Feedback helps learners to maximize their potential at different stages of learning, raise their awareness of strengths and areas for improvement, and identify actions to improve performance.
Providing Feedback Performer analysis Teacher analysis Media or technology Peer teaching- students evaluate eachother Yourself- internal feedback
Feedback Should Be Specific Value Laden CongruentSimplePositive And should be given to learners of ALL skill, interest and readiness levels
Types of Feedback Positive - Skill in performed with successful outcome, student knows to repeat action. Important for beginners Corrective- Purpose is to correct errors with specific information More than picking out a weakness. Identifies what learner needs to do to improve. Must be used carefully not to discourage or demotivate the learner. Vital to tune techniques General- Vague, general reactions to a skill attempt. Social reinforcement- good job, thats great. Doesnt specify info to be used in next skill attempt Specific- Skill related. Qualitative Description of the processes of the movement as it is performed. Congruent- Focuses on the cue or skill refinement given to the whole class.
Examples of different feedback in the PE context Congruent General Positive Feedback Positive Specific Feedback Corrective Feedback Specific Value Laden Feedback
Use specific FB In general, the more specific feedback is, the better. Feedback makes the most difference when it is specific and involves an explanation of what was correct and what was incorrect. When you provide specific feedback about the information and skills the students are supposed to learn, you help students fill in missing information and clarify misunderstandings. Those studies showing the highest effect sizes involved students Hattie (1999) published that receiving information feedback about a task and how to do it more effectively saw greater improvements than feedback related to praise, rewards, and punishment.
Positive Feedback Purpose is to support student effort and build a positive learning climate (Siedentop, 1991). Feedback is more effective when it provides information on correct rather than incorrect responses and when it builds on changes from previous attempt (Hattie, 1999). For example Awesome job, Keep it up, nice shot, good effort Non-verbal Positive feedback Clapping Thumbs Up
More to Consider Post feedback interval- time after feed \back that we allow students to make correction or changes The timing of feedback is critical to its effectiveness. Feedback that is given immediately after a test-like situation is best. The longer the delay, the less improvement there is in achievement (Docheff, 1990). Modality- verbal, non-verbal, symbolic, written. There should be a combination of modes. Precision- type of information given (general or specific), younger = less precise is better Frequency- early in learning requires more fb (Parson, 2001).
Use of Feedback Knowledge of results Focuses on outcome This is used when measuring your success or improvement by results. Knowledge of performance Focuses on the skills and the movement Should be the more important focus in Physical education rather than the outcome (knowledge of results). If criteria focus is on the appearance of the product, the student will be more likely to attend to the appearance. If criteria focus is on the level of learning, the student will be more likely to attend to the level of learning.
Student-led Feedback Use peer feedback Use peer feedback Use self assessments to help students gage own progress Use self assessments to help students gage own progress Students to clarify for each other what was correct or incorrect about their responses. Self-assessment can be as simple as asking students to score themselves using rubrics or asking them to review their progress on learning objectives.
Example of a simple PE rubric for reciprocal peer feedback Sourced from http://www.cantoncharterpe.com/thro wing.htm
Who and When? Given to all students as needed, not just to high achievers. Successful demos can reduce the need for feedback. Less feedback for closed skills Concurrent- teacher gives feedback during task Intervention- pauses the task to give feedback (Siedentop, 1991).
Hattie & Temperley (2007) A Model of Feedback to Enhance Learning.
References Bilodeau, EA, & Bilodeau, I.M. (1961). Motor-skills learning. Annual Reviewof Psychology, 12,243-280. Docheff, D. M. (1990). The feedback sandwich. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 61(9), 17-18. Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of educational research, 77(1), 81-112. Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. Routledge. Sage, G. H. (1984). Motor learning and control: A neuropsychological approach. Dubuque, Iowa: WC Brown. Shavelson, R. J., Hubner, J. J., & Stanton, G. C. (1976). Self-concept: Validation of construct interpretations. Review of educational research, 46(3), 407-441. Siedentop, D. (1991) Developmening Teaching Skills in Physical education, Boston, Houghton Publishing Co., (381.73). 3rd Ed. Parson, M. (2001). Enthusiasm and Feedback: A Winning Combination!. PE Central, 1. http://www.pecentral.org/climate/monicaparsonarticle.html. http://www.pecentral.org/climate/monicaparsonarticle.html