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Motivating Students: Positive Feedback Vs. Negative Feedback

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1 Motivating Students: Positive Feedback Vs. Negative Feedback
Feedback is a classroom process that has been under the researchers’ microscopes since the 1970’s to the present, and with good cause—it’s a teacher practice that works.  Motivating Students: Positive Feedback Vs. Negative Feedback



4 Ideal Feedback Model INPUT OUTPUT
When feedback acts in response to an event/phenomenon, it can influence the input signal in one of two ways: 1 - the feedback signal can amplify the input signal, leading to more modification. This is known as positive feedback. 2 - the feedback signal dampen the effect of the input signal, leading to less modification. This is known as negative feedback. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,

5 Young students will often look up to instructors as experts in the field and take to heart most of the things instructors say. Sometimes the term "feedback" is used loosely or carelessly to refer to what is more accurately called reinforcement. Thus, it is believed that spending a fair amount of time and effort thinking about how to respond to students may be a worthwhile time investment.

6 Types of Student Assessment
Confirmation-- Your answer was incorrect. Corrective-- Your answer was incorrect. The correct answer was Jefferson Explanatory--Your answer was incorrect because Carter was from Georgia; only Jefferson called Virginia home. Diagnostic-- Your answer was incorrect-- Your choice of Carter suggests some extra instruction on the home states of past presidents might be helpful. Elaborative-- Your answer Jefferson, was correct. The University of Virginia, a campus rich with Jeffersonian architecture and writings, is sometimes referred to as Thomas Jefferson’s school.

7 Positive feedback was more accepted than the negative feedback; females as compared to males evidenced less desire for further feedback after receiving negative feedback, while the reverse was true after receiving positive feedback. Impact of positive and negative feedback based on personality and intellectual assessment (Snyder 1979).

8 Consistently, researchers have found that when teachers effectively employ feedback procedures, they positively and often powerfully impact the achievement of their students.

9 This relationship is consistent regardless of grade, socioeconomic status, race, or school setting….When feedback and corrective procedures are used, most students can attain the same level of achievement as the top 20% of students.” 

10 In fact, Bellon, Bellon, and Blank note, “Academic feedback is more strongly and consistently related to achievement than any other teaching behavior….

11 So, if effective feedback is so powerful, what exactly are its components? Black and William cite three essential elements of what they term enhanced feedback: I. recognition of the desired goal II. evidence about present position III. some understanding of a way to close the gap between the two Since feedback is given in response to student performance, and student performance is the goal to show mastery of a learning goal, clarity of the learning goal is where the feedback design begins. Teachers must be clear about their expectations for learning overall content and what objectives a student must master. They need to clearly communicate the desired learning goal to students through syllabus, rubrics and informational communication and instruction.

12 Wiggins (1997), agrees that it is only through a cycle of feedback that excellence occurs and students must have: * routine access to the criteria and standards for the task * feedback in their attempts to master those tasks * opportunities to use the feedback Excellence is attained by such cycles of model-practice- perform-feedback-perform.” When asked to offer feedback to peers, students go beyond the normal cognitive processes required for completing their own work, as they must now "read, compare, or question ideas, suggest modifications, or even reflect on how well one's own work is compared with others (Liu, Lin, Chiu and Yuan (2001).

13 Students Learning Data
We now have a understanding of the need for feedback. What are the actual results of feedback when given in a positive form? Students Learning Data Institute Activities Course Design Student Performance Science of Learning

14 Factors affecting student motivation: Subject Matter Usefulness to them desire to achieve self-confidence Self-esteem Patience/Persistence Motivation Many factors affect a student’s motivation to work or to learn a subject matter. Some of your students will be motivated by the approval of others, some by the challenges in and of themselves. Whatever level of motivation your students bring to the classroom will be transformed, for better or worse, by what happens in that classroom. And, of course, not all students are motivated by the same values, needs, desires, or wants. Some students seem naturally enthusiastic about learning, but many need-or expect-their instructors to inspire, challenge, and stimulate them.

15 To encourage students to become self-motivated independent learners, instructors can do the following: Give frequent, early, positive feedback that supports students' beliefs that they can do well Ensure opportunities for students' success by assigning tasks that are neither too easy nor too difficult Help students find personal meaning and value in the material Create an atmosphere that is open and positive Help students feel that they are valued members of a learning community. Research has also shown that good everyday teaching practices can do more to counter student apathy than special efforts to attack motivation directly (Ericksen, 1978).

Reward Quickly Show Peers good work No Demeaning Comments Be specific! Do NOT Give the answers! Give Feedback Quick

17 Give students feedback as quickly as possible
Give students feedback as quickly as possible Return tests and papers promptly, and reward success immediately. Give students some indication of how well they have done and how to improve. Rewards can be as simple as saying a student's response was good, with an indication of why it was good, or mentioning the names of contributors: "Cherry's point about pollution really synthesized the ideas we had been discussing." (Source: Cashin, 1979)

18 Reward success Both positive and negative comments influence motivation, but research consistently indicates that students are more affected by positive feedback and success.

19 Praise builds students' self-confidence, competence, and self-esteem
Praise builds students' self-confidence, competence, and self-esteem. Recognize sincere efforts even if the product is not as good as others. If a student's performance is weak, let the student know that you believe he or she can improve and succeed over time. (Sources: Cashin, 1979; Lucas, 1990)

20 Introduce students to the good work done by their peers
Introduce students to the good work done by their peers Share the ideas, knowledge, and accomplishments of individual students with the class as a whole.

21 Pass out a list of research topics chosen by students so they will know whether others are writing papers of interest to them and if their standards match others. Make available copies of the best papers and essay exams (with permission). Provide class time for students to read papers or assignments submitted by classmates. Have students write a brief critique of a classmate's paper. Schedule a brief talk by a student who has experience or who is doing a research paper on a topic relevant to your lecture.

22 Be specific when giving negative feedback
Be specific when giving negative feedback Whenever you identify a student's weakness, make it clear that your comments relate to a particular task or performance, not to the student as a person.

23 Negative feedback is very powerful and can lead to a negative class atmosphere. “Try to cushion negative comments with a compliment about aspects of the task in which the student succeeded” (Cashin, 1979).

24 Avoid demeaning comments
Avoid demeaning comments Many students in your class may be anxious about their performance and abilities. Be sensitive to how you phrase your comments and avoid offhand remarks that might bring forth their feelings of inadequacy or low self-esteem.

25 Avoid giving in to students' pleas for "the answer" to homework problems When you simply give struggling students the solution, you rob them of the chance to think for themselves. Resist answering the question "is this right?" Suggest to the students a way to check the answer for themselves. Use scaffolding as a technique to focus on the solutions to a problem. Continue to praise the students for small independent steps.

26 Use a more productive approach (adapted from Fiore, 1985): Ask the students for one possible approach to the problem. Gently brush aside students’ anxiety about not getting the answer by refocusing their attention on the problem at hand. Ask the students to build on what they do know about the problem.

27 How do you give students POSITIVE feedback
How do you give students POSITIVE feedback? According to Singh (2006), positive feedback needs to be: Clear: Don't beat about the bush. If you think it was 'great‘ or 'excellent‘ then say so. Have the courage of your convictions. (Don't worry about using clichés!) Specific: Words like 'great' or 'excellent' carry a strong emotional message, but when the emotional buzz fades, the intellectual hunger remains. As suggested above, say what, exactly what, was good and say why it was good. Personal: That is, make the person you're giving feedback to feel acknowledged as an individual. This will get easier as you get to know your students. Using their name in the feedback helps: "Emma, I thought they way you handled this was both valid and original. I particularly liked the way you ....." Honest: As well as truthful, honest good news clearly distinguishes between fact and judgment. Be clear what the nature of your good news is.

28 How do you give students NEGATIVE feedback
How do you give students NEGATIVE feedback? Negative feedback, when given in a constructive way, has the greatest impact on changing behavior and improving performance. Think of the language you are using - use questions initially rather than accusations. For example: "how do you think reacting like that appeared to the client? Rather than "that was unprofessional behavior“ Offer support and challenge. There are two dimensions to feedback: support and challenge. The most constructive feedback is high on support and high on challenge.

29 Students also need to know what they've done wrong, or poorly which in some other way is inappropriate. And, immediately and always, they need to know in what respects it was wrong or poor or inappropriate, and they need suggestions on ways in which it could have been correct or better. When you come up with a problem, you need to help direct the student to an answer for the problem when giving negative feedback.

30 How do you give students NEGATIVE feedback
How do you give students NEGATIVE feedback? (Continued) Explore alternatives. Note how the feedback is received. Anticipate an emotional response Make time for the feedback and consider when is a good time to give feedback. Ensure privacy, be supportive but don't get distracted from your aims. End on a positive note.

31 Positive feedback improves confidence, it feels good and increases motivation. It may help the receiver to have the confidence to deal with the more negative aspects of their performance.

32 Always end with a positive note of encouragement
Always end with a positive note of encouragement. Round off your feedback with a high note and encouragement. Say whatever you can that's encouraging and truthful.

33 Bibliography. American Psychological Association
Bibliography American Psychological Association. Learner-Centered Psychological Principles: Guidelines for School Redesign and Reform. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, Ames, R., and Ames, C. "Motivation and Effective Teaching." In B. F. Jones and L. Idol (eds.), Dimensions of Thinking and Cognitive Instruction. Hillsdale, N. J.: ErIbaum, Angelo, T. A. "Ten Easy Pieces: Assessing Higher Learning in Four Dimensions." In T. A. Angelo (ed.), Classroom Research: Early Lessons from Success. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, no. 46. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Atkins, M. (1995) What should we be assessing? In: P. Knight (Ed.) Assessment for learning in higher education (London, Kogan Page). Bellon, Jerry, Bellon, Elner, and Blank, Mary Ann. Teaching from a Research Knowledge Base: A Development and Renewal Process. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, (pp ) Bligh, D. A. What's the Use of Lecturing? Devon, England: Teaching Services Centre, University of Exeter, Biggs, J. (1999) Teaching for quality learning at university (Buckingham, Open University Press). Brown, G., Bull, J. & Pendlebury, M. (1997) Assessing student learning in higher education (London, Routledge). Boud, D. (1995) Assessment and learning: contradictory or complementary? In: P. Knight (Ed.) Assessment for learning in higher education (London, Kogan Page). Cashin, W. E. "Motivating Students." Idea Paper, no. 1. Manhattan: Center for Faculty Evaluation and Development in Higher Education, Kansas State University, 1979.

34 Bibliography continued:. Hounsell, D
Bibliography continued: Hounsell, D. (1987) Essay writing and the quality of feedback, in: J. Richardson, M. Eysenck & D. Piper (Eds) Student learning: research in education and cognitive psychology (Milton Keynes, Open University Press). Mutch, A. (2003) Exploring the practice of feedback to students, Active Learning in Higher Education, 4(1), 24– Snyder, C. R.; Cowles, Chris, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Vol 47(1), Feb 1979, Wiggins, Grant. Educative Assessment: Designing Assessments to Inform and Improve Student Performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., (p. 64) Wiggins, Grant. “Feedback: How Learning Occurs, A Presentation from the AAHE Conference on Assessment & Quality.” Pennington, NJ: The Center on Learning, Assessment, and School Structure, Wojtas, O. (1998, September 25) Feedback? No, just give us the answers, Times Higher Education Supplement. Young, P. (2000) ‘I might as well give up’: self-esteem and mature students’ feelings about feedback on assignments, Journal of Further and Higher Education, 24(3), 409–418.

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