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Presentation on theme: "SEED SYSTEM SECURITY ASSESSMENT (SSSA) ESTUDU SISTEMA SEGURANSA FINI (ESSF) TIMOR-LESTE October 2013."— Presentation transcript:


2 Contribute to vision of Sustainable Seed System Development Sharpen strategies for : Emergency aid Chronic stress (most vulnerable) Developmental/commercial opportunities

3 Genebanks Cultivation Harvesting SEED Storage Consumption Breeders Seed production Planting Other local Markets Channels through which Farmers Source Seed Govt Comm Relief Own Exch Market s

4 Repeated Seed Aid Delivery in Many Countries SiteExtent of Seed Aid Burundi28 seasons: since 1995 Eastern Kenya92-93; 95-97; , 2004, 2006, 2009, 2010, 2011 ZimbabweNear continuous since 1991 (food aid, seed aid or both) Malawi15 seasons or more, since 1992 Timor LesteSince 2000 ? (+ ongoing) EthiopiaSince 1974 : 34 years

5 Seed Security : matching responses to specific problems

6 Seed Security Framework ParameterSeed security AvailabilitySufficient quantity of seed of appropriate crops available within reasonable proximity, and in time for planting AccessPeople have adequate income or other resources to purchase or barter for seed QualitySeed is of acceptable quality healthy (physiological, analytical, +sanitary quality adapted and farmer-acceptable varieties Remington/CRS, 1998, 2002

7 Parameter Acute….Chronic Unavailability of seed Direct distribution of seed -(rarely happens) (except for new varieties) + seed production capacity Farmers do not have access to seed Vouchers and cash (w/seed fairs) Income generation activity; Agro-enterprise development- value chains Seed System Problems– and appropriate responses Sperling et al 2008

8 Parameter Acute…Chronic/Dev Seed of poor quality Seed fairs with quality controls Direct distribution of test samples of quality seed Programs to improve seed quality Seed companies on-farm in local markets Lack of appropriate varieties/crops Limited introductions new varieties Introduce existing new varieties Participatory variety selection/breeding Seed System Problems– and appropriate responses

9 Problem X Strategic Goal Setting Focus short-term (stop gap)- or link relief to development? Support formal or informal systems- both- and why? Crops for the commercial sector ONLY – and why? Single crop focus or real basket of crops? Crops to deal with problems of flood/drought-prone areas/resilience? Crops/varieties to address nutritional issues? Crops for most vulnerable (e.g. women) ? Seed issues only-- other inputs? Insurance vouchers? Agro-enterprise?

10 SSSA in Timor Leste October 2013

11 SITES Aileu (Fahiria) Baucau (Baguia) Ainaro (Cassa)

12 ALIEU- Fahiria


14 Ainaro- Cassa

15 In all sites: horticultural crops are increasingly important

16 Guide: Seed System Security Assessment 7-step guide Chronic + acute stress Development opportunities

17 Timor Leste: 2013 Assessment Methods

18 Household sample (N=191) Gender of HH Head HH HeadN% Male % Female199.9% total % Area cultivated by household Area cultivatedN% < 0.5 ha % ha9248.4% > ha4523.7% > 2.0 ha136.8% total % HH size (resident) Mean size Std. Dev. MinimumMaximum

19 SELECT FINDINGS Acute stress Chronic stresses + developmental opportunities

20 72% Own stocks 12% markets 8% govt/NGO 7% friends Seed sources – Last Season ( ) %

21 Market seed, Legumes– Last Season ( )

22 Quantity of seed sown, recent season : more/ same/ less than normal Alieu : % Baucau: % Ainaro: % Crop N % of HHs Change in sowing amounts (%) MORESAMELESS Maize Cassava Rice Sweet potato Crop N % of HHs Change in sowing amounts (%) MORESAMELESS Maize Common beans Cassava Sweet potato Taro Irish Potato



25 Sources of seed for main season and quantities to be sown Sources : same trends as Quantities : Alieu : % (+ maize, cassava) Baucau : (- maize, potatoes) Ainaro (RICE! Tractors) Hence, a stable situation-

26 Can seed markets deliver: ? 1. Is there acceptable supply ? Agro dealers Local markets 2. Can farmers afford needed purchases: (What are the cash needs?)

27 Agro-dealers-is there acceptable supply ? Small amounts– and ONLY for horticultural crops


29 Local markets : is there acceptable supply?

30 Seed Flows : is the supply acceptable ? Beans Maize (corn)

31 Can Farmers meet cash needs for seed purchase ? Average Expenses per farmer, last Season 2013 Ainaro Next season: $11.09 Baucau Next season: $19.23 key crops N growing this crop Spending ($) Local market NeighborsAg-input shops all purchases % of total Maize % Rice % Peanuts % Total $ 7.71 $ 1.44 $ 0.00 $ % key crops N growing this crop Spending ($) Local market NeighborsAg-input shops all purchases % of total Maize % Beans % Total $ 12.47$ 5.64$ 0.00 $ %

32 Community assessment of seed security: % SEED SECURE CROPALIEUAINARO Maize100 Rice100 Cassava100 Vegetables100 Mungbean100 Pigeonpea100

33 Select Summary : Generally, normal season (viz. maize, s- potato in select sites) Seed use has been generally stable : recent season: c. 0% change upcoming -6 to +11 % Why some planting less: labor, weather, money constraints in no site was lack of seed a key issue Agro-dealer supply at very small scale (horticultural crops) Informal horticultural supply booming! Local market supply: okay in terms of quality and volume- in and between regions Seed expenses- $ 9-18 (affordable?) STABLE SEED SECURITY SITUATION IN THE SHORT-TERM

34 Broader trends Chronic stresses Developmental opportunities

35 Alieu: Diversity of crops -- but little transformation! CropImportance for food Importance for income Transformation? Maize meal, animal feed Rice meal, animal feed Cassava Bread, sweets, chips Arrowroot animal feed Taro bread Sweet potato ++ chips Banana Bread, chips Tomato Mustard greens Cabbage Green beans Peanut +++

36 Seed sources – Peanut (Aileu) Peanut (1) Market (1) Stocks NGO MAF Peanut (2) Market (1) Stocks Neighbors

37 Seed sources – Vegetables (Aileu) Vegetables (1) NGO (2) Stocks Input shop Dili (3) Market MAF Church (1) Stocks Vegetables (2) MAF (3) Market

38 Access to new varieties: last 5 years 43 % obtained a new variety Crop N % Maize6759.8% Rice2825.0% Sweet potato43.6% Common beans21.8% Cassava21.8% Peanut21.8% Cabbage21.8% Green Veg21.8% Irish Potato10.9% Long Beans10.9% Taro00.0% Mustard00.0% Soya Beans00.0% Arrowroot00.0% Mung beans00.0% Carrots00.0% TOTAL-all crops %

39 Special initiatives for Vegetatively-progagated crops (esp. Sweet potato + cassava) Sweet potato SoL– underway in Each district (as a source center) Sub-district- satellite center Also- linking Loja Agrikultura to producer nurseries Cassava?? constraints reported are more: Labor Land -- and no access to new varieties

40 Seed Producers- : which models? Only SoL (very important!) Tied contracts/ sharing …….not yet marketing Scale? Speed? breadth of diffusion?

41 Value addition? Agro-enterprise? Almost none ! Milling of maize

42 Use of inputs (non-seed) Storage losses : % Maize 35% Beans 37% Rice 27% Ainaro Aileu

43 Seed Storage options Seed storage bin use increasing (e.g sold in Ainaro alone, 40% unsubsidized!) Farmers need more information on: selection in field drying…..

44 Summary : chronic seed stress/ developmental opportunities Some seed system dynamism- MAF + vegetable seed (informal markets) Some good variety use (43%), solely through MAF/NGOs Diversity very limited (maize and rice) Seed multiplication but not marketed to farmers. (??) Very little (no) added value (transformation) Little use of inputs– except for manure compost in Alieu (hort. Projects) Heavy storage losses; 20 to 45%, but increasing use of storage bins Special attention needed : cassava? (VPCs) MAJOR STRESSES ARE CHRONIC: SOME ADVANCES (but not necessarily sustainable)

45 Gender differences Male + Female-headed households

46 Select Recommendations Short-term: urgent NO EMERGENCY INTERVENTIONS NEEDED

47 Select Recommendations Focus: Developmental short to medium-term

48 1. Add value to SEED PRODUCTION strategy All programs should contain explicit marketing + delivery component Programs oriented to smallholder farmers ( not only institutional clients: MAF, NGOs…) Limit (no??) free seed ! Explicit modeling of production options Cost efficiency, speed, coverage ( 20,000 small packs versus CSPGs)

49 2. Make new varieties accessible ! Multiple innovative outlets Test small pack sale through: Lojas (agro-dealers) General good shops (Mercy Corps) Vendors at open markets Faith-based groups Small packs

50 3. Leverage key existing seed supply processes Vegetable seed supply (informal market) Seed flows among regions (stability of supply!) refine understanding how each operates build on their strengths

51 4. Reduce Storage Losses Expand seed storage bin supply Increased emphasis on skill building: Selection in field Drying methods

52 5. BIG PUSH: Information to farmers + feedback Varieties (as example) awareness of varieties Their suitability for stress Where material can be accessed Conduits for sharing information with other farmers ….. Mechanisms : Use of Mass Media Radio Schools LaFaek Magazine SISCA Social events in evenings

53 6. Widen vision A : SEED SECURITY FOR NUTRITION Put in place a series of innovative options at the community level New and local varieties, especially legumes Access to range of horticultural crops Fruits/melons Small-scale livestock and fish Tofu/tempeh Purchase- with cash or coupons Fairs: Diversity and Nutrition fairs for Environmental Resilience (DiNER)

54 7. Widen vision B : SEED SECURITY FOR RESILENCE Widen portfolio of crops on offer (speed process up?) Screen local as well as improved varieties for best bets Develop/identify varieties tolerant to stress (flood, drought, wind, pests) Identify ongoing and diverse delivery channels (Focused) Information: suitability, sourcing, options to address constraint Choice: farmers need room to strategize in stress periods

55 8. NON- SEED Issues drive seed sector Agro-enterprise development (still to develop: needs to be demand-driven) Linking farmers to markets has to be done in ways which reduces risks farmers face and increase revenue (transparent pricing and payment mechanisms) Developing of market information systems which are trustworthy for farmers. Testing of diverse business/organization models


57 Team members MAF/SoL Marcelino da Costa FAO Maria Filomena Garnadeiro Rui A. Pereira Dorilanda d. c. Lopes Mercy Corps Marcelino PintoGoretti Oliveira Cipriano Martins Albino Amaral Simao M. BeloAugusto Pinto Buddhi KunwarJoanna Walsh Benedito Correia Ribeiro CARETome Guterres CRSJoshua KyllerDiana d. c. Marques Leovogildo BelarminoMaunel da Costa Jose M. D C. XimenesAugusto Maubuti Alipio Soares da CruzGiacomo Mencari Leonardo Soares Belu Henrique Ferreira de AraujoCIAT Louise Sperling Lucio Verdial Jose Maria A. OrnaiUEA Shawn McGuire



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