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Dorota Piontek, AMU Communication Dorota Piontek, AMU

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1 Dorota Piontek, AMU
Communication Dorota Piontek, AMU

2 schedule communication in general interview – how to prepare workshop

3 communication as a process
communication is a process in which people share information, ideas, and feelings basic elements of communication: senders and receivers messages channels feedback setting

4 senders and receivers senders - receivers send and receive messages simultaneously

5 message is made up of the ideas and the feelings to be shared
are represented by symbols symbols – that stand for sth else symbols: verbal and nonverbal verbal symbols: concrete and abstract

6 channels route traveled by a message between the senders-receivers
senses and technical means

7 feedback response of the receivers-senders to each other
immediate and delayed

8 noise interference that keeps a message from being understood or accurately interpreted three kinds of noise: physical semantic psychological

9 setting where the communication occures (the surrounding)
is made up of several components

10 principles of transactional communication
participation is continuous and simultaneous all communications have a past, present, and future all communicators play roles

11 types of communication
intrapersonal interpersonal small-group communication institutional communication mass communication

12 intrapersonal communication
occures within a person is centered in the self – one is the only sender-receiver message – thoughts and feelings channel: one’s brain social experience

13 interpersonal communication
one to one or a few each functions as a sender-receiver verbal and nonverbal symbols channels: all senses immediate feedback

14 small-group communication
each has a chance to interact with all more complicated, more chance for confusion usually to solve a problem messages more structured channels: all senses immediate feedback

15 institutional/organizational communication
e.g. political system or business firm complicated and indirect delayed feedback messages structured formal and informal channels need for technical devices

16 mass communication delivering information, ideas, and attitudes to a sizable, diversified audience through use of media designed for that purpose professional communicator mass audience highly structured message delayed feedback


18 barriers to effective communication
selective attention, distortion, and recall channel noises psychological noise language noise fields of experience value judgements mis-matching selectivity

19 barriers to effective communication
status differences time constraints overload

20 verbal communication symbol – stands for the object or concept that it names denotative meaning – dictionary definition connotative meaning – feelings or associations one has about a word meanings are determined by people, not by words

21 language environment people their purpose the rules the actual talk

22 language ritual appropriate specialization

23 role and verbal image style – result of the way we select and arrange words and sentences verbal style – connected with the role instrumental vs expressive language

24 improving verbal communication
what do you want to say how do you want to say it to whom are you talking metatalk

25 metatalk the meaning exists on three levels:
what the speaker is saying what the speaker intends to say what the listener thinks speaker is saying

26 metatalk how are you / how do you do

27 true meaning hello; does not have a meaning – tell me, how have you really been

28 metatalk call me

29 true meaning don’t bother me now; I would accept if you asked me out; I can’t discuss this here; don’t go so fast

30 metatalk I’ll call you

31 true meaning let’s start something; don’t call me

32 let’s have lunch

33 social acquaintances: if you have nothing to do and I have nothing to do – let’s get together; business: if you have sth useful to say to me I’ll listen

34 let’s have dinner

35 social: let’s advance this friendship; business: let’s turn this into a friendship

36 metatalk we must get together

37 I like you but I’m too busy now to take on more friendship

38 I can’t make the time to see you

39 we really must see more often

40 we must do this more often

41 true meaning I can’t make the time to see you

42 we must do this more often

43 this was surprisingly enjoyable, but it still going to happen infrequently

44 I only say what I really mean

45 I’m about to insult you

46 nonverbal communication
any information communicate without using words little or no control involves several related messages need to know a person

47 verbal and nonverbal differences

48 functions of nonverbal communication
to complement a verbal message to regulate verbal communication to substitute for verbal message to accent what sb’s saying

49 principles of nonverbal communication
is culturally determined may conflict with verbal messages is largely unconscious is important in communicating feelings and attitudes

50 types of nonverbal communication
paralanguage body movement body type attractiveness body adornment space and distance touch time

51 paralanguage – the use of voice
rate (speed) – varying is important pitch (highness or lowness) – middle in pitch is the best volume – change good for attention vocal fillers

52 body movements emblems illustrators regulators display of feelings

53 body body type attractiveness body adornment

54 space and distance - proxemics
intimate distance personal distance social distance public distance

55 touch and time cultural differences

56 inter-cultural communication - barriers
ethnocentrism prejudice stereotypes uncertainty wrong interpretation of non-verbal communication language

57 types of cultures - Geert Hofstede
four dimensions of culture: distance towards authorities: small vs huge collectivism vs individualism: collective vs individualistic musculine vs feminine: male vs female avoiding uncertainty: open vs close


59 power vs distance the degree to which the less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally fundamental issue here: how a society handles inequalities among people people in societies exhibiting a large degree of power distance accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification in societies with low power distance, people strive to equalise the distribution of power and demand justification for inequalities of power

60 individualism vs collectivism
individualism - a preference for a loosely-knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of themselves and their immediate families only collectivism - a preference for a tightly-knit framework in society in which individuals can expect their relatives or members of a particular in-group to look after them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty a society's position on this dimension is reflected in whether people’s self-image is defined in terms of “I” or “we.”

61 masculinity vs femininity
masculinity - a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness and material reward for success; society at large is more competitive femininity - a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life; society at large is more consensus-oriented

62 uncertainty vs avoidance
expresses the degree to which the members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity fundamental issue: how a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to control the future or just let it happen? countries exhibiting strong UAI maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas weak UAI societies maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than principles

63 long/short time orientation
can be interpreted as dealing with society’s search for virtue societies with a short-term orientation: a strong concern with establishing the absolute Truth; are normative in their thinking, exhibit great respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save for the future, and a focus on achieving quick results societies with a long-term orientation: belief that truth depends very much on situation, context and time; show an ability to adapt traditions to changed conditions, a strong propensity to save and invest, thriftiness, and perseverance in achieving results

64 indulgence vs restraint
indulgence - a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun restraint - a society that suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms

65 lower vs higher context cultures (E. Hall)
a culture's tendency to use high context messages over low context messages in routine communication a high context culture: many things are left unsaid, letting the culture explain; words and word choice become very important in higher context communication, since a few words can communicate a complex message very effectively to an in-group (but less effectively outside that group) a lower context culture: the communicator needs to be much more explicit and the value of a single word is less important

66 lower vs higher context cultures
lower context culture: Australian, English Canadian, English, Finnish, German, Irish, New Zealand, Scandinavia, Switzerland, United States (excluding the Southern United States) higher context culture: African, Arab, Brazilian, Chinese, Filipinos, French, Canadian French, Greek, Hawaiian, Hungarian, Indian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Latin Americans, Portuguese, Russian, Polish, Southern United States, Spanish, Thai, Turkish, Vitnamese, South Slavic

67 cross-cultural communication

68 task prepare to interview: applicants – cv and motivation letter
recuirement staff – selection of 5 applicants to the further interview

69 motivation letter introduce yourself
be clear about position you’re applying for give good reasons for your application give good arguments that you are the best choice hand-written signiture not longer than ¾ of a page

70 interview homework information about the organization
important attributes first impression body language

71 homework job description and general information position salary
department – in large or medium organization location description of the main resposibilities of the position

72 homework objectives key tasks personal specification social issues

73 information about the organization
whatever you can have a „larger picture” of the history, aims, and corporate values

74 important attributes communication skills personal presentation

75 first impression up to 1 min personal presentation
confidence and assertivness preparation communication skills enthusiasm for the position punctuality eye contact impressive application/C.V.

76 body language greet the interviewer sit comfortably
keep an eye contact pause to think smile

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