3 Familiar Uses of Hormone Therapies Freedom from menstrual symptomsControl of when and how many children we haveReversal of infertilityRelief of menopausal symptoms
4 Sex Hormones Affect These Issues, Too! Infection susceptibilityAsthmaOral healthAutoimmune diseaseVascular diseaseHigh blood pressureDementiaBone strengthMuscle strengthMental healthBreast, lung, prostate, colon, kidney cancerAnd just about every other disease
5 How Hormones Work Cofactors which modify the cell’s response Timing of hormone production (pulsatile or continuous)Dose responseCentral control (positive and negative pituitary feedback)Interaction with other hormonesCell surface receptor
7 Main Ingredients For Today’s Recipes EstrogenProgesteroneTestosterone
8 Progesterone EffectsProtects the uterus from overgrowth due to estrogen stimulationHelps nerve cells repairPrevents bloating from estrogenInhibits the breakdown of serotoninHelps stabilize moodIncreases body temperature during ovulationAntiinflammatoryIncreases appetiteImproves sleepChemotherapy for breast, prostate, and renal cell cancers
9 Testosterone EffectsMuscle mass and strengthBone massSex drive
10 Estrogen Effects Improved cognition and memory Improved neuronal healingImproved glucose toleranceMaintenance of fat distribution in peripheryImproved bone mass and strengthRaises HDL, lowers LDL cholesterolImproved blood vessel healing
29 Endothelial Cell Layers in Healthy Postmenopausal and Premenopausal Women Postmenopausal cells show evidence of endothelial cell death, denudation, and RBC, platelet, and protein attachment, as well as fractured basal membranes, and loss of intercellular junctionsPremenopausal cells show tight connections, a continuous layer of endothelial cells, and thick plasma membranes
33 Figure 4 Effect of age on DHEA and DHEA-S levels in women Labrie F (2007) Drug Insight: breast cancer prevention and tissue-targeted hormone replacement therapyNat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3: 584–593 doi: /ncpendmet0559
35 Timing Hypothesis of Menopausal Hormone Therapy Safety of Hormone TreatmentTime Since MenopauseHigh Blood PressureDiabetesSmokingHeart Attack StrokeBreast CancerBlood Clot
36 Safest Therapy Choices FDA Approved:Transdermal EstradiolVaginal Progesterone (cyclic)Not FDA Approved:Bioidentical therapy
37 Compounded “Bioidentical” Hormones Dosing schedule mimics premenopausal state in postmenopausal womenPlant derived hormones modified to be identical to human moleculesNot regulated for purity of modification processSaliva levels do not accurately measure tissue levelsProgestogen skin cream has not been proven effective to prevent endometrial cancer
38 Testosterone Supplementation Risks Possible increased risk of breast cancerAcneHair loss
39 Manipulation of Testosterone Supplementation Aromatase blocker to reduce conversion to estrodiol (Femara, Arimidex)5α-reductase blocker to reduce conversion to dihydrotestosterone (Propecia)
40 Estrogen Therapy Challenges Estrogen receptors in tissues cycle, but independently of ovarian functionSerum or saliva tests do not show what is needed in the cellsOptimal levels for dosing are not knownReceptor stimulation or blockade is required to prevent cancer and blood clotsWe don’t know how to do this, yet!
48 ‘EDCs are commonly found in food and food containers, plastic products, furniture, toys, carpeting, building materials, and cosmetics. They are often released from the products that contain them and enter the bodies of humans and wildlife through dust or through the food chain’.
51 Developmental Stage at Exposure to EDC Changes Impact
52 Hormone Cookbook: Summary Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone contribute to the health of every cell and organUsing hormones in various ways helps us maintain reproductive control and prolong healthExposure to chemicals which stimulate hormone changes may have long-term effects
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