of the Georgia Performance Standards through research-based practicesUse of flexible groups for differentiation of instructionFrequent progress monitoringGeorgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools April 12, All Rights Reserved
12STANDARDS-BASED CLASSROOM LEARNING TIER 1All students participate in general education learning that includes:Implementation of the Georgia Performance Standards through research-based practicesUse of flexible groups for differentiation of instructionFrequent progress monitoringDefining Standards-Based Classroom Learning: A classroom where teachers and students have a clear understanding of the expectations (standards) for every content area. They know what they are teaching/learning each day, why the day’s learning is an important thing to know or know how to do, and how to do it. They also know that they are working toward meeting standards throughout the year…that standards-based learning is a process not an event.Students must produce evidence of learningTask basedFeedback is essentialDefining Flexible Groups for Differentiation of Instruction: based on readiness, interest, and learning profilesFrequent Progress Monitoring: Formative, both formal and informal assessments that measure student progress. Frequent progress monitoring is utilized to drive instruction and serves as an indicator for needed interventions.Example: Small group instruction, peer tutoring, teacher conferences,Tier 1 is a place for initial intervention. Eighty percent of students should succeed at the Tier 1 level. When Dufour - FormalizedAll Students
13Standards-based Classrooms Building a Bedrock of High Expectations for ALL Students.
14Classroom VisitVisit model classrooms appropriate for your grade levelTake 5 – 10 minutes to look aroundConcentrate on the artifactsReturn to the Georgia Room for further group discussion
15Standards-Based Artifacts Develop a T chart on chart paperIn the left column, make a list of the artifacts you saw in the model classroom
16Artifacts of SBC’s Room Arrangement Classroom Rules and Procedure ChartsInstructional Bulletin BoardsTeacher and Student Use of Bulletin BoardsBehavior Management SystemAnalyzed Student DataTest Utilization Plans
17Artifacts of SBC’s Standards (GPS) Unit Plans Essential Question Teacher and Student Discussion of StandardsStudents can identify where they are on meeting the standard.Unit PlansEssential QuestionCollaborative PlanningPretests
18Artifacts of SBC’s Classroom Lesson Framework Whole group vs. small group learningWord Walls ; Vocabulary DisplaysGraphic OrganizersMenus of Choices for StudentsLearning CentersMaterials Table / Resource BinsStudents Utilizing Instructional Aids
19Artifacts of SBC’s Student Work with Teacher Commentary Teacher FeedbackRevised Student WorkFormative and Summative AssessmentsRubricsStudent Self AssessmentCulminating Assessment ActivitiesPeer Assessment / Feedback
20Classroom Visit #2 Return to your model classroom Utilize your checklist and look again for artifactsObserve a model lessonVisit the other two model classrooms to look for artifacts
21Instructional Practices Return to your chartsRevise your artifact listIn the right-hand column, list the instructional processes of standards-based classrooms
22“I am convinced that my children learn in more ways than I know how to teach. By listening to them, I not only give them the opportunity to develop deep understanding but also am able to develop true insights into what they know and how they think.”Steven C. Reinhart“Never Say Anything a Kid Can Say!”Mathematics Teaching in The Middle School, April 2000
23Word Sort Sort the cards into one of seven categories. Classroom procedures and structuresStandardsLesson StructureGrouping of StudentsDifferentiationStudent WorkAssessment
24Classroom Procedures and Structures Rules are posted, positively stated, and there is a consistent system for behavior management.Teachers use individual student data to plan for instruction.Student is the worker and the teacher facilitates learning activities.Students know when they need instructional supports and automatically go get themRoom is organized for collaborative work.Bulletin boards are instructional, current, and used by teacher and students.
25StandardsStandards & EQ’s are posted, aligned, and referenced throughout the lesson.Students can talk about the standard they are learning and explain where they are in learning the standard.
26Instructional Framework The unit planning process is cyclical (pre-test, planning for differentiation, instruction, assessment, and reteaching).Unit / lesson planning starts with determination of what students should know and be able to do.Lesson Framework (Activating, Instructional lesson, and summarizing) is of the highest quality and occurs in a seamless manner in order to maximize instructional time.Content vocabulary is previewed, integrated into the context of the lesson, and becomes part of the classroom dialogue.Rigor is pervasive – Higher order questioning, thinking skills, assignments, activities.Assignments are authentic and connect to real lifeStudents are interested and engaged in the learning process.
27Grouping of StudentsGroup work is prevalent, students are responsible for their learning and understand the procedures for working in groups.Flexible groups are developed based on pre-assessment, formative / summative assessment, and may change within the unit.
28DifferentiationTeachers use a collection of student data to plan differentiated assignments based on student ability and level of knowledge.Differentiation of instruction is prevalent (tiered assignments, guided reading groups, flexible grouping, acceleration)
29Student WorkStudent work is posted with commentary that includes strengths, areas of weakness, and next steps.
30Looking at Student Work “The goal is to bring teachers together to examine their students’ work and, in the process, their own: What am I teaching? Why am I teaching it? How am I teaching it? Why am I teaching it this way? How do I know my students are getting it? How do my students know they are getting it? What did I learn in the process?”Debra WilliamsLearning to Teach Better by Examining Student WorkCommunity Renewal Society, 2003
31Looking at Student Work "My teachers are burying their teachers’ guide and have become more comfortable developing lessons around the curriculum and standards that promote higher-order thinking from students. And you know what? Our kids’ [test] scores have been trending up for the last five years. Our teachers are giving assignments that affect long-term learning, not just to fill up a grade book.”Debra WilliamsLearning to Teach Better by Examining Student WorkCommunity Renewal Society, 2003
32AssessmentRubrics are developed by teachers and students based on standards and instruction.Formative assessments are used throughout the lesson to determine student progress, design and redesign instruction.Students are given opportunities to revise their work according to feedbackStudents use peer feedback and self-assessment to gain proficiency of the standard.Specific, instructional feedback is given in a timely manner to guide student learning towards proficiency of the standard.
33Standards-based assessment practices “de-emphasize traditional grades, demystify the entire grading process, and focus on the process of learning and the progress of the individual student. All these desirable characteristics occur because the prime purpose of grades is recognized as communication, not competition, and determining student grades is based on pedagogy that views the teacher’s role as supporting learning and encouraging student success.”Ken O’ConnerHow to Grade for Learning: Linking Grades to StandardsCorwin Press, 2002
34Standards-based Lesson Watch the videosThink about the instructional elements that make these lessons different from a traditional lesson.Apply the rubricDiscuss your observations with your group
35Where are we?Use the rubric to determine where you or your school is in the standards-based process.Prioritize areas of weaknessDevelop an action plan to address these areas
36Action PlansAdministratorsTeachersUse the templates provided to create an action plan for implementation standards-based classrooms.
37Providing Support for the Standards-based Classroom What should leaders do?Provide opportunities for collaborationEnsure that professional learning opportunities are based on identified needsSystematically monitor implementation of curriculum, assessment and instructionAttend teacher meetings, study groups and other professional learning opportunitiesWork with teachers to analyze student work based on standardsEnsure that all students receive immediate intervention if they are not meeting standardsEnsure that the focus of faculty meetings, leadership team meetings is student learningRegularly analyze data with regards to meeting School Improvement Goals and Annual Measurable ObjectivesModel the characteristics of a lifelong learner
38Summarizing ActivityUsing what we have learned, create an acrostic of “standards - based”Share acrostics
39“No matter how lucidly and patiently teachers explain to their students, they cannot understand for their students.”Deborah Schifter& Cathy FosnotReconstructing Mathematics Education:Stories of Teachers Meeting the Challenge of ReformTeachers College Press, 1993
47Instructional Bulletin Boards Change frequentlyShow student workDisplay information to guide student learning (concept maps, preview word wall, EQ’s, graphic organizers, etc.)Are used by student and teacher throughout the unit
52Behavior Management System The teacher maximizes instructional time by:Coordinating- The teacher has determined the necessary procedures, scheduling, materials, routines, and developed transitional activities.Checking- Monitor learners in all school settingsCoaching - Varies instructional techniques and praise learners whenever possible. Creates an atmosphere that reaps success instead of failures. Provide an opportunity for learners to be actively involved in the learning process.
53Behavior Management System The teacher maximizes instructional time by:Demonstrating Consistency- Provides learners the security of consistency. Makes actions and consequences clear. Displays and requires consistency in behavior.
54Analyzing Student Data Student data (CRCT, Dibels, GHSGT, benchmark tests, classroom assessments) provides valuable information about the student’s level of learning.Analyzing student data will provide an opportunity to obtain information on each student’s knowledge and skills.
55Analyzing Student Data Data should be analyzed for:Students that did not pass / do wellStudents near the passing score (Bubble students)Students that fall into multiple subgroups (High Impact)Individual student strengths and weaknesses by domains
56Analyzing Student Data CRCT SCOREMeasurementGeometryAlgebraJohnMarySueMark
57Annual plan for improvement based on analysis of test data Test Utilization PlanAnnual plan for improvement based on analysis of test dataCompleted by individual teacher or grade level group of teachers.
58Test Utilization Plan Example Sample Elementary SchoolMs. Jones 4th GradeAreas for ImprovementGoals / ObjectivesStrategiesBenchmarks
59Standards (GPS)Standard is posted in language the child can understandEQ is connected to the standardGuides the lesson/unitCan be explained by student, if askedStudent understands where he/ she is in relationship to the standardTeacher continually connects learning to the standard
61Unit PlansDeveloped as a guide for teaching the standards over a period of time (2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, etc.)Begins with the “end in mind”Includes:Student learning outcomesPerformance Tasks / Culminating ActivityEQsLesson Plans
62Essential Question“Open-ended provocative questions that are designed to guide student inquiry and focus instruction for uncovering the important ideas of the standard.”
63Essential QuestionHave no simple “right” answer; they are meant to be discussed.Are designed to provoke and sustain student inquiry, while focusing learning and final performancesRaise other important questionsStimulate vital, ongoing rethinking of big ideas, assumptions, and prior lessons.May have several EQ’s per unit
64Essential Question Examples How and why do things in nature fly? (4th grade)How is intelligence measured? (11th grade)Where will I ever use multiplication? (3rd grade)How do publishing houses make decisions about submitted manuscripts? (8th grade)
65Collaborative Planning Teachers meet weekly to:plan unitsexamine student workcoordinate learning activitiesanalyze data and student progressstudy researchconduct professional learning
67Pretests Student assessments given prior to a unit of study. Provides initial information on the student’s level of knowledge, which can be used to:Plan instructionDifferentiate learningDevelop flexible groups
68PretestsPretests, combined with post-tests, allow for measurement of student learning.Various formats can be utilized for pretests. Pretests are not always a formal pencil / paper assessment (e.g.- 4 Corners)
69Classroom Lesson Framework Lesson Format that includes:EQActivating StrategyTeaching / learning segmentSummarizing of lessonAssessment of learning
70Whole vs. Small Group Learning Whole group instruction –Teacher conducts the lessonStudents receive the same information or participate in the same activityLittle interaction between student and teacherAcceptable for activating, summarizing, and giving directions.The key is to use it appropriately!
71Whole vs. Small Group Learning Small group instruction-Teacher is facilitatorSmall groups of students work on different levels (differentiation) or different assignments.Classroom encourages students to collaborate and discuss learning process.Students understand their individual roles within the group.Procedures for collaboration have been well established.
73Word Walls / Vocabulary Displays A word wall is a systematically organized collection of words displayed on a wall or other large display place in the classroomList is dynamic, ever-changingUsed by teachers and students to:Support current learning unitsPreview upcoming learning unitsReview lessons/ units/ previously learned vocabularyUsed as cue during classroom discussion, writing, etc.
78Menus of ChoicesOptions of activities, performance assessments, class assignments, etc.Increases student interest, motivation, and involvementMenu options are connected to the standard, but provide different opportunities to demonstrate the learning of the standard.
79Menu of Choices Example Choose 1 of the following to complete:You are a member of the Confederate army that survived the battle of Gettysburg. Write a letter to your family describing the battle and your current circumstances.If you had been able to observe the battle of Gettysburg from a helicopter, what would the battle have looked like. Draw a map of the battle that depicts the location of the troops.
80Student Learning Centers Learning centers can be used as a way to rotate groups of students through different activities. Like cooperative groups, this is also a good technique to use when there are a limited number of computers available.Each group takes a turn working at a different activity or learning center. Groups can rotate through the centers during the course of one class or over a period of time.
83Materials Center / Resource Bins Manipulatives, books, supplies, materials are available for students in an easily accessible location.Students know where materials are located and feel comfortable obtaining learning resources as they need them.
87Teacher CommentaryFeedback to students that tells the student how to improve.Opens communication between teacher and studentTeacher Commentary provides opportunities to:Correct knowledge gaps or skills deficitsProvide specific and helpful information for improvementEncourage the student to keep trying
88Teacher Commentary Usually includes: A positive statement about the student work and the student’s progress toward meeting the standard(s)An identified area for improvementSpecific information on how to “grow” toward meeting the standard.Opportunities for the student to revise the work
89Teacher Commentary Example: “ Maria, You did a great job on drawing the right triangle, labeling the hypotenuse, and remembering the Pythagorean theorem. However, the answer was incorrect because you forgot to correctly complete the formula. Remember that to ‘square a number’ you multiple the number by itself, not by 2. “
91Formative Assessment On-going assessments Monitors / measures student progressReviews what students have learned and can applyEvaluates instruction.Diagnoses skill or knowledge gapsAllows for reteaching, enrichment, revised teaching methods, and student feedback
92Formative Assessments In daily use, teachers apply formative assessment to:- determine what concepts require more teaching- what teaching techniques require modification.
93Formative Assessment Examples Teacher observation shows some students do not grasp a concept, so she designs a review activity or uses a different instructional strategy for that group.Examples:- Ticket out the door, periodic quizzes, 3-2-1, Open-ended response, performance tasks, Think-pair-share.
94RubricsA rubric is an assessment guideRubrics describe what are the expected elements / criteria of student work.Displays levels/scores on the chosen scale.Identifies what is important, defines what work meets a standard, and enables a teacher / student to distinguish between different levels of performance.
95RubricsWith a rubric, the student and teacher share a common understanding of what constitutes quality work.Both student and teacher can compare the student's performance to the standards.
96Rubrics - Example Criteria Beginning Progressing Proficient Research Two or fewer of the five areas are covered OR the information in three or more of the five is not thoroughThree or more interesting facts are given on: habitat, food, physical description, reproduction.Five research facts with sources provided on each of the five areas.PresentationSome information given, pacing was too fast or slow, words were mispronounced.Information read in a satisfactory manner (most words pronounced correctly, pace OK), loud enough to be heard.Information presented well (words pronounced correctly with an appropriate pace-not too fast/slow), loud enough to be heard
98Culminating Assessment / Activities Assessment conducted at the end of a unit to determine level of student learningActivity requires students to apply and demonstrate learning in formats other than pencil / paper tests.Assessments should utilize higher order processes and connect the learning to real life.
99Peer Assessment / Feedback Students utilize a common procedure, understood process, or rubric to review a peer’s work and provide feedback for improvement.Very effective if used to support the writing process.Can be applied to all content areas.