Organizational Behavior: Chapter 163 Chapter 16 Information and Communication Study questions. – What is the nature of the communication process? – What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? – What barriers interfere with effective communication?
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 164 Chapter 16 Information and Communication Study questions cont. – What is organizational communication? – What forces influence communication in the high performance workplace?
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 165 What is the nature of the communication process? The communication process. – A process of sending and receiving messages with attached meanings.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 166 What is the nature of the communication process? The communication process. – Source encodes an intended meaning into a message. – Receiver decodes the message into perceived meaning. – Communication channel the means by which the message is transmitted.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 167 What is the nature of the communication process? The communication process cont. – Feedback the receiver transmits a message back to the sender. – Noise any interference with the transmission of the message.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 168 What is the nature of the communication process? Feedback and communication. – Feedback is the process through which the receiver communicates with the sender by returning another message. – Giving feedback often is associated with one or more persons communicating an evaluation of what another person has said or done. – 360-degree feedback.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 169 What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? Effective and efficient communication. – Effective communication. The accuracy of communication. – Efficient communication. The cost of communication. – Effectiveness does not guarantee efficiency or vice versa.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1610 What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? Nonverbal communication. – Takes place through: Facial expressions Body position. Eye contact. Other physical gestures. – Nonverbals give clues to what a person is really thinking.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1611 What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? Two important branches of nonverbal communication. – Kinesics. The study of gestures and body postures. – Proxemics. The study of the way space is utilized.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1612 What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? Active listening. – Ability to listen well is a distinct asset. – Too often people emphasize the telling side and neglect the listening side of the communication process. – Active listening. The ability to help the source of a message say what he or she really means.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1613 What barriers interfere with effective communication? Common sources of noise in interpersonal communication. – Physical distractions. – Semantic problems. – Mixed messages. – Cultural differences. – Absence of feedback. – Status effects.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1614 What barriers interfere with effective communication? Physical distractions. – Any aspect of the physical setting in which communication takes place. – Can interfere with communication effectiveness.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1615 What barriers interfere with effective communication? Semantic problems. – Involves a poor choice or use of words. – Use the KISS principle of communication. Keep it short and simple.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1616 What barriers interfere with effective communication? Mixed messages. – Occur when a persons words communicate one thing while body language communicates another. – Body language adds important insights in face-to-face meetings.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1617 What barriers interfere with effective communication? Cultural differences. – Ethnocentrism. The tendency to believe that ones culture and it values are superiors to those of others. Often linked to an unwillingness to understand alternative points of view. – Other cross-cultural communication challenges. Language differences. Use of gestures.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1618 What barriers interfere with effective communication? Absence of feedback. – As compared to one-way communication, two- way communication is: More accurate. More effective. More costly. More time consuming.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1619 What barriers interfere with effective communication? Status effects. – Status differences create potential communication barriers. Managers may do more telling than listening. Subordinates may filter information. – MUM effect Occurs when people are reluctant to transmit bad news. – Management by wandering around (MBWA). Getting out of the office to directly communicate with others.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1620 What is organizational communication? Organizational communication is the specific process through which information moves and is exchanged throughout an organization. Information flows: – Through formal and informal structures. – Downward, upward, and laterally.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1621 What is organizational communication? Channel richness. – The capacity of a communication channel to convey information effectively. – Richest channels face-to-face communication. – Moderately rich channels telephone, electronic chat rooms, E-mail, written memos, and letters. – Leanest channels posted notices and bulletins.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1622 What is organizational communication? Formal and informal communication channels. – Formal channels follow the chain of command established by the hierarchy of authority. – Informal channels do not adhere to the hierarchy of authority. The grapevine is an informal channel through which rumors and unofficial information pass.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1623 What is organizational communication? Communication flows and directions. – Downward communication. – Upward communication. – Lateral communication.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1624 What is organizational communication? Downward communication. – The flow of information follows the chain of command from top to bottom. – Downward communication informs lower level personnel about the higher level managers: Strategies. Objectives. Instructions. Policies. Feedback.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1625 What is organizational communication? Upward communication. – The flow of information from lower to higher levels of the organization. – Upward communication informs higher level personnel about lower level workers: Problems. Results. Suggestions. Questions. Needs.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1626 What is organizational communication? Lateral communication. – The flow of information across persons or work units at the same hierarchical level. – Lateral communication enables persons and work units to coordinate: Problems. Needs. Advice. Feedback.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1627 What is organizational communication? Lateral communication cont. – Very important in high performance organizations. Serving external customers. Serving internal customers. – Organizational ecology. The study of how building design may influence communication and productivity by improving lateral communication.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1628 What is organizational communication? Types of communication networks. – Decentralized communication network. – Centralized communication network. – Restricted communication network.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1629 What is organizational communication? Decentralized communication network. – All group members communicate directly and share information with one another. – Sometimes called an all-channel or star network. – Involve interacting groups.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1630 What is organizational communication? Centralized communication network. – Information flows to a central person and is redistributed. – Sometimes called a wheel or chain network. – Involve coacting groups.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1631 What is organizational communication? Restricted communication network. – Limited and possibly biased communication due to polarized subgroups contesting each others positions and maintaining sometimes antagonistic relationships. – Involve counteracting groups.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1632 What forces influence communication in the high performance workplace? The explosion of new communication technologies is one of the greatest contemporary challenges. Effective communication skills are essential for career success. Everyone must stay current on information technologies and organizational communication issues.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1633 What forces influence communication in the high performance workplace? Advances in information technologies enable organizations to: – Distribute information much faster. – Make more information available. – Allow broader and more immediate access to information. – Encourage participation in the sharing and use of information. – Integrate systems and functions, and use information to link with the environment.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1634 What forces influence communication in the high performance workplace? Potential disadvantages of electronic communications. – Technologies are impersonal. – Nonverbal communication is removed from situation. – Can unduly influence the emotional aspects of communication. – Information overload.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1635 What forces influence communication in the high performance workplace? Complex social context. – Mean and women are socialized into different communication styles. Women are socialized to be more sensitive to interpersonal relationships in communication. Men are socialized to be competitive, aggressive, and individualistic, which may cause communication problems.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1636 What forces influence communication in the high performance workplace? Complex social context cont. – Privacy of employee communications and electronic eavesdropping Progressive organizations are developing internal privacy policies. Is gaining the attention of some legislators. – Political correctness of communications in the workplace. Eliminates communication overtones of intolerance and insensitivity.